9 (3), 2008
Welcome to Volume 9, Number 1 of TOJDE
TOJDE is appeared on your screen now as Volume 9, Number: 3. This is the third issue of the year 2008.
In this issue is published 1 Note for Editor, 15 articles, already 2 book reviews and this time 27 authors from 11 different countries are placed. These published articles are from Australia, Germany, Greece, India, Iran, Nigeria, Pakistan, Romania, SriLanka, Turkey and USA.
E. C. IBARA
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Administering Examinations For Quality Control In Distance Education: The National Open University Of Nigeria Perspective
Examination is an important tool for evaluating students learning outcome and require proper planning to meet high standards. This paper therefore examines the processes leading to administration of face-to-face examination in distance education with focus on the National Open University of Nigeria. It highlighted some procedures such as test development, test administration and post test administration/award procedures. It also identified some quality control practices adopted in administering examinations at the National Open University of Nigeria, and concludes that quality control in examinations is the means by which an educational institution ensures that test development and administration procedures meet high standards.
Keywords: Administration; Examinations; Quality; Control; Distance Education; Perspective.
Rachel D. ECHARD & Zane L. BERGE
Quality Management Builds Solid E-Training
History has shown effective training techniques can produce significant business results especially in customer service, product development, and capability in obtaining new skill sets. This linkage of training to business strategy has given many businesses the needed competitive edge in today's global market. In today's technology age, information and communication processing is easier than before and many times more cost effective. It is only logical for businesses to incorporate distance training and etraining to reach their training objectives. The key to utilizing these methods is how to sustain the programs without diminishing the results of the training goals. Quality management initiatives provide a feasible path for incorporating distance training, whether via the Internet, audio conferencing, video conferencing, or postal delivering methods. This paper will explore the manifestations of quality management processes on sustaining distance training in a business environment.
Keywords: Quality Man; Global Market; e-Training; Sustaining Distance Training.
Shirley REUSHLE & Birgit LOCH
Conducting A Trial Of Web Conferencing Software: Why, How, And Perceptions From The Coalface
This paper reports on the trial of web conferencing software conducted at a regional Australian university with a significant distance population. The paper shares preliminary findings, the views of participants and recommendations for future activity. To design and conduct the trial, an action research method was chosen because it is participative and grounded in experience, reflecting the context and objectives of the trial. In the first phase of the trial, students in postgraduate Education courses were linked across the globe to participate in interactive and collaborative conference activity and to communicate via audio, text, and video and shared whiteboard. Mathematical problem-solving was carried out collaboratively in an undergraduate course using tablet PCs. This was followed by phase 2, a university-wide trial across disciplines. Preliminary findings indicate that web conferencing software enables teachers and students at the university to engage actively across diverse locations, supporting a student-centred approach and greater flexibility in terms of where, when and how students learn. From these findings, the authors have made some initial recommendations to university management on the adoption of web conferencing to support learning and teaching.
Keywords: Web Conferencing; Distance Education; Online Learning; Action Research
Satya Sundar SETHY
Distance Education In The Age Of Globalization: An Overwhelming Desire Towards Blended Learning
The aim of this paper is to discuss the nature and status of distance education in the age of globalization, i.e. how best it fits for the present educational scenario. In this connection, we will discuss how Blended Learning (hence after, BL) is one among the other learning strategies mostly helpful for the learners. Keeping this view in mind, this paper is divided into three sections. The first section aims to discuss the nature of distance education in the age of globalization. The second section devotes a discussion on why we need blended learning in ODL system and in which way it plays a vital role for maximizing the benefit of the learners, tutors, and the institutions. The third section explains the pros and cons of blended learning to evaluate how successfully it can be implemented in the ODL system. The paper concludes with an established view that blended learning is a globalized approach to the distance education.
Keywords: Content High, Blended Learning, Blended Collaborative Learning, Lifelong Education
Esmahan AGAOGLU, Esra CEYHAN, A. Aykut CEYHAN & Yucel SIMSEK
The Validity And Reliability Studies Of The Computer Anxiety Scale On Educational Administrators (Cas-Ea)
This study aims at investigating the validity and reliability studies of the “Computer Anxiety Scale” (Ceyhan & Gurcan Namlu, 2000) on educational administrators. The data gathered from 143 educational administrators of state schools located in Eskişehir show that the scale consists of 2 factors. The first of these factors, affective anxiety regarding computers independently explains 37.99 % of the variance; the second factor, cognitive anxiety regarding computers forms 12.49 % of the variance. These two factors, which consist of 20 items altogether, explain 50.48 % of the variance. It was found that the scale was able to discriminate the computer anxiety level of educational administrators with respect to computer efficacy. With the scale, the correlation between Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (Öner and Le Compte,1983) was calculated as 0.34 and 0.25. In addition, the correlation coefficient between the scale and Happner and Petersen’s Problem-Solving Inventory (Şahin, Şahin, Happner,1993) was found to be 0.40. The internal consistency coefficient was calculated as (a) 0.87. Item total score reliability coefficients were calculated between 0.23 and 0.71. As a result, the “Computer Anxiety Scale of Educational Administrators” (CAS-EA) was developed.
Keywords: This study aims at investigating the validity and reliability studies of the “Computer Anxiety Scale” (Ceyhan & Gurcan Namlu, 2000) on educational administrators. The data gathered from 143 educational administrators of state schools located in Eskişehir show that the scale consists of 2 factors. The first of these factors, affective anxiety regarding computers independently explains 37.99 % of the variance; the second factor, cognitive anxiety regarding computers forms 12.49 % of the variance.
S. Anbahan ARIADURAI & Rajalingam MANOHANTHAN
Engineering Degree Courses Offered At A Distance
Faculty of Engineering Technology of the Open University of Sri Lanka has been offering engineering programmes at a distance for the last two decades or so. However, completion rates in Faculty of Engineering Technology are lower compared to the other faculties of the University. This paper investigates the reasons for low completion rates in the faculty and suggests ways and means to overcome this problem. The study concludes that increasing student numbers will not necessarily increase percentage of students completing the programme though the number of students completing is increased. It is found that students offering courses for the first time in the system of distance education in their academic career perform poorer because they are not conversant with distance education techniques.
It is recommended that the Faculty must offer an orientation programme on distance education to all the students enrolling for the first time, before they commence their regular programmes. Further, it has been found that considerable percentage of students who obtain eligibility to sit the final examination by completing the continuous assessments do not sit the final examination. This has been found to contribute towards non-completion of programmes as students sitting the final examination in the subsequent years perform poorly in their exams. To overcome this problem, it is recommended that current practise of allowing the student to carry forward their eligibility to unlimited period of time must be disbanded.
Keywords: Engineering, Distance Education, Discontinuation, Drop out, Non-Completion.
Dimitris GOULIMARIS, Maria KOUTSOUBA & Yiannis GIOSOS
The Organisation Of A Distance Postgraduate Dance Programme And The Participation Of Students Specialising In Dance
Researching student participation in distance postgraduate programmes of studies in dance constitutes a concern of any educational organisation. This sort of participation can be considered as a type of “behaviour” of the students which has to be researched and defined.
The aim of this study is to research the factors which constitute the behaviour of students participating in distance postgraduate programmes of studies in dance and to detect any difference in their behaviour that stems from characteristics such as gender and previous dance experience.
The sample of the study consisted of 71 male and female students who had chosen to specialise in Greek traditional dance in three Departments of Physical Education of Greece, where the specific specialisation is offered. From the results of the study, it is observed that there is a moderately positive tendency to participate in a postgraduate programme of studies in dance. Furthermore, it was found that male and female students in the three departments did not show any difference in their “behaviour”. Differences in “Role Identity” and “Attitude Strength” can be seen between those who had previous dance experience and those who did not.
Keywords: Dance, Postgraduate Studies, Participation, Organisation
An Online Social Constructivist Tool: A Secondary School Experience In The Developing World
With the rapid advances in technology, several online learning tools come onto the stage. Being an online learning delivery tool to support a full range of teaching and learning activities conducted by educational institutions Moodle facilitates online content creation and collaboration by entailing various social and communication tools that support teacher-student, student-student, and teacher-teacher interactions. This paper presents the "Moodling"(Moodle, 2005) experience within a secondary school in a developing country, namely Turkey. Based on a focus discussion group with the foreign language teachers, the author depicts the critical points that need to be taken into consideration so that an effective collaborative online platform for both teachers and students to learn together can exist.
Keywords: Social Constructivism; Moodle; Virtual Learning Environments; Online Collaboration; Social Artifacts
Syed Abdul SIRAJ
Suitability Of Aiou Television And Its Impact On Students’ Achievements
The requirement of television for educational purposes arises when specific educational objectives are not achieved through traditional way of teaching. There are a number of things television can do better than the average teacher and traditional educational institutions, but situations where both teacher and educational institutions are not available, television is the answer to obtain educational objectives, Lochte, (1993). This research paper investigates relationship between TV broadcast time, day and duration and student achievement. Data was collected from 197 from urban and rural, male and female students of the Allama Iqbal Open University, enrolled in the spring 2006 Semester in the selected courses. No strong relationship was found between Learning from TV and academic achievement in the AIOU situation. Use of television in the AIOU Situation will be more effective if transmission day, time and duration are adjusted according to the students’ demand and when students’ assignments are based on both textbook and TV programs
Keywords: AIOU, Distance Education, Television, Students’ Achievement
Designing E-Education Supports In E-Health Based Systems
The inadequate availability of medical information has often made health care services in many developing countries cumbersome with enormous paper work, waste of life, time and resources, long queues, and ineffective treatment procedures.
The use of mobile technology devices such as Personal Digital Assistants, Cell phone, Tablet PCs etc for health care delivery promises a revolution in modern health care. However, applications that provide access to real-time patients and research information at the point-of-care via mobile devices are at best in their low stage of adoption across the health sector.
In this paper, the experience gained in designing mobile health care applications is used to proffer e-Education functionalities in the design of healthcare systems to enhance their acceptance in the medical domain. The application discussed uses, the Unified Modelling Language, mobile, and Java-based technologies for its development. The application provides a real-time access to medical information at the points of health-care delivery within health care centres.
Keywords: e-Education, Communications, Hospital, Mobile, Information
Mehmet Metin ARSLAN
Structure And Functions Of The Continuing Education Centers At Turkish Universities
Continuing education centers mainly organize activities for the society in the fields that have gained importance on the improvement of individuals with a view of career building, improving professional knowledge and skills, achieving new skills and supplying individual development needs. Such centers have been established within universities through the principle of making continuing education accessible to everyone as a starting point for a lifelong learning process. These centers which aim at providing continuing education, implement more flexible programs compared to those executed at higher education institutions. In this study, the structure and functions of Continuing Education Centers at Turkish Universities are investigated. The scope of the study includes all the centers that have web pages established under state and public universities in Turkey. Data pertaining to structure and functions of the centers meeting this criterion, the number of which is 43 in total comprising 34 state and 9 private universities, have been evaluated. As a result of the study it was discovered that these centers had very similar foundation principles and organizational structures.
Keywords: Continuing Education Centers, Lifelong Learning, Public And State Universities
Designing Motivational Learning Systems In Distance Education
The designing of instruction, when considered as a process, is the determination of instructional requirements of the learner and development of functional learning systems in order to meet these requirements. In fact, as a consequence of studies on the development of effective learning systems some instructional design theories have emerged. Among these theories the motivational design theory points out that instructional processes are required to be configured with the strategies which increases the attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction of the students for an instructional design which ensures the continuity of learning motivation.
The studies indicate that the systems which are developed on the basis of mentioned strategies raise the attention of the student during instruction, develop a relevance to the students’ requirements, create a positive expectation for success and help having a satisfaction by reinforcing success. In this article, the empirical studies related with this subject and the suggestions for presenting more effective motivational instructional designs in distance learning are summarized.
Keywords: Motivational Design Theory, the ARCS Model, Distance Education.
Yousef NAMWAR & Azam RASTGOO
Weblog As A Learning Tool In Higher Education
New technologies have an important effect on changing higher education. Using technology also has effect on improving learning and teaching in education and especially higher education. Now some universities and institutes use these technologies to apply virtual and distance education but there are another approaches to use them. Weblog is one of them. Weblogs can be used in conventional universities along side the traditional classroom. This paper review the importance and advantages and results of using weblog in universities by surveying the projects and researches that conducted in this subject all over the world. Using weblog because of easy to learn and apply is growing up every day. And this is a good opportunity to develop using weblogs in traditional universities. Weblog provide a good opportunity for collaborative learning and communication between students and teachers even among the students.
This approach is based on constructivism theory. Knowledge rather than being transmitted through instruction is constructed or created by learners as they build their own cognitive structures. Teacher’s role is not giving the information to students but is guiding them during the instruction. Usage of the weblog helps to this aim. Results of research have shown that using weblog help users to develop literacy skills, critical thinking skills, knowledge construction ability, cooperative learning, academic development and etc.
Keywords: Weblog; Higher Education; Technology
Laura ASANDULUI & Ciprian CEOBANU
E-Learning In Romanian Higher Education: A Study Case
The accelerated development of the information and communication technologies determined universities, companies and educational institutions to implement alternatives to the traditional teaching methods, thereby leading to the development of e-courses. New Information and Communication Technologies mediating learning represent an important component of education and training systems. In Romania, issues connected to eLearning are comparatively little known, as there are no relevant studies regarding the present situation of eLearning use or of the ways of increasing the level of use of Information and Communication Technologies along with an increase in the efficiency of higher education. The purpose of the study is to explore the level of dissemination of eLearning in the Romanian higher education, regarding both awareness about eLearning as a model and actual participation in such courses, to assess the respondents’ opinion on eLearning, to analyze the perspectives of using e-learning, and the students’ opinions concerning e-learning in comparison with traditional educational model. The paper reports the results of a research that was conducted in Iasi, at the "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University. Through the application of appropriate statistical methods, the research’ aim was to describe and assess to what extent computers are used for learning of the students in order to highlight any important differences in terms of gender, specialty, and the preferred form of learning for postgraduate courses.
Keywords: Information And Communication Technologies, Higher Education, Elearning
Reviewed By TOJDE
REVIEW: Ethical Practices And Implications In Distance Learning
Ethical values are deemed to have a positive effect on the day-to-day conduct in the lives of the People. More so, when ethical values are less held in the priority list, still caliber coupled with high morale has been the most adorable theme for many. Achievement and progress without any Moral Character seem to be more criticized than being acknowledged. And Distance Education/Open Learning Discipline is no exception to confiscate this issue of ethics in its practice. Above all, ethics should be highly regarded amidst nuclear deals, space growth, blue/green/white revolutions and to make this a practice, every human being irrespective of the origin, education and monetary status have to join hands together right from the entrance to the exit of life in this world. For those, who ask why a book on ethics in distance education, my answer simply will be “Why not?”.
Reviewed By TOJDE
REVIEW: Learning Communities In Online Education
This book makes a contribution to the field of distance education by presenting key perspectives on the state of the field and examining and discussing specific current trends and issues faced by the distance learning community. To this end, the book brings together Quarterly Review of Distance Education’s most respected authors and other internationally known experts in the field of distance education to provide insight into a wide array of themes revolving around current work on communities of learning in distance education. A volume in the series: Perspectives in Instructional Technology and Distance Education. Series Editor(s): Charles Schlosser, Nova Southeastern University and Michael Simonson, Nova Southeastern University.