9 (2), 2008
Welcome to Volume 9, Number 2 of TOJDE
TOJDE is appeared on your screen now as Volume 9, Number: 2. This is the second issue of the year 2008.
Mike K. MOULTON
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Reflections On Screenagers, Faculty Development And Net-Supported Learning
This paper outlines a strategy for a faculty development program with respect to net-supported learning. Many universities and colleges are struggling with meeting the demands of a rapidly changing world. Reflections in this paper are based on experiences from the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. Attention has been given to the intelligent use of technology as a means of meeting pressing challenges. What does this mean? I ask a series of questions, the answers of which form the basis for a faculty development program. What qualities and skills should our graduates have? What consequences does this have for the way we approach teaching and learning? And what role does technology play?
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Lifelong Learning Through Mentoring Process And Its Operational Dimensions In Society
Learning is an unending, abstract and invisible process that permeates everyone’s life, whether young or old, rich or poor, educated or illiterate. Learning is also an embodiment of education which transcends the four-walls of the classroom. Therefore, education is an added knowledge to one’s existing knowledge which is expected to lead to behavioral modification on the part of the educatee, whose efficiency and performance in his/her daily activities should consequently improve positively. In the same vein, mentoring has a multi-faceted dimension, not limited only to the education industry but also includes all other aspects of human development process.
Therefore, this paper analyses the varying dimensions of mentoring phenomenon which may be characterized by flexibility of learning process among different groups of people in any given society. The totality of such a learning encounter through mentoring process is aimed at achieving an all-round development of an individual, whether such is from cognitive, psychomotor or affective domain!
Ismail Hakki MIRICI
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Development And Validation Process Of A European Language Portfolio Model For Young Learners
The European Language Portfolio (ELP) was developed and piloted by the Language Policy Division of the Council of Europe, Strasbourg, from 1998 to 2000. It was launched on a pan-European level during the European Year of Languages as a tool to support the development of plurilingualism and pluriculturalism (http://www.coe.int/T/DG4/Portfolio/?L=E&M=/main_pages/welcome.html).
Irshad HUSSAIN & Muhammad SAFDAR
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Role Of Information Technologies In Teaching Learning Process: Perception Of The Faculty
Information technologies have affected every aspect of human activity and have a potential role to play in the field of education and training, specially, in distance education to transform it into an innovative form of experience. The need of new technologies in teaching learning process grows stronger and faster. The information age becomes an era of knowledge providing sound and unmatched feasibility for discovery, exchange of information, communication and exploration to strengthen the teaching learning process.
Information technologies help in promoting opportunities of knowledge sharing throughout the world. These can help the teachers and students having up-to-date information and knowledge. Accurate and right information is necessary for effective teaching and learning; and information technologies (Haag, 1998; p.10) are “set of tools that can help provide the right people with the right information at the right time.” Students are independent and they can make best decisions possible about their studies, learning time, place and resources.
Students are able to work in collaborative and interactive learning environments effectively communicating, sharing information and exchanging ideas and learning experiences with all in the environment.
Keywords: Information Technologies; Teaching Learning Process; Computers; Knowledge Explosion; Media; Distance Education.
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Quality Assurance In Secondary Education Programe Of Bangladesh Open University:Present Status And Challenges
In the present day in national and international perspectives, quality is the top of most agendas. Quality of education has significant impact and invaluable contribution to the area of development. Recently, the SSC & HSC program of BOU have earned recognition of equivalency with the formal education sector, which has naturally raised the question of quality assurance of these programs By applying the quantitative method, the study has assessed the present status of the quality of SSC & HSC program of BOU and also put some recommendations to meet the challenges for further development.
Keywords: BOU, Quality, Assurance, Recognition, Equivalency
A Second Life For Distance Learning
Many professionals in instructional education have experienced a relatively new potential virtual learning environment, called Second Life (SL). This article will connect the virtual world to the essential next step in our learning and communicating approach, electracy. Initially, humans utilized an oral mode to communicate, followed by literacy which enabled written information. These modes in concert with an electronic medium, has produced an electracy mode of communicating. Attending to the medium as well as the method in which people now process information can assist in maximizing the power of virtual learning environments such as Second Life
Keywords: Second Life; Distance Learning; Electracy; Virtual World
Aline Germain-RUTHERFORD & Barbara KERR
An Inclusive Approach To Online Learning Environments: Models And Resources
The impact of ever-increasing numbers of online courses on the demographic composition of classes has meant that the notions of diversity, multiculturality and globalization are now key aspects of curriculum planning. With the internationalization and globalization of education, and faced with rising needs for an increasingly educated and more adequately trained workforce, universities are offering more flexible programs, assisted by new educational and communications technologies. Faced with this diversity of populations and needs, many instructors are becoming aware of the importance of addressing the notions of multiculturality and interculturality in the design of online however this raises many questions. For example, how do we integrate and address this multicultural dimension in a distance education course aimed at students who live in diverse cultural environments? How do the challenges of intercultural communication in an online environment affect online teaching and learning? What are the characteristics of an online course that is inclusive of all types of diversity, and what are the guiding principles for designing such courses?
We will attempt to answer some of these questions by first exploring the concepts of culture and learning cultures. This will help us to characterize the impact on online learning of particular cultural dimensions. We will then present and discuss different online instructional design models that are culturally inclusive, and conclude with the description of a mediated instructional training module on the management of the cultural dimension of online teaching and learning. This module is mainly addressed to teachers and designers of online courses.
Keywords: Online Learning, Globalisation, Cross-cultural, Diversity, Instructional design
An Evaluation Of Web Based Instruction In View Of The Tutors’ And Students’ Perspectives
In today’s world, it is acknowledged by almost all folks of life that the traditional educational institutions are inadequate in educating the growing population. This situation has triggered research into finding ways to provide economical and of high quality education to wider masses of people. Currently, web based instruction seems to be the point that has been reached to meet such a demand. In web based instruction, students’ and tutors’ perspectives play an important role in the facilitation of successful outcomes. Moving on from that, the aim of this research is to investigate web based instruction in view of the tutors’ and students’ perspectives. In order to achieve such an aim, face-to-face interviews were carried out with 10 tutors from the e-MBA Master’s Degree Programme at Bilgi University, and with 10 students registered in the same programme. Nine semi-structured interview questions were used to investigate the participants’ perspectives on web based instruction and the interview data were analyzed accordingly.
Keywords: Web Based Instruction, Evaluation Of Web Based Instruction, On-Campus Tutors’ Opinions, On-Campus Students’ Opinions.
Teaching In Online Courses: Experiences Of Instructional Technology Faculty Members
The Internet and computer technology have altered the education landscape. Online courses are offered throughout the world. Learning about the experiences of faculty members is important to guide practitioners and administrators. Using qualitative research methodology, this study investigated the experiences of faculty members teaching online courses. A convenience sampling was used to select the instructional technology faculty members to investigate their experiences in online courses. Semi-structured interviews with faculty members teaching online courses were used as the primary source to collect data about the experiences of faculty members in online courses. Results of the study showed that faculty members' interest in using technology and the amount of time available to them for online course design affected the quality of online courses. The findings of this study also indicated that design quality of online courses is affected by the interest of faculty members to use the technology and the time that they can devote to planning, designing, and developing online courses. The poor design of existing online courses, high learning expectations of individuals from these courses, and the future of online courses are the concerns of faculty members. Higher education institutions should support workshops and trainings to increase the skills and interests of non-instructional design faculty members to design and develop online courses.
Keywords: Distance Education; Higher Education; E-Learning; Experiences Of Faculty Members
Muhammad IMRAN YOUSUF, Muhammad Nadeem ANWAR & Muhammad SARWAR
Fostering Collaboration To Enhance Online Instruction
The main aim of this research is to better understand and draw perceptions of course writers and course coordinators towards the process of developing distance learning material. For developing good self-instructional material cooperative efforts among course development personnel are essential. The study indicates the areas where contradiction is found among perceptions of a sample of seventy course coordinators and seventy course writes of Allama Iqbal Open University, Pakistan through a self developed questionnaire covering preparation, implementation and execution aspects of course development process.
Keywords: Distance Learning Material, Course Writers, Course Coordinators, Aspects Of Course Development, Coordination
Stakeholders Perceptions And Concerns On Open And Distance Education In The Higher Institutions: The Case Of Eastern Ethiopia
This study attempt to examine the perception of stakeholders (Tutors & coordinators) in open and distance education with particular reference to the eastern region of Harargie.30 tutors and 10 program coordinators were consulted and considered as subjects of the study. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were employed in the data treatment and analysis. Data were collected from the selected sample employing a questionnaire and an interview( which include open ended items) The results indicate that the nature of the tutorial services provided by tutors does not follow the fundamental principles of distance education. The tutorial programs were devoted largely to teachers’ verbal explanation of descriptive facts which is the typical feature of conventional face-to-face instruction. The late arrival of course modules to the students; the distribution of modules very close to the actual dates of the tutorial sessions; tutors’ reliance on the conventional face-to-face mode of instruction; large class size and the heavy workloads imposed upon tutors in some tutorial centers were some of the major constraints that caused the program to be implemented in an unsatisfactory way
Keywords: Distance Learning (DL); Open Learning (OL); Perception;Open & Distance Learning (ODL).
New Trends In Legal Education At Bangladesh Open University
In Bangladesh, Formal legal education is provided by either a department of a university or an affiliated college. There are four public universities and above twenty six private universities in our country with law as a regular subject of teaching. Besides, the National University imparts teaching of law through law colleges in the country. All public and private universities providing law graduate degree by conventional system but many people deprived from this opportunities. Thus to increase equitable access to education and to develop the human resources of the country the Bangladesh Open University playing significant role.
Large numbers of students of rural areas, particularly women, out of school and adults who must do work to support their families are include with the university. Bangladesh Open University is the only institution in Bangladesh which imparts education in open and distance mode and offers 23 formal programmes, the demand for the introduction of LL.B programme for the benefit of those who have been, for various reasons, deprived of the opportunity of undertaking graduate course in law in conventional mode of education.
The decision to offer the programme in distance mode is being taken in response to the earnest desire of the relevant quarters expressed in various dailies and formal applications submitted to the university authority as the learners in the open and distance mode learn at his own place and any time whenever he feels convenient to learn and is not for restricted by time, space or age. Distance learning is, indeed, presently considered as a viable alternative of the conventional system of education to fulfill the growing demand for legal education.
This paper presents the new academic trends in Bangladesh Open University by distance learning Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree and modern aspects of the legal education at School of Law in Bangladesh Open University.
Keywords: Legal, Education; Trends; Substitute; Distance; Learning; Conventional; Programme; Access; Human Resources; Curriculum; Deprived; Technology.
Nesrin OZDENER & H. Muge SATAR
Computer-Mediated Communication In Foreign Language Education: Use Of Target Language And Learner Perceptions
Among the challenges many teachers face in facilitating the improvement of speaking skills are sparing sufficient time for practice to enable students to achieve fluency in speaking through internalizing the structures, and establishing a balance between fluency and accuracy. This study aimed to seek an answer to the question as to whether Computer-Mediated Communication Technologies be a solution for overcoming these problems. The study was conducted as additional practice to the foreign language lessons with the participation of 60 students. Task-based language teaching principles were taken as basis in preparation of the teaching materials in the study, in which text and voice chat applications among the Computer-Mediated Communication Technologies were used. During the applications data were collected in several ways: participants’ perspectives regarding their changing experiences and the types of tasks used were investigated through the use of open-ended questionnaires after each session; a general insight was obtained into the students’ experiences with close-ended questionnaires given at the end of the study; and the use of the target language in communications among students were determined by investigating the text communication logs. From a user-oriented perspective, the results of the study shed light on the strategies that can be used in computer-mediated communication technologies valuing the experiences and perceptions of the learners.
Keywords: Text and Voice Chat; Foreign Language Education
K. M. Rezanur RAHMAN, Sadat ANWAR & Sharker Md. NUMAN
Enhancing Distant Learning Through Email Communication: A Case Of BOU
Today computer has replaced all means of traditional communication significantly. Many distant learning tools claim to be interactive, but few can offer two-way communication. Email is the most popular means of communication medium now-a-days. Therefore, it may be used as an educational tool for learning. In present socio-economic condition of Bangladesh, learners can afford computer, cell phone and Internet. We took this opportunity to investigate the prospective use of these tools for distant learning. The present survey has been carried out to understand the present status of Internet knowledge among the learners and their views for possible introduction of e-mail communication as supporting tool for learning. BOU’s available infrastructural facilities for providing Internet support have been investigated. Furthermore, possible solutions have been pointed out to provide e-mail facility to the learner in a cost effective way.
Keywords: Email Communication, Internet, Cell Phone, Web Based Learning, Tutorial Center And Tutorial Class.
Azeta A. A., Oyelami M. O. & Ayo C. K.
Development Of An E-Learning Web Portal: The Foss Approach
With the vast development of various technologies, learning today is no longer confined to classrooms with lecture delivery as the only method of conveying knowledge, rather, an electronic means of learning has continued to evolve. Electronic learning (e-Learning), which facilitates education using communications networks, has made learning possible from anywhere at anytime using the Internet, wide area networks or local area networks. Notably, e-Learning applications which have now become central to the learning process may be developed using proprietary programming tools and the process of acquiring and using them to develop large software application is not only complex but require a huge sum of money. A viable alternative is to utilize the open source software platform that allows software engineers and institutions the right to reuse, study, distribute and localize to satisfy user’s requirements.
This paper provides an overview of e-Learning and the open source domain as well as discusses how open source can be used to speedily realizes the development of an e-Learning application in a web environment using an adaptive process. Specifically, the authors described their preliminary experiment of implementing an open source e-Learning platform by adapting free PHP source code and MySQL database to suit an electronic class bulletin board.
Keywords: e-Learning; Open Source Software; Education; Intranet; Internet; ICT; CMS; e-Bulletin Board and Web.
A. M. RIAD & H. A. El-GHAREEB
A Service Oriented Architecture To Integrate Mobile Assessment In Learning Management Systems
Mobile Learning (M-Learning) is an approach to E-Learning that utilizes mobile devices. Learning Management System (LMS) should enable M-Learning. Unfortunately, M-Learning is not the same at each educational institution. Assessment is one of the learning activities that can be achieved electronically and via mobile device. Mobile assessment relies on services that are not part of the LMS. Integrating different external systems and services to be virtually part of LMS is one of integration challenges. This paper presents a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to integrate mobile assessment in LMS. Proposed Architecture consists of two layers: Interface layer, and Service layer. Interface layer interacts with instructors and learners via portals, and with external organization services via Web services. Service layer contains core system services and has three sub layers:
Ø Application Services, and
Ø Agents layer.
Orchestration layer is the layer that holds business logic required by system processes. Application Services layer contains set of stateless services that are capable of performing certain tasks. Agents’ layer presents the suggested required software agents to serve the overall system. Suggested agents are Analyzer and Tracker. Analyzer is required to analyze students assessments to detect learning deficiencies. Tracker agent tracks students to remind with missing assessments. SOA facilitated integration of software agents within LMS, and implementation of new processes to support learning.
Keywords: Learning Management System, Service Oriented Architecture, Software Agent, Mobile Learning, And Mobile Assessment.
Inci MORGIL, , Hatice GUNGOR SEYHAN , Evrim URAL ALSAN & Senar TEMEL
The Effect Of Web-Based Project Applications On Students’ Attitudes Towards Chemistry
Students perform intensive web-based applications during their education. One of these is project-based application. In this study, the effect of web based project applications on students’ attitudes towards chemistry has been investigated. 42 students attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, and Department of Chemistry Education have been participated in these applications. Attitude Scale towards Chemistry has been administered before and after applications. The application has been started with displaying the chosen simulation experiments with the computer program called CCI-Project (Creative Chemistry on the Web) ETH (Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule-Zurich).
When the simulation experiments have been displayed, students have been assigned in groups of 3-4 randomly. Totally 11 Web Based Projects have been prepared. Each of the teams has determined a project question related to their given simulation experiment. When teams have completed their projects, they have presented them by using power-point. Researchers have videotaped project presentations. After presentations, project presentations have been displayed consecutively and discussed in class.
Researchers have evaluated each team’s projects by “Project Sufficiency Form”. While students’ scores of Project Sufficiency Form have been accepted as their project performance, both their final grades and project performance score have been accepted as student performance. Using paired-samples t-test has compared pre- and post-test results of attitude scale and a statistical difference has been found. Also a relationship between students’ attitudes and performance has been examined by using regression analyze.
Keywords: Microteaching Method; Project Based Learning; Student Performance; Attitude Towards Chemistry
The Social Arena, Of The Online Synchronous Environment
Daily advances in technology are restructuring the way we live, work, learn and interact. The rapid development of synchronous online venues available to distance education has lead to a heightened need for theory & practice in the effective use of these collaborative learning live venues. This paper is directed to faculty members who are already teaching synchronously online or who would like to start teaching synchronously online. It provides best practices, ideas, tips and tricks, and insights to foster successful learning experiences online and ways to think about online synchronous teaching differently than as a mere replicate of traditional campus-based instructional activities.
Keywords: Online Synchronous Environment; Learning Environment; Collaborative Learning; Distance Education
Reviewed By TOJDE
REVIEW: Access and Equity: Challenges for Open and Distance Learning
"The emergence of the system of open and distance education is an inevitable and phenomenal evolution in the history of educational developments internationally. While the formal system of education continues to be the mainstream of educational transaction, it has its inherent limitations with regard to expansion, provision of access and equity and cost-effectiveness. On the other hand, the growth of information and communication technologies has facilitated the expansion of distance mode of education. It is now possible to adopt flexible, constructivist, learner-friendly and multi-perspective approaches to teaching-learning, so essential for nurturing creativity, leadership, scholarship and integrated development of human personality.
Reviewed By TOJDE
REVIEW: Web-Based Learning Theory, Research, and Practice
Web-Based Learning: Theory, Research, and Practice explores the state of the art in the research and use of technology in education and training from a learning perspective. This edited book is divided into three major sections: