9 (1), 2008
Welcome to Volume 9, Number 1 of TOJDE
I am pleased to inform you that in the 8th year of TOJDE finished and TOJDEis appeared on your screen now as Volume 9, Number: 1. This the first issue of the year 2008. As you know the volume 8 Number 3 was the special issue of TOJDE on “Web 2.0 and Social Software in Distance Education” subject. During 6 months I received more than 45 submissions. Some of them rejected by me for the reason that their subjects were not fit for TOJDE’s publishing content strategy and policy, and some of them rejected by TOJDE’s editors. And others can be publish this year’s issues
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Get A Second Chance to Make a First Impression: Eradicate the Poverty Level of the Women Farmer in Bangladesh
In the socio-economic context of Bangladesh, involvement of women in agriculture is very important. It would be easier to control rural-urban migration by engaging women in agricultural activities to a greater extent. Women play a vital role in agricultural production throughout the Bangladesh, making a significant contribution to the basic productivity of their communities. The paper argues that efforts to promote women in farming are confronted by challenges including poverty, misconception regarding education, training, farming etc. The paper also states that the utilization and development of distance education would effectively address the problem of education and training aimed at rural women.
Keywords: Women; Farmer; Fistance Education; Training
Virtual Structures For Mutual Review Promote Understanding Of Opposed Standpoints
Web based training (WBT) is able to reshape human interaction. Peer review processes, such as adhered to by journals and in the context of political processes such as accession to the EU, have aided in safeguarding quality in the academic field since long. University curricula, however, have not yet fully taken into account training for such mutual evaluation activities. One of the key approaches of the recently designed negotiation game “Surfing Global Change” (SGC) is to complement traditional roles of “teacher versus students”. Therefore, in level 2 of SGC students write, review, assess and update standpoints while making use of a web based discussion forum. A statistical analysis of student activities is provided alongside conclusions regarding motivations of different clusters of students. Independent sets of skills might be discerned in the final academic result.
Taking the example of SGC’s collaborative process design and teaching methodology, the present paper discusses the influence of various concepts and methodologies of education and training while focussing on student-teacher interactions.
Keywords: Peer Review; e-learning; mutual evaluation; ethics of negotiation; collaborative student-teacher Interactions; Virtual Social Dynamics in e-Learning Platform; EU Accession
Md. Anwarul ISLAM & Md. Nasirul ISLAM
Effectiveness Of Different Medium Of Education To Imparting Knowledge At Bangladesh Open University
Open and distance learning system meanly based on different types of media to impart education to the learners. Bangladesh Open University (BOU) offered education through open and distance learning system. There are two largest programs one is Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and another one is Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) offered by BOU through Open School (OS). To impart education to the learners, OS prepared text materials in the modular form and also broadcast audio-visual educational program through radio and television.
At present, BOU provided printed materials to learners and telecast so many radio and TV pogroms for learners of the SSC and HSC program. Some survey stated that there are not enough evidences to fulfill the learner’s objectives effectively. According to the previous survey result, study materials and audio-visual medium of teaching are of average quality (Islam 1988). The participants of this survey were mostly learners, tutors of the Open School programs and the media experts. This study has focus on how the educational program of the Open School could be more acceptable and enriched.
Keywords: Open Learning, Medium of Education, Open School, Effectiveness and Acceptable.
Redesigning A Course For Blended Learning Environment
This article describes a collaborative study of the blended learning approach, designed to pave the way for higher education students to integrate online and face-to-face learning environments in an “Instructional Technology and Material Development” course at the University of Yildiz Technic in Turkey. The purpose of this study is to investigate the students’ perceptions of the blended learning environment and to trace the integration between online and face-to-face learning environments. For this purpose, 30 students were given statements on the redesigned course, which they rated on a 5-point Likert scale. To probe more deeply into their positive and negative responses, a focus group discussion was held to gather the students’ views. The findings are reveal that the majority of the students (90%) enjoyed being in the blended learning environment. However, improvement in methods of application and online study materials are needed. Additionally, other factors that may be salient in blended learning environment are also discussed.
Keywords: Face to Face Learning Environment; Blended Learning; Blended Learning Environment; Online Instruction; Turkey.
Masoud REZAEI, Hamid Movahed MOHAMMADI, Ali ASADI & Khalil KALANTARY
Predicting E-Learning Application in Agricultural Higher Education Using Technology Acceptance Model
E-learning is significant breakthrough in teaching and learning. Internet or web technologies are important because they facilitate and enhance communications among instructors and learners and provide tools to encourage creativity and initiative. If internet-based learning environments are to benefit students, then it is important from the student’s perspective that they are not seen as overly complex and hard to use. The introduction of e-learning may hinder the learning process if the technology is perceived as being complex and not useful to enhanced performance, and thus a distraction to learning. In line with acceptance studies, this research proposed and tested students’ acceptance behavior of agricultural higher education for application of e-learning using technology acceptance model. Results demonstrated that there was positive relationship between students’ intention to use e-learning and its perceived usefulness, internet experience, computer self-efficacy and affect. Instead computer anxiety and age had negative relationship with students’ intention to use e-learning.
Keywords: E-Learning; Agricultural Higher Education; Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); computer anxiety; computer self-efficacy; affect.
Attitudes of Turkish Distance Learners Toward Internet Based Learning: An Investigation Depending on Demographical Characteristics
The purpose of this study is to develop an attitude scale toward Internet-based learning (IBL) and to investigate whether attitude levels of Turkish distance learners in an IBL environment differ according to their demographical characteristics (i.e. age, gender, marital status, parental status, employment status, grade point average (GPA). Research data were gathered from 804 (491 male and 313 female) learners in an IBL environment at Sakarya University, Turkey. Explanatory factor analysis identified three factors with eigenvalues >1. The scale appears to be a reliable and valid instrument to assess the attitude levels of learners toward IBL. The analyses of demographical characteristic differences on the scale indicate that married learners, working learners and learners with children have significantly higher attitude levels toward IBL than those of unemployed and single learners and learners with no children. Male distance learners demonstrate significantly higher attitude levels than females do on the majority of the subscales. In general, learners over age of 26 have statistically higher attitude levels than those of younger learners. Attitude levels of learners with poor GPAs are significantly lower than those of learners with better GPAs. The findings are consistent with the related literature.
Keywords: Internet-based learning; attitude towards Internet-Based Learning; Turkish Distance Learners; Demographical Characteristics.
Emmanuel Chisa IBARA
Open and Distance Learning: An Emerging System for Alternative Higher Education in Nigeria
Nigeria no doubt is at the threshold of transformation in information and communication technology (ICT), a development that should be utilized to meet the demand of time, especially in the education sector. One area in which ICT has made enormous impact is in open and distance learning. Undoubtedly, the demand on the conventional higher education delivery system in the country is high and ever increasing that the system at the moment is unable to accommodate the number of candidates seeking admission. This paper, therefore, attempts some definition of open and distance learning as well as its practices with a view to advancing the prospects of open and distance as alternative system of higher education in Nigeria.
Furthermore, it concludes that considering the level of infrastructural decay in the conventional higher education system, open and distance learning as an alternative system of education has become imperative for the realization of the primary objectives of higher education in Nigeria. Recommendations that will enhance the prospects of open and distance learning as viable alternative system of higher education were proffered.
Keywords: Alternative System; Conventional System; Open Admission; Higher Education; information and Communication Technology.
Amtul Hafeez CHOUDHRY, Aijaz Ahmed GUJJAR & Muhammad Rashid HAFEEZ
Comparative Study of Student Support Services of AIOU and UKOU
This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences of student support services in Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) and United Kingdom Open University (UKOU) and also to identify and enlist the deficiencies that AIOU students are facing in the student support services. The study found out that student support services of AIOU are quantitatively developing rapidly on the lines of UKOU. Though the regional campuses of both the institutions have almost the same status in the provision of student support service yet the UKOU students have better services in the guidance and counseling, modern communication facilities and career guidance. Moreover, there also exists Open University student association in UKOU. The conclusions led to the recommendation that AIOU regional campuses may be made independent like UKOU, counseling and guidance cell might be established at every regional campus, modern communication facilities like toll free, auto answer may be provided at AIOU regional campuses.
Keywords: Student support services, General services, Tutorial services, Media support services, Counseling services, Library services.
The Relationship Between Student Characteristics, Including Learning Styles and Their Perceptions and Satisfaction in Web-Based Courses in Higher Education
Distance education and web-based courses are mainstream in the United States higher education and growing (NCES, 2003) involving over 80% of four year public universities in 2002. The National Academy of Science review of “how people learn” suggests that technology-mediated learning can be used to respond to students’ preferences and related characteristics.
This investigation of the relationships between learners’ characteristics and their perception of web-based learning and satisfaction with their course used Kolb’s (1984) Learning Styles Inventory and Walker’s (2003) distance education learning environment instrument plus demographic questions to survey 279 students in five web-based undergraduate courses in a Midwestern university. The study founds that the three dimensions of Moore’s Transactional Distance Theory may be linked with Kolb’s two dimensional views of individual learning styles. For example, introductory biology courses with high structure are perceived as more satisfactory by students who prefer a more “abstract conceptual” learning style for “knowledge grasping.”
The author recommends that courses are designed to accommodate multiple learning styles with variety on all dimensions of transactional distance.
Keywords: Distance Learning, Learning Styles, Transactional Distance.
A Sample For Guidance Application of Distance Education Technologies: A Case Study on Graduate Students’ Opinions About Web-Assisted Career Guidance Systems
The purpose of this study was to analyze the use of distance education technologies in career guidance and counseling. Using qualitative research methods, web-assisted systems in career guidance were studied and feedback gained graduate students completing their no-thesis master program in the Program of Psychological Counseling and Guidance in the Institute of Social Sciences at Selcuk University during spring semester in 2007 was analyzed from. Purposeful sampling was administered to collect data from semi-structured interviews with these graduate students. Data were coded using Nvivo2 software and then themes were determined. Based on related literature, findings from this research were discussed and some suggestions were provided.
Keywords: Career Guidance Systems, Distance Education, Graduate Students
Ahmed Gad Abdel-WAHAB
Modeling Students' Intention to Adopt E-Learning A Case From Egypt
E-learning is becoming increasingly prominent in higher education, with universities increasing provision and more students signing up. This paper examines factors that predict students' intention to adopt e-learning at the Egyptian University of Mansourra. Understanding the nature of these factors may assist Egyptian universities in promoting the use of information and communication technology in teaching and learning. The main focus of the paper is on the university students, whose decision supports effective implementation of e-learning. Data was collected through a survey of 258 first year business students at the University of Mansoura in Egypt. The technology adoption model put forward by Davis is utilized in this study. Two more independent variables are added to the original model, namely, the pressure to act and resources availability. The results show that there are five factors that can be used in modeling students' intentions to adopt e-learning. These factors are attitudes toward e-learning, perceived usefulness of e-learning, perceived ease of e-learning use, pressure to use e-learning, and the availability of resources needed to use e-learning.
Keywords: E-Learning, Innovation, Adoption, Usage, Eases of Use, Usefulness
C. S. H. N.MURTHY & Gaurav MATHUR
Designing E-Learning Programs For Rural Social Transformation And Poverty Reduction
While the conventional education system with different forms of E-learning and rigid academic instructive curriculum could not bring desired changes in specified timeframe work at rural level in the targeted communities and groups, a multipronged sociological approach with a sociable and flexible curriculum in new E-Learning programs becomes need of hour. The impact of socializing influence of these E-Learning programs should be properly exploited to motivate and inspire the rural target groups. The benefits of E-learning then become extensive and soon integrate with the needs of the lower strata of the society in order for achieving a rapid social transformation in the lives of the farmers, vocational groups, artisans and small income self help groups comprising women, girls and physically challenged. The paper suggests a number of new generation E-Learning programs as strategies of development communication with a promise of high returns for the industry for its investment in these programs with socially relevant messages and media convergence.
Keywords: E-Learning, E-Commerce, E-marketing, E-bay, E-business, One-on-One Communication, Mediated Communication, Media Convergence, Internet Banking, Online Trading, Futures Trading.
The Relationship Between Teacher Immediacy Behaviours And Distant Learners’ Social Presence Perceptions In Videoconferencing Applications
Videoconferencing systems combine face-to-face and mediated interactions in distance education. We extend the use of a Social Presence measure to on-site (face-to-face) learners and distant learners. Comparison between physically present and distant located learners did not indicate significant differences in social presence. Also results indicate that the predicted social presence score for distance instruction is slightly lower than for the on-site instruction for high nonverbal behavior while the reverse is true of low non verbal behaviors. Predicted social presence for face to face instruction is quite higher than for the distance instruction for the high verbal behaviors while the reverse is true of low verbal behaviors. It means that students’ social presence is predicted to be higher in the face to face setting comparing to the videoconferencing course in both models. Additionally, when both nonverbal and verbal behaviors increase, the predicted social presence is facilitated, controlling for the grouping variable. In other words, instructors’ nonverbal and verbal communication skills enhance learners’ social presence in either environment.
Keywords: Teacher Immediacy Behaviour; Social Presence; Videoconferencing.
The Effects Of Interactive Learning Environments On Cooperative Learning Achievement And Student Anxiety In Environmental Education
All events in the world are caused by chemical events and reactions. One of the most important aims of life chemistry is bringing up individuals who have sensitivity towards the environment and environmental awareness; could apply their learnt knowledge to daily issues and problems; have the ability to comment and adopt their knowledge into different situations. In order to achieve these aims, it is of great importance to train students of all levels and create awareness in the society. Therefore, life chemistry has been emphasized together with what could be done about it and how it could be integrated into the curriculum including which applications should be done at which level. This study aimed to investigate the effect of distance education and technology assisted cooperative learning projects on students’ achievement and attitude in “Chemistry events and concepts in our life”. In the light of this aim, student achievement scores as outcomes of student cooperative learning projects were evaluated together with technology attitude scale.
Keywords: Distance Education, Interactive Learning Environment, Cooperative Learning, Student Achievement, Attitude, Life Chemistry
Issa SHEHABAT, Saad A. MAHDI & Kamel KHOUALDI
E-Learning As A Knowledge Management Approach For Intellectual Capital Utilization
This paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e-learning courses that can capture the teacher knowledge. The underlying objective is that e-learning is a key knowledge and major resources for many universities. Therefore, the design of e-learning should be an important part of the university knowledge management process. Teachers' knowledge in any important topic or field should be managed in a way that the university can benefit from it in case of teacher leaving or retired. Hence, intellectual personal knowledge management will be explored through the development of e-learning systems. Some concepts from the Artificial Intelligence field can be used in developing such systems.
The potential for utilizing human knowledge in the university environment will optimize the resources and can be of cost effective and quality assurance factors and provide the university with a sustainable competitive advantage.
Assuring the proper knowledge management within the university environment is a more complex issue. This is due to the diverse of topics in one hand and the behavior of the student and the lecturers on the other hand. Effective implementation and success requires a lot of efforts that will guarantee the utilization of the intellectual capital within the university environment.
Keywords: E-learning, Knowledge Management; Intellectual Capital; Knowledge Based Systems; Knowledge Engineering; Knowledge Elicitation; Tacit Knowledge.
Inservice Training (Inset) Programs Via Distance Education: Primary School Teachers’ Opinions
The aim of this study is to investigate primary school teachers’ opinions in relation to inservice training (INSET) programs via distance education. The subjects of this study were primary school teachers (n=70) working in the city center of Bolu-Turkey in the spring semester of 2006–2007 academic year. During the study, the qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews held with primary school teachers by the researcher. The results of the interviews revealed that the INSET needs of the participants should be analyzed before these programs start, the instructional activities of these programs should emphasize the application of the topic areas studied during these programs, should emphasize the active participation of the participants to the program in order to meet their INSET needs and an evaluation of the program should be made when these programs are over in order to examine to what extent the objectives of the program are achieved.
Keywords: In-service Training (INSET) Programs, Primary School Teachers, Distance Education
Reviewed By Yavuz AKBULUT
Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security
Rapid developments in information and communication technologies have created new security threats along with ethical dilemmas. These developments have been so fast that appropriate security precautions and ethical codes fail to keep pace with the technological developments. In this respect, education of both professionals and ordinary citizens regarding information technology ethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security serves as an authentic and comprehensive reference source on security and ethical issues related to information and communication technologies.
Reviewed ByYavuz AKBULUT
Teach Beyond Your Reach: An Instructor’s Guide To Developing And Running Successful Distance Learning Classes, Workshops, Training Sessions And More
“Teach Beyond Your Reach: An instructor’s guide to developing and running successful distance learning classes, workshops, training sessions and more” serves as a guide for novice and experienced distance educators to develop and deliver their own training sessions. The book is consisted of 234 pages (+xi) covering eight interdependent chapters followed by a useful appendix of further reading resources, sample introductory materials for distance learning and a sample lecture. The author, Robin Neidorf, teaches communications and writing through the online campus of the Univeristy of Phoenix and co-teaches a creative writing course through the University of Gävle in Sweden in addition to her consulting practices.
Reviewed By Antonis LIONARAKIS
4ht ICODL 2007 Forms of Democracy in Education: Open Access And Distance Education–Athens, Greece
The 4th International Conference in Open and Distance Learning - Forms of Democracy in Education: Open Access and Distance Education (ICODL 2007) had a special role to play this time: it was focused on the relationship between distance education and democratic principles which are connected and interrelated to each other. These principles identify a new social role of distance education. Educational applications can be more flexible and effective when they follow some basic democratic principles and reflect the ideals of human rights.