8 (4), 2007
Welcome to Volume 8, Number 4 of TOJDE
I am pleased to inform you that in the 8th year of TOJDE are appeared on your screen now as Volume 8, Number: 4. Ti is the last issue of the year 2007. As you volume ( Number 3 was the special issue of TOJDE on “Web 2.0 and Social Software in Distance Education” subject. I received many congrulation for this special issue from the subject expert and TOJDE readers. During 6 months I received more than 45 submissions. Some of them rejected by me for the reason that their subjects were not fit for TOJDE’s publishing content strategy, and some of them rejected by TOJDE’s editors. And others can be publish next year’s issues
Globalization, Distance Education and Hegemonic Futures
Consideration of the place of theory in distance education suggests that existing definitions do not adequately account for economic, cultural and historical factors. The application of the notion of hegemonic valency to distance education highlights the ways in which tools, technological systems and online environments operate in predictable ways. Historically, the imperatives of market forces and social justice have displayed a tension that is continued in contemporary contexts including virtual learning environments. A characteristic of this tension can be seen in the forces and interactions associated with globalisation and technology.
These forces, in association with others, have contributed to a null curriculum in which some alternatives open to distance education practitioners remain invisible. It is likely that this situation is further compounded by the difficulty of ascertaining what distance education practices are actually operating world-wide at any identifiable time. Available options for distance educators can be understood in terms of instrumental and interpersonal axes that can potentially indicate the relative consideration that can be given to these factors. This approach is suggested as one way to understand available options at a time when there has been an apparent increase in instrumental approaches to distance education at the expense of interpersonal approaches and issues of social justice. While this problem is of concern, it is more appropriate to reflect on the unintended consequences of distance education for society and identify them than it is to uncritically oppose globalisation and its adherents.
Keywords: Distance Education; Globalisation; Instrumentalism; Null Curriculum Hegemony
Attidues of Graduate Students Toward Distance Education, Educational Technologies and Independent Learning
Distance education systems are being used in along with the traditional education systems in order to respond to the demand for higher education. Technological advancements, interactive learning possibilities are forcing the traditional universities to make more use of the distance education systems and technologies. Most of the traditional universities to create the opportunity for their students to be independent learners and learners who can organize their learning processes by using distance education systems and technologies. It is thought that students who can learn on their own and who can organize their learning processes will be more likely to use lifelong learning opportunities. In Turkey where there is a great demand for higher education, the use of distance education systems and technologies in traditional universities is not common. These traditional universities can make use of the distance education systems and technologies in certain lectures and cope with the pressure of the increasing number of students. Successful implementation of the distance education applications in traditional universities will affect the mega Turkish education system in a positive way. In this study, the views of the doctoral students at traditional universities on the use of distance education systems and technologies and independent learning are determined. Findings indicate that doctoral students do not have a positive attitude towards the use of distance education systems and technologies, and they do not agree with the idea that distance education systems can support independent learning.
Keywords: Distance Education, Educational Technologies, Independent learning
Amrita NIGAM & Vibha JOSHI
Science Education Through Open and Distance Learning at Higher Educational Level
The changes faced by the society in the past few decades brought revolution in all areas. The job requirements have undergone change tremendously. The emergence of e-culture, e-education, e-governance, e-training, e-work sites and so on questioned the capacity of conventional face to face education in catering to all and relevance of existing job related skills to a great extent in the emerging global society. Today, every one has to update his/her educational and/or professional skills and competencies to cope up with the emerging work challenges. This is more so in the field of science and technology. At the same time, it is impossible to cater to educational and training opportunities to one and all those who aspire for it through the conventional set up. The distance and open learning (ODL) seems to be one of the viable alternatives. Today, the success and viability of ODL is accepted globally. Coulter (1989), through a study demonstrated that ODL is a cost-effective medium in providing educational opportunities. Similarly Holmberg (1981) also mentioned ODL as a systematic teaching-learning medium by using variety of medium for imparting learning.
The present study is an attempt to study the experiences of the open science learners of IGNOU on different aspect of the science higher education. Here a questionnaire was used to collect the data and responses from 81 students enrolled for B. Sc. from IGNOU were collected. The findings of the study reported that society has undergone drastic changes in the last few decades. The revolution led due to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have widely affected all aspects of society. The emerging jobs require entirely new skills and competencies i.e., employment in BPOs or switching over to e-governance, e-Banking and e- based sectors. Even e-learning has made numerous expectations from teachers and other personnel. The use of ICTs in almost every field needs adequately trained workers so that they can work efficiently and effectively. The training and retraining avenues in the conventional system is grossly inadequate to cope up with the present and future demands. In this situation open and distance education is the available alternative.
Keywords: BSc Degree; Intensive Practical Work; Women students; Distance Teaching-Learning Methodology; Academic Counselling; Communication Technologies
Olivia Adwoa Tiwaah Frimpong KWAPONG
Widening Access to Tertiary Education for Women in Ghana Through Distance Education
Distance education (DE) is seen as a tool for widening access to education at all levels. It is an educational tool that breaks most of the divides in education – age, gender, race, income, space, time etc. For the past decades, irrespective of the extensive expansion of tertiary institutions in the country, provision of tertiary education in Ghana has not been adequate enough to absorb all qualified applicants. This situation has peculiar effect on women who for socio-cultural factors drop out of formal education as they climb the ladder. The limited access to tertiary education has been the concern of various governments in the country.
Various educational reforms have been made to this effect. In view of the exclusive potential of DE in widening access to education in a unique way, it has been recommended in the most recent educational reform that DE be promoted by establishing an open university and open colleges in addition to encouraging dual mode of delivery in the existing public universities. By its peculiar nature of being flexible and bridging space and time, studies have confirmed that DE has been an educational format that suits women’s study plans and learning styles. This paper explores the unique nature of DE for widening access to tertiary education most especially for women in Ghana and the issues to consider in the process.
Keywords: Women, ICTs, Distance Education, Tertiary Education, Ghana
Aminudin ZUHAIRI, Irma ADNAN & Dina THAIB
Provision of Student Learning Support Services in A Large-Scale Distance Education System at Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia
This paper addresses the practice and experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT) in the provision of learning support services for students in a large-scale distance education system. The UT, which has a network of 37 regional offices and participating institutions, has challenges to provide and manage effective learning support system for more than 340,000 students, residing in various locations of Indonesia, a country with diverse level of the quality in terms of transportation, communication and technological infrastructure and facilities. UT has developed a systematic learning support system for distance students on the considerations that students’ independent and autonomous learning effort have to be enhanced with institutional support, which is managed centrally from the Headquarters as well as regionally by each of the Regional Offices throughout the country. UT student learning support system includes services such as tutorial, academic advising and counselling, study group activity, academic administration services for students, and organisation of student activities. Regional Offices has central roles in managing, implementing and networking with local partners to ensure the effectiveness of learning support at frontline level, even though policies are set at the Head Office. The aim of systematic learning support in distance education is to facilitate quality student learning process suited to students’ learning needs and flexibility, and ensure that students proceed their learning activities through access to various means of learning support.
Keywords: Learning Support System; Policies for Learning Support; Modes of Tutorial Services; Roles of Regional Office; Academic Advising and Counselling; Academic and Administrative Services
Nergiz Ercil CAGILTAY, Elif Uray AYDIN & Ali KARA
Remote of Laboratory Requirements: Engineers’ and Technicians’ Perspective
This study aims to find out requirements and needs to be fulfilled in developing remote Radio Frequency (RF) laboratory. Remote laboratories are newly emerging solutions for better supporting of e-learning platforms and for increasing their efficiency and effectiveness in technical education. By this way, modern universities aim to provide lifelong learning environments to extend their education for a wider area and support learners anytime and anywhere when they need help. However, as far as the authors concern, there is no study investigating the requirements and needs of remote laboratories in that particular field in the literature. This study is based on electrical engineers’ and technicians’ perspectives on the requirements of a remote laboratory in RF domain. Its scope covers investigation of the participants’ perceptions toward computer mediated communication and it attempts to answer the questions: which studying strategies are preferred by the learners and what kind of RF laboratory content should be provided. The analysis of the results showed that, geographic independence, finding quickly the elements of past communication and temporal independence are declared as the most important advantages of computer-mediated communication. However, reading significant amount of information is a problem of these environments. In the context of how to show the content, respondents want to see shorter text on the screen. Therefore the instructions should include little amount of text and must be supported with figures and interactive elements. The instructional materials developed for such learner groups should support both linear and non-linear instructions. While analyzing the content to be provided, we have seen that, most of the participants do not have access to high level equipments and traditional experiments are considered as the necessary ones for both engineers and technicians.
Keywords: Remote Laboratory; e-Learning; Radio Frequency, Requirements Analyses
Knowledge Management & ITS Applications in Distance Education
It is the digital economy age in which we are living presently. Thus, traditional thinking is proving futile and newer methods are substituting the older ones. If one has to achieve developmental goals, one has to build a knowledge repository. Success of any system today is defined by its knowledge capital. For example for a university, knowledge is a key sustainable edge and Faculty/students are their key assets.
Knowledge management (KM) can provide a university with an opportunity to integrate processes, facilitate collaboration, and form relationship across traditional organizational boundaries. It no longer stands that the most knowledgeable only will conquer; it has become that one who actually uses that knowledge will get the edge. KM provides the opportunities to rethink, recast and re-engineer.
Present communication tries to build a framework for open universities to effectively use KM to maintain relationships with existing students and attracting new students, build high-valued knowledge assets, build a knowledge based value-chain to respond to the changing demands for education
Keywords: Knowledge, Knowledge Management (KM), Knowledge Assets, Value.
Santhi RAGHAVAN & P. Rajesh KUMAR
The Need for Participation in Open and Distance Education:The Open University Malaysia Experience
This paper provides an overview of adult learner participation in open and distance education by focusing participation needs based on selected socio-demographic variables such as age, years of working experience and monthly income. The related study involved a sample of 454 Open University Malaysia students from a number of learning centres located in different parts of the country. The study found that adult learners are generally below the age of 39, relatively not affluent, have less than 20 years of work experience and have a high need for participation. The highest need is professional advancement, followed closely by cognitive interest, and communication improvement while the lowest reported need is escapism/social stimulation. Age and work experience exhibited negative regression coefficients, indicating inverse associations with participation need. These results are comparable to the findings of previous research on the role of age, work experience and monthly income as factors determining participation in adult higher education.
Keywords: Adult Learners; Learner Needs; Participation; Open and Distance Education.
Muhammad Imran YOUSUF
Effectiveness of Mobile Learning in Distance Education
The main aim of this research is to better understand and measure students’ attitudes and perceptions towards the importance of mobile learning in distance education. Results of this survey clearly indicate that facilitating mobile learning can improve the entire distance education by enhancing ways of communication among distance learners, tutors and supporting staff. The biggest advantage of this technology is that it can be used anywhere, anytime and its usage is easy access to a larger number of distance learners. This study draws the preferences and the extant to which distance learners in Pakistan are use to mobile learning.
Keywords: Mobile learning; m-Learning; Covering Problems of Distance Learning; Improving Distance Learning
Ayo C. K., Akinyemi I.O, Adebiyi A.A. & Ekong U.O.
The Prospects of E-Examination Implementation in Nigeria
The massive examination leakages, demand for gratification by teachers, bribe-taking by supervisors and invigilators of examinations have become a global phenomenon. This menace has resulted to general fallen standards of education and Nigeria is no exception, particularly among developing nations. Consequent upon this, all Nigerian universities have resorted to conducting post-entrance “Post-JAMB” examination/screening because of lack of confidence in the conduct of the entrance examinations.
This paper proposes a model for e-Examination in Nigeria where all applicants are subjected to online entrance examination as a way of curbing the irregularities as proposed by the Joint Admissions Matriculation Board (JAMB), the body saddled with the responsibility of conducting entrance examinations into all the Nigerian universities. This model was designed and tested in Covenant University, one of the private universities in Nigeria. There were 120 questions drawn from English (30), Mathematics (30), General Science (20), Commercial Courses (20), and Religion Knowledge (20), all for one hour duration. Questionnaires were administered to the applicants at the end of the examination to assess their level of ICT literacy, ease of use of the system and the difficulties encountered.
Findings revealed that the system has the potentials to eliminate some of the problems that are associated with the traditional methods of examination such as impersonation and other forms of examination malpractices. The system is easy to use and candidates can get use to it with time. The timing of examination can be spaced without compromising the quality and integrity of the examination. However, much is still desired if the system were to be adopted on a national scale, particularly in terms of infrastructural and manpower development. Similarly, the quest for e-Examination can fast track the development of e-Learning facilities in the country with improved access to education.
Keywords: e-Examination, ICT, Online Learning, e-Learning, WebCT, Pedagogy and Web-Based Examination
Structural Dimensions and Functions of Student Centers in the Open Education Faculty Practices: Three Metropolis Sampling - Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir
The Open Education Faculty Students Centers have been offering many services to students in Turkey since 1982. Building up bridges between students and faculties; student’s centers have had technological improvements since 1998 and thereafter quality of services have been increased and services given to students at the student’s center have been variated by implementing a low-cost computer network. Operations of the student’s centers in The Open Education system, modifications taking place in the automation systems of the centers and qualifications of services given to students have been examined comprehensively in this article.
Keywords: Students Services, Students Centers Automation System, Students Support System, Face to Face System
Aijaz Ahmed GUJJAR, Muhammad AKHLAQUE & Rashid HAFEEZ
A Study of Student's Attitude Towards Distance Teacher Education Programme in Pakistan
The present study was undertaken to measure the attitude of the students towards teacher training programmes through Distance Education offered by Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), Islamabad, Pakistan. To achieve the said end, the descriptive method of research was considered appropriate. The population of the study consisted of the B. Ed. Students of AIOU. Three hundred students from the Sahiwal region were selected as sample for the study. Questionnaire was used as a Research tool to gather the relevant data. Data was analysed in terms of percentage and mean score. It was found that majority of the students appreciated the overall input of the programme though a few eyebrows were raised concerning the assessment of the assignments.
Keywords: Distance teacher education, B.Ed programme, Distance education, Allama Iqbal Open University, teaching practice, Methodology, Workshop, Material, Tutorial, Examination, Media support.
Empowerment of Women Through Distance Education in Pakistan
The present study was undertaken to highlight the gender disparities of Pakistan as well as at regional and international level. The study, measured the comparative outcome of formal and non-formal system of education in Pakistan. To achieve the desired goal, documentary analysis was considered appropriate. The number of schools and enrollment during the years 2001 to 2004 of the formal system for primary, middle and high level was considered and enrollment during the year 198-1999 and 2004 for Secondary School Certificate to Ph.D level of non-formal system was considered. Data was analyzed in term of percentage and average. It was found that enrollment of female is less than male in formal system while enrollment of female is higher than male in non-formal system of education in Pakistan.
Keywords: Distance Education, Allama Iqbal Open University, Women Education, Gender gap, Illiterates, South Asia, Institutions, Enrollment, Formal System, Non- Formal System
Reviewed By Yavuz Akbulut,
REVIEW: Cases on Global E-Learning Practices: Successes and Pitfalls
“Cases on Global E-Learning Practices: Successes and Pitfalls” look into the global practices of e-learning which has assumed a considerable role in the education sector recently. It is edited by Ramesh C. Sharma and Sanjaya Mishra from Indira Gandhi National Open University in New Delhi, India. It is published by Information Science Publishing, which is an imprint of Idea Group, an international publishing company specializing in research publications in the fields of technology, management and information science.