8 (2), 2007
Welcome to Volume 8, Number 2 of TOJDE
I am pleased to inform you that in the 8th year of TOJDE are appeared on your screen now as Volume 8, Number: 2.
In this issue we published one notes for Editor, 14 articles, two reviews, news and announcements for our readers. 27 authors from ten different countries are placed in this issue. These published articles are from Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh; Canada Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Turkey, UK and USA.
Abdurazzag Ali ABURAS & Othman O KHALIFA
NOTE FOR EDITOR: PDA Mobile Learning Using Indoor Intelligent Wireless Whiteboard
The main issue concerned in education system is whether the typical way of teaching martial such as whiteboard in normal classroom is capable of deliver must of the new course martial (curriculum) with best result of learning. Mobile technology have a high potential for improved learning (T. Liu, 2003)( J. Massy ,2002). Mobile devices can enhance learning and it could be through Mobile Learning (M-Learning) which is an approach to electronic learning (E-Learning) (A. Kukulska-Hulme, 2005). This paper is focusing on the main problem exists in the classroom which is how a student can copy all the material written on the white board without losing the concentration of the lecturer's speech. Also the paper is explores what factors and design requirements are needed for M-Learning environment and suggests how M-Learning application can be designed. The following section definition of the mobile network is given. In the section three, reviews the literature review and previous work for M-Learning applications. Section four designs and analysis of the M-Learning environment is described. The final section provide conclusion and future
Investigating University Students’ OpinionsIn Relation To Open University Students
The aim of this study is to investigate university students’ opinions in relation to Open University students. The subjects (n=69) of this study were students of Abant Izzet Baysal University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, in Bolu-Turkey. The data concerning the university students’ opinions in relation to Open University students were collected through interviews held by the researcher during the spring semester of 2005-2006 academic years.
The results of this study indicated that they believed Open University to be a good opportunity for people who work and who have no chance to receive university education, they believed there to be no difference between them and the Open University students and graduates in terms of the subject knowledge as they took mostly the same courses during instruction. On the other hand, they added that it was not possible to acquire the professional knowledge, skills and behaviors given by Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences. In addition to this, they believed that although there was no difference between themselves and Open University graduates in the public sector where job opportunities are concerned, they added that they would prefer Open University graduates if they were employers.
Keywords: Distance Education, On-Campus Students’ Opinions, Open University
The Development Of Virtual Educational Environments To Support Inter-School Collaboration
The introduction of inter-school electronic networks has added a new dimension to education in Canada that has many implications for students who attend schools in rural communities. Collaborative internet-based teaching and learning and the creation of virtual classes within regional intranets now complement traditional on-site instruction in many schools that are located beyond major centres of population. Five stages in the advent of virtual educational environments can be identified starting with the introduction of computers in schools as a foundation for the development of collaborative teaching and learning environments. Inter-school collaboration in rural Canada and the extension of curriculum options for senior students has, in turn, provided a basis for the integration of virtual classes and traditional face to face instruction. Instruction in classes that are electronically-linked to other classes requires different skills from traditional face to face teaching and the development of new strategies and protocols. The implications of open and flexible teaching and learning for the future organization of classes, the preparation of teachers, articulation with higher education and in particular, regional economic development are now significant educational policy issues. The linking of virtual and face to face classes through cybercells is a possible next step in the development of virtual educational environments.
Keywords: Collaboration, Cybercells, Integration, Intranet, Rural, Virtual
Distance Learning For Mobile Internet Users
This paper provides an overview on the current state of art in the field of Distance learning for mobile users. It mentions a large range of technologies, services and approaches that may be used to bring distance learning to mobile internet users. These technologies are supposed to considerably increase innovative e-learning solutions for the next generation. While this definitely appears to be true, I think what is not so clear are the implications for students, and lecturers etc. In this article I first evaluate distributed e-learning technologies. With some of the most vital topics, focusing on adaptive distributed e-learning for Mobile Internet Users (MIUs). I also provide a brief analysis of Broadband Network Services, Collaborative e-Learning Tools and Distributed Virtual Environments, Internet-Based Adaptive Learning Technologies and Personalised Distance Learning.
I continue my discussion on to Internet Development Tools (IDTs) for Distance Learning Solutions, Learning Technologies for MIUs, Semantic and Web-Based Services for Enriching Learning Interactivity, and Evaluations of Distributed Learning Technologies (DLTs).
Keywords: Web Based Services; Mobile Internet Technologies; Broadband network services; e-learning tools,semantic web technology; mobile internet user.
Sharker NUMAN, Anwarul ISLAM & Anwar SADAT
Analytical Views of Student Enrolment Trend of Different Programs of Bangladesh Open University and its Projection
Bangladesh Open University (BOU) is only University of the country which provides mass education in different dimensions in science, agriculture, humanities, social science, health, etc. It intends to provide opportunities of education to all classes of people and create efficient and skilled manpower by improving the quality of education. BOU was established in 1992 by launching B. Ed. program. Now it has 20 formal programs and enrolled 7,81,904 students from beginning to till 2006. This study focuses on the analysis of students’ enrollment trend at different programs of BOU as well as shows the projection of enrollment trend. The students’ enrollment data prepared in 2006 by the Students Support services Division of BOU has been used in this study. The year wise students’ enrollment pattern in different programs of BOU is analyzed using linear regression. The study showed that every year student’s enrollment is rising for only four programs and declining for rest of the programs. The study reveals that some programs already have touched the border line of zero students’ enrolment. At the same time, projection shows that if these trends continue at these rates, then students’ enrollment of six of these programs would reach to nil in next few years. So, it is the time for the policy makers and the academics to rethink about those programs and take effective strategies to revive those programs. In the end, authors also pointed out some measures to be considered in offering effective and more popular educational program through BOU.
Keywords: BOU; Academic Program; Enrollment Trend; Projection; Linear Regression
Implications of Two Well-Known Models For Instructional Designers In Distance Education:Dick-Carey Versus Morrison-Ross-Kemp
This paper first summarizes, and then compares and contrasts two well-known instructional design models: Dick and Carey Model (DC) and Morrison, Ross and Kemp model (MRK). The target audiences of both models are basically instructional designers. Both models have applications for different instructional design settings. They both see the instructional design as a means to problem-solving. However, there are also differences between the two models. Applications of each model for instructional design and technology are discussed, and a reference to instructional designers in distance education was made.
Keywords: Instructional Design Models; Dick and Carey Model; Morrison, Ross and Kemp Model, Distance Education
A Study Of Student’s Attitude Towards Virtual Education In Pakistan
Virtual education paradigm has been developing as a form of distance education to provide education across the boundaries of a nation and/or country. It imparts education through information and communication technologies. In Pakistan the Virtual University of Pakiastan imparts it. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the students’ attitudes towards virtual education in Pakistan. The data were collected from BCS final semester students of the virtual university through questionnaire. The study revealed that virtual education is an alternate to the formal system of education. It can cater large students’ body at all academic levels. It is flexible and convenient to the learners providing them exposure with emerging technologies. It integrates the nation extending the opportunities of higher education, uniform curricula, technology based instructional methodology and equal opportunities of higher education. However, students do face some problems as well. These include problems of password, computer vision syndrome (CVS), fingers’ joint pain, backache, dizziness & headache and electricity failure. From the findings of the study it can be projected that in future formal universities may be adopting the virtual mode in some way.
Keywords: Distance Education; Virtual Education; Information and Communication Technologies; Paradigm Shift
A Diagnostic Study Of Open University Students’ Perceptions About The Problem Of Distance Education Application
Distance education is regarded as one of the means for educating people who have not had formal education chance or who have not preferred the formal education. Distance education, on the other hand, is quite difficult and requires the fulfillment of various conditions. When the applications of distance education are examined, it is seen that it provides one way communication and the students have various problems.
The aim of this study, within this framework, is to examine the perceptions of Open University students in relation to the problems of distance education applications. The subjects of this study are the Open Faculty students (n=45) who attend to Open Faculty courses provided by Abant Izzet Baysal University. The data were collected through interviews. The results indicated that i) they preferred mostly the open learning as they worked at different offices, ii) they pointed out that most of the university and faculty students had positive attitudes towards them. However, they reported that i) they had difficulty in studying by themselves, ii) had some problems as open learning faculty students and iii) they believed they would have problems in finding a job in the future.
Keywords: Distance Education; Educational Demands; Perception; Off- Campus Student
Dewi MUTIARA, Aminudin ZUHAIRI & Sri KURNIATI
Designing, Developing, Producing And Assuring The Quality of Multi-Media Learning Materials For Distance Learners: Lessons Learnt From Indonesia's Universitas Terbuka
Learning materials serve as major learning resources for distance learners, and quality learning materials help students learn effectively at a distance. This paper addresses comprehensive aspects of design, development, production, and quality assurance of multi-media learning materials, based on the experience of Indonesia’s Universitas Terbuka (UT). A course team approach is used to design and develop UT learning materials, involving content experts from partner universities, UT’s own academic staff, instructional designers and media specialists. Preparation for production of printed learning materials are done internally, while the large-scale reproduction is outsourced externally, and for the non-printed materials all production and reproduction processes are done internally. The learning materials go through a systematic quality assurance mechanism in each stage of design, development and production, in order to ensure that distance students have high quality learning materials for use in their autonomous and independent as well as structured and guided learning activities throughout the course of their learning endeavour at a distance.
Keywords: Learning Materials; Instructional Designers and Media Specialists. Printed Learning Materials; Aspects of Design
Predicting Student Satisfaction In Distance Education And Learning Environments
The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of online learning environments. Data collected using the Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES) were used to explore the relationship between student satisfaction and the following predictor variables: instructor support, student interaction and collaboration, personal relevance, authentic learning, active learning, and student autonomy. The participants of this study were 917 undergraduate students at an Anatolian university in Turkey. Results of the regression analysis show that four of the six DELES scales, namely, personal relevance, instructor support, active learning, and authentic learning, were significantly and positively related to student satisfaction. These results provide valuable feedback to institutions offering online classes and to educators evaluating satisfaction of their students.
Keywords: Student Satisfaction; Distance Education; Learning Environment; DELES
Muhammad Aslam ADEEB, Aijaz Ahmed GUJJAR & Muhammad Ashraf MALIK
Correlation Between Marks Obtained By Students In Assignments And Final Examination of Master of Education Conducted By Allama Iqbal Open University
The main objective of the research was to find out the correlation between the marks obtained by the students of Allama Iqbal Open University in assignments and final examination of M.A (Education) M.Ed in Autumn 2006.For this purpose, the result gazette of M.A (Education) M.Ed was got from regional campus Allama Iqbal Open University, Bahawalpur. All the students who appeared from this region were taken as sample. The value of correlation in the subject, Elementary Education was 0.228, in Secondary Education -0.033, in Higher Education was 0.069 and in Teacher Education in Pakistan was 0.154.There were 16 students who got more than 80 marks in assignments but they were fail in the final examination because they did not get at least 40 marks in the final examination.
Keywords: Correlation; Assignments; Final examination; Lowest marks; Highest marks; Education; Allama Iqbal Open University
Avi CARMEL & Stuart S. GOLD
The Effects of Course Delivery Modality on Student Satisfaction And Retention And Gpa In On-Site Vs. Hybrid Courses
This research project examines the relationship between modality of course delivery and the level of student GPA, satisfaction and retention achieved for students attending either traditional On-site or Hybrid (partial Online and partial On-site) delivery modality university courses. The research project incorporates data from 110 courses and 164 students. The results, indicate that there is not a statistically significant difference, between the levels of student satisfaction, student retention or grade point average between students taking classes in the traditional on-site modality vs. those attending class via the hybrid modality.
Keywords: Hybrid Courses, Distance Learning, Online Courses
John LEARY & Zane BERGE
Successful Distance Education Programs In Sub-Saharan Africa
This paper explains the purposes, delivery methods, and program characteristics of successful distance education (DE) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This paper investigates the design and delivery systems of these programs and identifies ways the DE programs are working to improve. There are about 150 formidable distance education programs working in SSA. They aim to increase and improve a variety of existing programs, including primary and high school education, college-level and graduate programs, language training, teacher training, and continuing education for adults. The primary delivery system used by most institutions consists of printed manuals and texts that are distributed to all students. Despite the continued development of information and communication technology (ICT), including videos, online training modules, and web-based training (WBT) systems, traditional DE delivery methods continue to prove as the most reliable, most sustainable, and most widely used.
Keywords: Information and Communication Technology (ICT); Distance Education (DE); in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA); Web-Based Training (WBT) Systems.
Ahmad SHAHER MASHHOUR
A Distance Education Model For Jordanian Students Based On An Empirical Study
Distance education is expanding worldwide. Numbers of students enrolled in distance education are increasing at very high rates. Distance education is said to be the future of education because it addresses educational needs of the new millennium. This paper represents the findings of an empirical study on a sample of Jordanian distance education students into a requirement model that addresses the need of such education at the national level. The responses of the sample show that distance education is offering a viable and satisfactory alternative to those who cannot enroll in regular residential education. The study also shows that the shortcomings of the regular and the current form of distance education in Jordan can be overcome by the use of modern information technology.
Keywords: Distance Education; Empirical Study; Internet;Traditional Education; Educational Model
Ugur DEMIRAY, Judy NAGY & R. Ayhan YILMAZ
Strategies For The Marketing Of Higher Education With Comparative Contextual References Between Australia And Turkey
Education is now a global product with institutions worldwide competing for students and finding ever more creative ways to satisfy student needs and preferences. With the continuing rise in the preference for flexible distance learning, educational institutions are finding that when students and faculty have significantly different cultural backgrounds and learning styles that the expectations of the learning experience can be unfulfilled. In Australia, international students have made education Australia’s third largest service export, earning $5.8 billion. This means that student populations have moved from being homogenous and captive to domestic constraints and expectations, to being multi-cultural, dispersed and subject to a plethora of constraints and expectations. Today in Turkey, education is the responsibility of government however, in recent years, the private sector has entered the market providing educational services at all levels. In particular, after the 1990s, private higher education institutions (HEIs) with a commercial focus have mushroomed.
In 2007, there are 25 private universities in Turkey with more than 2.000.000 students enrolled in these universities. Of these students, more than 1.000.000 are registered in distance education faculties. With such large student numbers competition between private universities for students has intensified particularly over the last 15 years. As a consequence the need to develop strategies for attracting students has become more important. Marketing strategies in Turkey have tended to concentrate on three distinct categories: strategies between governmental HEIs, private HEIs and distance education HEIs. The contribution of technologies to education processes has been immense with students and faculty each learning to adapt to an environment of continuous change and opportunities. This paper seeks to explore the notion that a competitive advantage in marketing of higher education can be attained by customizing learning experiences for particular student cohorts in a pro-active and constructive way.
Keywords: Education; Higher Education; Marketing; Distance Education; Marketing Strategies, Turkey; Australia
Reviewed By Adile Askim KURT
REVIEW: Interactions In Online Education Implications For Theory & Practice
This book was edited by, Charles Juwah, Senior Education Development Officer at Robert Gordon University, where he runs the postgraduate learning and teaching qualification course. It was published by Routledge in 2006.
Reviewed By Adile Askim KURT & Valentina CISBANI
REVIEW: FormaMente: The Università Telematica “Guglielmo Marconi” Association of the Global Universities in Distance Education
Formamente is an official journal of GUIDE, the Association of the Global Universities in Distance Education. This is an international review that publishes a collection of international studies and researches in the field of the new Information and Communication Technologies. The review is dedicated to the research of methodologies and e-learning technologies, collecting articles and case histories about the evolution of didactic processes related with today’s educational transformation.