8 (1), 2007
Welcome to Volume 8, Number 1 of TOJDE
I am pleased to inform you that in the 8th year of TOJDE is appeared on your screen now as Volume 8, Number: 1. In this issue we published two notes for Editor, 15 articles, three reviews, news and announcements for our readers. 29 authors from ten different countries are placed in this issue. These published articles are from Australia, Eritrea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Turkey, UK and USA.
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Online Learning Software – Why Pay for It?
Numbers with pound signs in front and four noughts following them are quite usual for the basic price of e-learning software. In spite of the high cost of software and criticism of it, many organizations are still locking themselves into expensive contracts when there are freely available alternatives that can deliver most of the attributes of commercially available Learning Management Systems (LMS).
NOTE FOR EDITOR: The Role of the Geometric Models in the Explanation Of Determinant and the Properties of a Determinant
Every branch of science has its own special methods teaching within the perspective of its purposes. A teaching method which is appropriate for the structure of mathematics should be according with these stated purposes below (Van de Wella, 1989 );
Ø Conceptual knowledge of mathematics
Ø Procedural knowledge of mathematics
Ø Connections between conceptual and procedural knowledge
These three purposes are called as connectional knowledge. Conceptual knowledge can be defined as knowledge of mathematical structures (concepts and its elements) and giving them with symbols; and benefiting from its utilities; the knowledge of procedural techniques of mathematics and giving them with symbols; formatting the connections and relations among methods, symbols and concepts.
Gamze YUCEL & Atilla CAVKAYTAR
The Effectiveness of a Parent Education Programme Offered Through Distance Education about Independent Autistic Children Education Centre (IACEC)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a parent education program on parents’ awareness about the Independent Autistic Children Education Centre (ACEC: in Turkish OCEM). The program was offered through a distance education program. Participants of the study included parents of 72 children with autism who were receiving education in one of the ACEC in Istanbul. The study was carried out during 2005-2006 school year. The research study was experimental including a pre and a post-test to determine the effectiveness of the program. The Parent Education Program included five VCDs, each of which incorporated about 20 minute-presentation on various topics about Autism and the ACEC, and five handbooks. Participants in experimental and control groups were randomly assigned. The experimental group took a five-week training while the control group did not receive any training. Data were gathered by ACEC Knowledge Test developed by the researchers. The results indicated that significant differences were found between pre-and post-test scores of the experimental group. The findings showed that parent education programme offered through the distance education about Independent Autistic Children Education Centre was significantly effective.
Keywords: Autism, School for Autism, Distance Education, Parent Training, Parent Education, Family Education
Tina Lim Swee KIM, Wong Kiet WAH & Tan Ai LEE
Asynchronous Electronic Discussion Group: Analysis of Postings and Perception of In-service Teachers
This paper examines the practice of online discussion in a course specially tailored for in-service teachers who are pursuing their basic degree qualification at a teacher training institute. Analyses of postings to the asynchronous electronic discussion group were made according to the type of postings as proposed by Poole (2000). Four focus areas were looked into, that is, content, technical, procedural, or non-academic. Analyses were done for each quarter of the 12 weeks of interaction. At the end of the learners’ participation in the EDG and before their end-of-course examination, the participants were then given a paper-based questionnaire asking their perceptions on the use of EDG as part of their coursework on the whole. Six aspects of EDG were examined, these are;
Ø technical aspects,
Ø motivation to use the EDG,
Ø quality of interaction,
Ø tutor’s response,
Ø perceived learning, and
Ø attitude towards EDG.
Analyses on postings for the EDG showed that the bulk of the postings were made in the last quarter of the online discussions. Further, 97.8% of the postings were on content and the types of content posting registered were predominantly questions (41.19%) and those that sought clarification/elaboration (37.48%). Findings from this study suggest that overall the participants were satisfied with the six aspects of EDG examined. The aspect that recorded the highest mean was ‘motivation to read tutor’s responses’ whilst the lowest mean (and the only one with negative perception) was for ‘worthiness of time spent on online discussions’.
Keywords: Asynchronous Electronic Discussion Groups; Online Discussion; Postings.
T. Volkan YUZER
Generating Virtual Eye Contacts Through Online Synchronous Communications in Virtual Classroom Applications
The Internet usage has been increasing among persons in the worldwide. This situation highlights that the number of potential distance learners has been increasing in the Internet society. Besides, the terms and concepts of the Internet environments become to be spread out in this society like virtual reality. It is also possible to explain the characters of the Internet clearly via generating relatively new terms or concepts. “Virtual eye contact” concept is one of these. In this article, this concept is considered with a specific application of synchronous internet-based e-learning environments which is virtual classroom platform application. Explanation, technological infrastructure and benefits of this concept and training of the trainers to use this nonverbal communication type more powerfully are explained and discussed.
Keywords: Virtual Eye Contact, Virtual Classroom, e-Learning, Distance Education
Aijaz Ahmed GUJJAR & Muhammad Ashraf MALIK
Preparation of Instructional Material for Distance Teacher Education
Distance education is institutional concept of education centered round self-directed learning by means of correspondence courses with an integrated element of communication technology and facilitated with tutorial sessions, seminars etc. to meet need for enlargement of teaching force, improved professional standards and modernization of teaching methods, distance learning system provides alternative ways of gaining established qualifications.
The content of such courses cannot depart from the normal; the difference of learning experience arises from the presentation of the course materials and from the situation of students and, therefore, different pedagogic skills are required. The term instructional material is used for the specific items used in a lesson and delivered through various media formats such as video, audio, print and so on. This paper discusses the presentation of instructional material for distance teacher education.
Keywords: Model, Instructional, Material, Distance teacher education, Course, Teaching methods, Desig
Reha Recep ERGUL
Digital Broadcasting and Interactive Television in Distance Education: Digital and Interactive Television Infrastructure Proposol for Anadolu University Open Education Faculty
Rapid changes and improvements in the communication and information technologies beginning from the midst of the 20th Century and continuing today require new methods, constructions, and arrangements in the production and distribution of information. While television having the ability of presenting complex or difficult to comprehend concepts, subjects, and experimental studies to learners from different points of view, supported by 2D or 3D graphics and animations with audio visual stimulators replaces its technology from analog to digital and towards digital-interactive, it has also begun to convert the broadcasting technology in Turkey in this direction. Therefore, television broadcast infrastructure of Anadolu University Open Education Faculty needs to be replaced with a digital and interactive one. This study contains basic concepts of digital and interactive broadcasting and the new improvements. Furthermore, it includes the approaches in the basis of why and how a digital television broadcasting infrastructure should be stablished.
Keywords: Distance Education, Digital Broadcasting, Digital and Interactive Television
Terhemba Nom AMBE-UVA
National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN): A Historical Perspective and Challenges
Distance education has become an important policy option for educational planners in developing countries. In the context of Nigeria, increasing population, growing national demand for education, dwindling financial resources, increasing fiscal constraints, and therefore narrowing of access to education led to the emergence Open University in Nigeria to salvage the promise of education only to be choked prematurely to death. It’s subsequent re-emergence points to its imperative in salvaging the demand for placement in the universities in Nigeria. The review attests to this promise, despite the ups and downs and argues that the revitalisation of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) by the government has the potential to widen access and become a rallying point for higher education in Nigeria. NOUN will however face two major challenges as it seeks to transform the educational landscape: the first is that it needs to demonstrate that it can provide programmes of high quality to its students; second, it needs to be able to demonstrate that it can offer programmes cost-effectively. These challenges demand a refocus and a re-conceptualizations of the superstructure, distance education in Nigeria.
Keywords: Revitalisation; Distance Education; Open Learning; NOUN; Policy
Mark J. W. LEE & Anthony CHAN
Reducing the Effects of Isolation and Promoting Inclusivity for Distance Learners Through Podcasting
This article reports on an initiative to explore the potential of using supplementary audio podcast material to reduce the anxiety caused by isolation and to promote a sense of inclusivity amongst both undergraduate and postgraduate students studying an information technology subject in external mode with Australia’s largest provider of distance education. The podcasts were structured as a series of short, 3 to 5 minute talkback radio-style segments, with senior students holding discussions on pertinent issues related to the subject and its content in a relaxed and informal style. Both quantitative and qualitative data was obtained through a web-based survey conducted at the end of semester to gain insight into the views, experiences and perceived learning value of the podcasts from the perspective of the student listeners.
Findings suggest that the approach was largely successful in achieving its aforementioned aims. In addition, the student listeners saw the podcasts as being especially effective in clarifying and enhancing their understanding of the subject; providing backup/reinforcement of what they had learnt; as well as supplying guidance on the direction in which to channel their study efforts. Overall, the authors believe podcasting has tremendous potential to assist in acculturating distance learners and aiding them in moving towards complete social and academic integration into institutional life, despite the presence of physical separation. The authors’ future research plans are also briefly outlined.
Keywords: Isolation; Alienation; Inclusivity; Equity; Podcasting; Audio; Distance education
Rune Sarromaa HAUSSTÄTTER & Yngve Troye NORDKVELLE
Perspectives on Group Work In Distance Learning
Current distance education benefits greatly from educational software that makes group work possible for students who are separated in time and space. However, some students prefer distance education because they can work on their own. This paper explores how students react to expectations on behalf of the course provider to do their assignments in collaborative groups. They are seemingly both positively surprised by the challenges that group work offer, and they are less positive to the downsides of group work. The paper discusses both sides of the experiences and suggests why this might be a paradox to live with.
Keywords: Group Work, Open and Distance Learning
A. Seda YUCEL
Factors Affecting Teaching the Concept of Renewable Energy In Technology Assisted Environments and Designing Processes In The Distance Education Model
The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out what to take into account in creating renewable energy awareness. In this study, certain factors thought to affect the development of renewable energy awareness were investigated. The awareness was created through a technology-assisted renewable energy module and assessed using a renewable energy assessment tool. The effects of the students’ self-directed learning readiness with Guglielmino (1977), inner-individual orientation, and anxiety orientation on the awareness were examined. These three factors were found to have significant effects on renewable energy, which was developed through technology utilization. In addition, based on the finding that delivering the subject of renewable energy in technology assisted environments is more effective, the criteria that should be taken into consideration in transforming this subject into a design model that is more suitable for distance education were identified.
Keywords: Renewable Energy; Renewable Energy Awareness; Module; Technology-Assisted Education; Distance Education; Distance Education Models.
Nurhan UNUSAN & Naomi AIBA
Distance Delivery of Nutrition Education As A Method for Providing Continuing Education
Distance learning applications in nutrition education have evolved together with communication technology. Distance delivery is transforming the culture of professional health education by expanding access to learners, introducing novel teaching and learning methods, as well as shifting the paradigm of how instructors and students interact. The aim of the paper is to prepare a participant centred, active learning model. The model proposed in this article is based on the literature review. This model resembles active delivery models that have been highly successful in increasing learning and problem solving abilities in other courses. The model focuses on constructs that distance delivery courses should address during design and assessment. For a model to be succeeded the required prerequisites should involve the establishment of a centre for educational technology, to take a model in forming the infrastructure for web based distance delivery, to update the technology required, and to train supporting staff to help in the design of web material/documentation.
Keywords: Nutrition Education Model; Distance Delivery Nutrition Course; Health Education
Felix Kayode OLAKULEHIN
Information and Communication Technologies in Teacher Training and Professional Development in Nigeria
This paper examined the contemporary teacher training and professional development in Nigeria as an example of the experiences in developing countries of the world. Against the background of the ascendancy of information and communications technologies in all aspects of human life this study attempted to situate the concept of Information and Communication technology at the centre of the pre-service training and continuing professional development of the Nigerian teacher. A review of some of the major challenges confronting the nation in terms of adopting a technology driven teacher education model was carried out. It also explored the potentials of ICTs for and in teachers’ professional development in Nigeria and developing countries of the world. Consequently, proposing a model of a sustainable teacher training and professional development for Nigeria and other developing countries, within the functional framework of the Information and Communication Technologies was developed to indicate how ICTs could be gradually introduced into the school systems. The study conclude by further highlighting the benefits that Nigeria and other developing countries stand to gain by adopting an ICT driven approach for the pre-service and in-service training and professional development of teachers.
Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, Pre-service and in-service training, Professional Development, Teacher Education
Cagri Ozkose BIYIK
A Preliminary Evaluation of the Distance English Language Teacher Training Program (Delttp) in Anadolu University, Turkey
This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of a relatively new interactive distance learning model for training English language teachers in Turkey. The Distance English Language Teacher Training Program (DELTTP) was established as a result of the contractual agreement between the Ministry of National Education and Eskisehir Anadolu University, Turkey in 2000, whose goal is to train a sufficient number of EFL teachers, in the shortest time possible, without abandoning the high quality of professional training provided heretofore (AOF, 2006). In order to seek objective information regarding their current status as well as to obtain opinion data concerning their perceptions of the adequacy of their education, 2004 and 2005 graduates of the DELTTP Program were administered questionnaires. Four interviews were conducted with different stakeholders. The results and statistics indicate that DELTTP is presently unable to train English teachers of the desired number and in a short period of time due to a variety of factors; however, the program has been successful in maintaining a high standard of quality and has not abandoned the essentials needed for foreign language teacher education.
Keywords: Anadolu University DELTTP Program, Distance Education, Foreign Language Teacher Education, Program Evaluation
Transnational Education: Concept and Methods
Transnational education is a new and permanent reality in educational life. It should be viewed as a positive set of educational opportunities. It raises profound and far-reaching implications for all those involved in higher education. The challenges represented by it may impact at the local, regional, national and global levels and reactions to these multi-level challenges result in a co-ordinated set of global responses in the form of alliances.
The globalisation of higher education manifests itself in various forms, of which transnational education is perhaps the most visible. It is something that can be focussed immensely for global pace. Transnational education has clear long-term implications for the nature and structure of educational provision throughout the world particularly in Europe.
Keywords: Transnational Education, Borderless Education, Higher Education, Models of Transnational Education
Ali Riza ERDEM
Strategic Planning at the State’s Education Institutions Serving “Open and Distance Education”, Which Are of Nonprofit Concern
In conventional education process, there have always been certain obstacles throughout the human history. From that point of view, “Open and Distance Education” are the ones which are much more sensitive to quality and to the dissemination of knowledge to society as well as having certain advantages in getting over matters rather than in-class processes.
In our country, for public institutions, the vitality of “strategic planning” has recently been recognized and established as a legal substructure. Besides, organizations and educational institutions of the government, which legally offers “Open and Distance Education” without any profit concern, are also responsible for creating a strategic guide-line. A process established by Bryson for public institutions, “A Ten-Step Strategic Planning Process” could be used in those strategic planning of the educational institutions of the government, which are of nonprofit concern, to ease strategic thought and organizational momentum by their administrators in on attendant, careful, and logical way.
Keywords: Open and Distance Education, A Ten-Step Strategic Planning Process
Challenges in Introducing Distance Education Programme in Eritrea: Some Observations and Implications
All over the world, distance mode of education is gaining a momentum and becoming more popular than conventional education. It is a system in which schools, universities and other educational agencies offer instruction wholly or partly by mail. Eritrea is a newly independent country in Africa is been facing many challenges particularly in its education sector. It did not have more educational institutions at tertiary level. Thus the distance learning is the best option for this country. An attempt is made in this paper to discuss various problems related to the establishment and development of distance education. It also provides the distance education programmes so far undertaken in the country with concluding remarks.
Keywords: Distance Education, Eritrea, Ministry of Education, Asmara University
Reviewed By Ali YAZICI
REVIEW: Closing Remarks of the Workshop OnGlobal University System & E-Learning
The Workshop on Global University System & E-Learning was held on the 19th of October, 2006 at TOBB Economics & Technology University. The workshop attracted around 40 people from the Ministry of Education, Turkish Satellite Corporation (TURKSAT), Anadolu University, and various academic staff from different universities in Ankara. All together, there were 8 presentations each followed by a discussion.
Reviewed By Dr. S. K. PULIST
Open and Distance Education in Global Environment: Opportunities for Collaboration
Distance education system in India has undergone many stages and phases of evolution before it really reached the stage of what is called open education, ICT-enabled education and global education. During these phases, it has assimilated different aspects of ICT with all applauds and has been able to go hand-in-hand with it transcending the national and regional boundaries. The distance education institutions have now started giving a serious thought to explore the possibility of cross-boarder expansion. The educational needs of the present society are changing very fast. The education is now being seen as an enabling tool for empowerment and all-round development of individuals. It is difficult for an institution to come up to all the educational requirements of the society. It is, therefore, time to collaborate rather than compete
Reviewed By Dr. Adile Aşkım Kurt
Flexible Learning in an Information Society
This book was edited by, Badrul H. Khan, Director of the Educational Technology Leadership graduate cohort program at The George Washington University, and published by Information Science Publishing an imprint of Idea Group Inc.