7 (3), 2006
Welcome to Volume 7, Number 3 of TOJDE
I am pleased to inform you that in the 7th year of TOJDE is appeared on your screen now as Volume 7, Number: 3. Very much thanks to all of you once more that we met with you 23rd time, since January 2000.
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Online Learning Programs as Learning Organizations: A Case Study of Information Management Programs at Anadolu University, Turkey
This study consists of the results of a study in which facilitators’ attitudes toward effectiveness of various media used in the Information Management Associate Degree Program (IMP) of Anadolu University, Turkey. The study has shown that textbooks are not viewed as efficient as multimedia programs and web environments by facilitators although they indicate that textbooks should still be used in online courses. The participants also found multimedia programs distributed on CDs more effective than the web environments.
Keywords: Online learning program/s; learning organization/s; Anadolu University; Open Education Faculty; Turkey.
Olugbenga David OJO & Felix Kayode OLAKULEIN
The Place of Multiple Intelligence in Achieving the Objectives and Goals of Open and Distance Learning Institutions: a Critical Analysis
This paper examined the nature of open and distance learning institutions as organizations where synergy of efforts of all personnel is required in other to achieve the aims and objectives of the institution. It explored the huge infrastructural and personnel requirements of distance learning institutions, especially at inception, and the wherewithal needed for the institutions to survive the challenges of the contemporary knowledge milieu and stand the test of time while ensuring the quality and standard of all the certificates that will be awarded over time. The paper seeks to evaluate the role of multiple-intelligence in the administration of open and distance learning institutions, given that multiple-intelligence allows for improvement in achievement, performance and skills (Sternberg, Turff & Grigenko, 1998).
The paper concluded that the importance of multiple intelligence in the actualization of the broad goals and the specific objectives of distance learning institutions can not be overemphasized in the various aspects of the institutional framework of distance learning. It was also submitted that the discipline of distance education as it has often been construed is an eclectic one requiring an agglomeration of intellectual skills and abilities –multiple intelligence.
Keywords: Goals; Objectives; Multiple-Intelligence; Eclectic; Skills; Abilities.
P. C. SAXENA SCSS, Sanjay JASOLA & Ramesh C. SHARMA
Impact of VoIP and QoS on Open and Distance Learning
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is becoming a reality in many organizations. The potential for mobility in voice over wi-fi networks will derive demand for the technology. Wireless VoIP is poised to rival VoIP as an alternative telephony tool. Internet has been used to transport data in the form of packet. In the past, Internet did not support any kind of sophisticated quality of service (QoS) mechanism. Although the type of service (TOS) field in the Internet protocol (IP) header has been existing and has been allowing the differentiated treatment of packets, it was never really used on a large scale. The voice is sensitive to delay and jitter so bandwidth must be guaranteed while transporting it. With the extensive use of Internet for carrying voice, there is a need to add QoS functionality in it. QoS with reference to VoIP has been discussed in the paper. Limited bandwidth and network latency are the issues which need to be considered while using wireless LAN for packetized voice data. Efforts of standards like 802.11e which will take care of these issues, have also been explored. The impact of these technologies on distance education has also been explored in the paper.
Keywords: Computer Networks; Voice Over Internet Protocol (voip); TCP/IP; Wireless Lan; Quality of Service (qos); Open and Distance Education; Learner Support
Buket AKKOYUNLU & Meryem YILMAZ SOYLU
A Study on Students’ Views On Blended Learning Environment
In the 21st century, information and communication technologies (ICT) have developed rapidly and influenced most of the fields and education as well. Then, ICT have offered a favorable environment for the development and use of various methods and tools. With the developments in technology, blended learning has gained considerable popularity in recent years. Together with the developments it brought along the description of particular forms of teaching with technology. Blended learning is defined simply as a learning environment that combines technology with face-to-face learning. In other words blended learning means using a variety of delivery methods to best meet the course objectives by combining face-to-face teaching in a traditional classroom with teaching online.
This article examines students’ views on blended learning environment. The study was conducted on 64 students from Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies in 2005–2006 fall semester in Instructional Design and Authoring Languages in PC Environment at Hacettepe University. The results showed that the students enjoyed taking part in the blended learning environment. Students’ achievement levels and their frequency of participation to forum affected their views about blended learning environment. Face-to-face interaction in blended learning application had the highest score. This result demonstrated the importance of interaction and communication for the success of on-line learning.
Keywords: Blended Learning; Online Learning; Distance Education; Face to Face Education
The Role Of The Socio-Cultural Context In Designing Appropriate Support Services And Enhancing Interaction In Distance Education In Turkey
Understanding the socio-cultural context is the key to developing appropriate support systems for distance learners. The socio-cultural context in Turkey is a critical ingredient in the development of Turkish distance education programmes, in which two elements of Turkish culture - patronage and an oral tradition - seem to play a significant role. The main aim of this study is to determine the role of the socio-cultural context in designing appropriate support services and enhancing interaction in the Turkish Distance Education System, namely, the Open Education Faculty (OEF).
The study firstly introduces the technologies and socio-cultural context of the OEF then presents for consideration the influence of that context in designing appropriate support services and enhancing interaction; and finally provides a number of suggestions to enhance learner support and interaction according to the prevailing socio-cultural context.
Keywords: Socio-Cultural Context; Learner Support; Interaction; Distance Education; Open Education Faculty; Turkey
A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources
At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing. In spite of it, renewable energy sources are renewed and never run out. In addition there are many benefits of renewable energy. In this study a puzzle is prepared for primary-school students aiming at teaching of energy sources as a supplementary source. In the mean time, the puzzle we prepared reveals the advantages and disadvantages of renewable and fossil energy sources. Here, the student’s aim is to complete the puzzle by answering the questions respectively.
Keywords: Energy Sources; Renewable Energy; Non-Renewable Energy; Puzzle, Chemistry Education, Distance education.
Erman YUKSELTURK & Fethi Ahmet INAN
Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout in an Online Certificate Program
This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.
Keywords: Online Learning; Online Certificate Programs, Online Students; Online Student Dropouts, Student Attrition
Jessica N. AGUTI & William J. FRASER
Integration of Information Communication Technologies (Icts) in The Distance Education Bachelor of Education Programme, Makerere University, Uganda
This article reports on the problems experienced by the Department of Distance Education, Makerere University, Uganda with the B.Ed. (External) programme with specific reference to the technology needs and expectations of the programme. With a total enrolment of nearly 3,500 students in 2003, this programme was one of the largest distance education programmes for teachers in the country.
It was therefore important to establish what technologies the stakeholders of this programme had access to, what technologies they believed could be used for the programme and for what purpose, and finally what prerequisites should be put in place for this technology to work. The article reports on the availability of and access to ICTs, access to telecommunications and sources of funding for ICTs in the distance education programme.
The authors also looked critically at a number of prerequisites thought to enhance the effectiveness of ICTs in the B.Ed. (External) programme from an African perspective hoping that the integration of ICT in the programmes would lift the distance education mode of delivery of these programmes from a classical first and second generation, to a third generation level of operation.
Keywords: In-service Education and Training; Teacher Training Programmes; Distance Education; Information Communication Technologies (ICT).
Developing Web-oriented Homework System to Assess Students’ Introductory Physics Course Performance and Compare to Paper-based Peer Homework
The World Wide Web influences education and our lives in many ways. Nowadays, Web-based homework has been becoming widespread practice in physics courses and some other courses as well. Although are some disputes whether this is an encouraging or risky development for student learning, there is limited research assessing the pedagogical effect of changing the medium from written, hand-graded homework to online oriented, computer-graded homework.
In this study, web-oriented homework system is developed to assess students’ introductory physics course performance. Later on, these results are compared with paper-based (peer) homework performance for mid enrollment physics courses. One of two identical sections of introductory physics course students received paper-based, hand graded group homework while the other received the individual web-based homework.
Then two groups’ on conceptual and problem-solving performance measures are compared. No significant differences were found in students’ Force Concept Inventory (FCI) test scores; however, average homework performance scores were significant that could be attributed to the homework method used in favor of paper-based peer homework group.
Keywords: Physics Assessment; Web-Based Homework; Paper-Based Homework; FCI.
The Models Of Didactıcal Process Communicatıons in Traditional And Distance Learning Systems: Analyses The State Of The Art
This paper consists of an analysis of the state of the art of research and development for the different models of didactical processes in traditional and distance learning systems. The educational system is an open and dynamic system. In such context as the educational system, seven models of didactical process communications can be observed. The contemporary models are based on collective knowledge building in collaborative learning environments. The last model needs self –regulated students’ competence of learning.
Keywords: Communication, Educational Models, Communication, Cybernetic, Distance Learning, Self-Regulated Learning, and Collaborative Learning Environments.
Preparedness of NGO Health Service Providers in Bangladesh about Distance Based Learning
This cross-sectional survey was conducted countrywide from 15 January to 01 March 2004 to explore the potentials of health care service providers (physicians, nurses, paramedics etc.) for using distance-based learning materials. Face-to-face in-depth interview was taken from 99 randomly selected direct service providers, 45 midlevel clinic mangers/physicians and 06 administrators or policy planners. Quasi-open questionnaire was developed for three different levels. Pre-trained interviewer team assisted data collection at field level. Total procedure was stringently monitored for completeness and consistency to ensure quality data. SPSS software was used to process and analyze both univariate and multivariate multiple responses. Identified need for training areas were- STD/HIV, tuberculosis updates, family planning, treatment of locally endemic diseases, behavioral change communication & marketing and quality management system for managers. About 76.7% clinic managers and 89.1% service providers had primary information about distance-based learning in spite showed interest. About 51.5% desired monthly, 20.6% biweekly and 26.8% wanted bimonthly circulation of the distance-based study materials. About 35.1% expected print materials with regular facilitators while 58.8% demanded stand-by facilitators. The study suggested wide acceptance of distance-based learning methods as supplementary to the continuing medical education among the countrywide health service providers.
Keywords: Distance Based Learning; Health education need-assessment; Bangladesh
Gertrude DUDINK & Zane BERGE
Balancing Top-Down, Bottom-Up, and Peer-to-Peer Approaches to Sustaining Distance Training
Many distance training case studies identify distance training leadership as bottom-up, whereas much of the literature suggests a need for strategic, top-down approaches. With change management as an overarching framework, approaches to sustaining distance training that originate at different levels of the organization are explored. Special attention is paid to the content of the change messages involved, guided by Rogers’ five attributes of innovations. Research of change management and distance training literature suggests a combination of approaches that should fit the organizational culture as well as correctly address genuine concerns at the various organizational levels. A properly balanced approach could lead to new levels of communication and understanding in a learning organization and to distance training being sustained as a business process.
Keywords: Distance Training; Bottom-Up, and Peer-to-Peer Approaches.
Developing Cultural Awareness In Foreign Language Teaching
Regardless of different points of view, culture has taken an important place in foreign language teaching and learning studies. It has been widely recognized that culture and language is used as a main medium through which culture is expressed. However, “pure information” is useful but does not necessarily lead learners’ insight; whereas the development of people’s cultural awareness leads them to more critical thinking. Most frequently confronted that students to a great extend know the rules of language, but are not always able to use the language adequately as it requires since they are not knowledgeable enough about the target culture. Bearing all this in mind, the aim of this article has been to provide necessary information for the foreign language teachers and learners so that they can establish a good connection with the target language and its culture.
Keywords: Culture; Teaching Culture; Teaching Foreign Language; Cultural Awareness; Culture based activities, techniques.
Abdullah Mohd ZIN, Sufian IDRIS & Nantha Kumar SUBRAMANIAM
Improving Learning of Programming Through E-Learning by Using Asynchronous Virtual Pair Programming
The problem of learning programming subjects, especially through distance learning and E-Learning, has been widely reported in literatures. Many attempts have been made to solve these problems. This has led to many new approaches in the techniques of learning of programming. One of the approaches that have been proposed is the use of virtual pair programming (VPP). Most of the studies about VPP in distance learning or e-learning environment focus on the use of the synchronous mode of collaboration between learners. Not much research have been done about asynchronous VPP. This paper describes how we have implemented VPP and a research that has been carried out to study the effectiveness of asynchronous VPP for learning of programming. In particular, this research study the effectiveness of asynchronous VPP in the learning of object-oriented programming among students at Open University Malaysia (OUM). The result of the research has shown that most of the learners have given positive feedback, indicating that they are happy with the use of asynchronous VPP. At the same time, learners did recommend some extra features that could be added in making asynchronous VPP more enjoyable.
Keywords: Pair-programming; Virtual Pair-programming; Object Oriented Programming
Social Constructivism And International Cooperation In Distance Education
International cooperation in Distance Education which is a very popular phenomenon today can be explained by the rise of social constructivism in social sciences, namely Education and International Relations, for the purpose of this paper. Social constructive approach in International Relations with its emphasis on building social bridges via learning common values and social constructivism in education highlighting learning communities, pave the way for institutionalization of cooperation in Distance Education. Multicultural, multilingual models that adopt educational materials according to local cultures and demands, serve as a good mean of meeting educational needs globally. Information and Communication Technologies ease interactions and lead to a global flow of information, some advantages of which are emphasized in this paper.
Keywords: Social Constructivism; Distance Education; Globalization; European Union
The Attitudes of Preschool Teacher Candidates Studying Through Distance Education Approach Towards Teaching Profession And Their Perception Levels of Teaching Competency
The purpose of this study is to determine the attitudes of preschool teacher candidates studying through distance education approach towards teaching profession and to determine their perception levels of teaching competency. The population and sampling of the study were the senior students of Anadolu University, Open Education Faculty, Preschool Teacher Training Undergraduate Program. The study was conducted through 957 teacher candidates. A survey was used in order to measure the attitudes of teacher candidates towards teaching profession and to determine their perception levels of teaching competency as a data collection instrument for this study. The study revealed that the attitudes of teacher candidates towards teaching profession are quite positive, and their perception levels of teaching competency are very good. Moreover, the teacher candidates consider the program they enrolled in so beneficial for them to gain teaching competencies.
Keywords: Distance Education, Teacher Training, Preschool Education, Attitudes Towards Teaching Profession
Reviewed By Dr. A. Askim GULUMBAY
REVIEW: Affective and Emotional Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction: Game-Based and Innovative Learning Approaches
This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computer-supported learning and human-computer interactions. Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cognitive sciences, various aspects of communication and human computer interaction, interface design and computer science on one hand and educators and game industry on the other, this should open gates to evolutionary changes of the learning industry. The major topics discussed are emotions, motivation, games and game-experience.
Reviewed By Professor Ali SIMSEK
REVIEW: Online Collaborative Learning: Theory and Practice
his book is a collection of articles related to computer-mediated collaborative learning environments. It is edited by Tim S. Roberts from the Central Queensland University, Australia. The publisher is InfoSci, an imprint of Idea Group located both in the United States (Pennsylvania) and the United Kingdom (London). The book covers 13 chapters; each chapter is based on an article. In addition, there are separate sections for the Preface, the Authors, and the Index. The total number of pages is 321+xiv.