7 (1), 2006
Welcome to Volume 7, Number 1 of TOJDE
I am pleased to inform you that in the 7th year of TOJDE is appeared as Volume 7, Number: 1 on your screen now as. Very much thanks to all of you once more that we met 21st time, since January 2000.
NOTE FOR EDITOR: 3rd International Conference of Open and Distance Learning (ICODL 2005) helid in Patra, Greece
Dear Friends and Tojde Readers,
First of all I would like to thank very much those who participated in the
3rd International Conference of Open and Distance Learning (ICODL 2005) in
Patra, Greece. Those who couldn't come, I hope to meet them some time in the future.
I personally want to give my thanks to all who sent their papers for the Conference and trusted us for the organization of the Conference and our involvement in Open and Distance Learning.
Effective Change Management Strategies for Embedding Online Learning within Higher Education and Enabling the Effective Continuing Professional Development of its Academic Staff
Previous research studies show that those universities wishing to successfully engage in online learning will have to adopt and implement tactics that have the capacity to overcome existing social and cultural constraints. An inclusive, consultative framework needs to be established, and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) has been recognized as a key concern that should be addressed here. The moves towards non-traditional forms of course delivery for students require a well prepared CPD programme designed to enable academics to acquire pedagogical skills within a technology enhanced arena. Successful programmes of CPD are those that acknowledge staff wants, interests, hopes and varying amounts of availability. For induction into online teaching, an effective model could be one that adopts accessible and suitably blended approaches which acknowledge different learning styles and sound pedagogical theories and practices. To succeed beyond this stage – and taking into account the pace of change, the lack of development time and indeed the general lack of staff developers – there is a need for an even greater range of on-going scalable, just-in-time and formal/informal CPD opportunities. The conclusion drawn is that if the concerns of academic staff are acknowledged and their needs appreciated then online learning initiatives – most importantly backed up by appropriate range of scalable CPD opportunities – have a far greater chance of successfully gaining widespread support.
Keywords: Online Learning, eLearning, Change Management, University Strategies, Continuing Professional Development, Academics
Mudasiru Olalere YUSUF
Problems and Prospects of Open and Distance Education in Nigeria
Distance education as a mean of providing access to education, particularly tertiary level education, has gained great prominence in the world. Nigeria has taken giant steps of recent to introduce open and distance education programme. This paper explores the major terms inherent in open and distance education, its potentials, possible factors that may inhibit successful implementation of the programme, and the use of low and high technological tools for its implementation. The paper recommended the use of Organisation Element Model (OEM) as suggested by (Kaufman, Watkins & Guerra, 2001) for its planning and implementation, and also stressed the need for improvement in electricity and communication services.
Keywords: Distance education, Nigeria, Open and Distance Learning Blue Print, Media, Low tech, High tech, Organisational Element Model
Enviromental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A Participatory Approach
This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE) networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also provides information about Lesotho Environmental Information Network as the body that drove the networking process. The paper discusses cycles of the participatory process undertaken for the EE networking in Mafeteng schools, including identification of problems, problem solving, and reflective workshop and study tour. Finally the paper outlines issues that emerged in participatory EE networking, which include school governance, teachers’ existing knowledge, and communication, decision-making and power relations.
Keywords: Environmental Education, Lesotho Environmental Information Network, Mafeteng Schools, EE networking
Automated Essay Scoring
The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali, 2004). AES is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003).
Revision and feedback are essential aspects of the writing process. Students need to receive feedback in order to increase their writing quality. However, responding to student papers can be a burden for teachers. Particularly if they have large number of students and if they assign frequent writing assignments, providing individual feedback to student essays might be quite time consuming. AES systems can be very useful because they can provide the student with a score as well as feedback within seconds (Page, 2003). Four types of AES systems, which are widely used by testing companies, universities, and public schools: Project Essay Grader (PEG), Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), E-rater, and IntelliMetric.
AES is a developing technology. Many AES systems are used to overcome time, cost, and generalizability issues in writing assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have been proven to be high. The search for excellence in machine scoring of essays is continuing and numerous studies are being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the AES systems.
Keywords: Assessment, Writing, Feedback Mechanism, Assistive Technologies
Inci MORGIL, Nilgün SECKEN, A. Seda YUCEL, Ozge OZYALCIN OSKAY & Soner YAVUZ And Evrim URAL
Developing A Renewable Energy Awareness Scale For Pre-service Chemistry Teachers
In times when human beings used to live in a natural environment, their needs were also provided by natural resources. With the increases in population in time, human beings started to look for new resources willing to get “the more” and “the fastest”. Just like the invention of steam, firstly, they increased the density of the resources and produced “more” energy. However, instead of working on the density of water, which spreads with the solar energy, they chose an easier way, which was fuel that produced more energy when burnt. Unfortunately, the damages these fuel products create in the atmosphere and environment shaded their benefits. It did not take so long for the earth to run out of energy resources and to threaten environmental and human health. As a result of that, new energy resources were started to be sought and the studies enlightened the concepts of sustainable, renewable energy. Renewable energy is defined as “the energy source, which continues its existence for the following days within the evolution of nature”. Educators pointed out a need in students for gaining consciousness on renewable energy resources. In the light of the importance of renewable and sustainable energy, a “Renewable Energy Awareness Scale” that questioned to what extent the individuals were aware of renewable energy was developed. The Renewable Energy Awareness Scale, which consisted of 50 items, was administered as a pilot study. The factor analysis concluded with a scale of 39 items with a reliability coefficient of 0.944 was developed.
Keywords: Renewable Energy, Awareness Scale, Factor Analysis, Chemistry Education.
Aytekin ISMAN & Zehra ALTINAY
Self-Perceptions and Roles: How Eastern Mediterranean University Students and Teachers View Online Program and Cources
Distance Education -new trend in the world- has developed from the result of competition, developments on marketing, globalization and technology. Online education as a practical side, saves time, eliminates distance among communicators by giving equal opportunities, resources to everyone. Online courses and program are the new application and the first step for the development of distance education system at Eastern Mediterranean University by considering new educational paradigms.
This research study aims to define self-perceptions and roles of both students and teachers about online program and courses who experience online context at EMU by conducting qualitative and quantitative researches. The study is a guide in order to have qualified distance education system by handling the communicators’ expectations, roles and perceptions.
Keywords: Self-Perceptions, Eastern Mediterranean University, Online Program Online Courses
Yngve Troye NORDKVELLE
"Professional Development of Higher Education Teachers, - Can Distance Education Make a Difference?"
The paper reviews some of the classical indicators of academic professionalism, and illuminates a historical epoche when research and teaching became separate dimensions of professionalism in higher education. The paper argues that this separation has gone too far and that a new sense of professionalism needs to be invoked in the area of teaching in higher education. It is claimed that this area is challenged by the demands that professors must take part in distance education activities involving the use of information technologies. The particular organisation at any given higher education institution for open and distance education activities have a particular responsibility to develop this professional dimension. Therefore, it has to participate in more profound organisational developmental work together with academics and administration to promote reflection on their teaching, and surpass “ad-hocracy” and “loose-couplings” to become part of a learning organisation.
Keywords: Professionalism, Distance Education, Dual Mode Institutions, Higher Education
Adesoji A. ONI
The Relationship Between Levels of Education and Perceptions of Democratic Governance Among Nigerian School Leavers
The study investigated the views and perception of school leavers about the democratic government in Nigeria. A self-designed questionnaire was used for collection of their views. The participants of the study comprised 500 school leavers selected across different working places in the six states of Southwest Nigeria. Results clearly revealed that majority of the respondents are not satisfied with the current performance of the present democratic Government in Nigeria. Most of the respondents suggested participation of everyone in the act of governance that favor rule of law, equality, and freedom and that this should be adopted by the government. The researcher therefore recommended a democratic system of government that will incorporate all the basic principles of democracy into the system of government, while marginalization and neglect of the poor, women, youth, and rural dwellers should be avoided.
Keywords: Perception, Perception of School Leavers Nigeria, Performance, Women, Youth, and Rural Dwellers
Md. Tofazzal ISLAM & Abu Sadeque Md. SELIM
Current Status and Prospects for E-learning in the Promotion of Distance Education in Bangladesh
The issue of e-learning as an advanced system for training and educating mass people using information and communication technologies (ICTs) has been received an increasing level of interest in recent years in most of the western countries. In spite of socio-economic constraints, ICTs are rapidly expanding in the developing countries, and thus offering a new scope for the use of e-learning for the promotion of distance education. In Bangladesh, e-learning was first introduced as early as 1960s as a Radiobroadcast followed by a pilot project School Broadcasting Program (SBP) in 1980s and then expanded by the establishment of the National Institute of Educational Media and Technology (NIEMT), which was later transformed into Bangladesh Institute of Distance Education (BIDE) in 1985. The significant progress has been done after the establishment of the Bangladesh Open University (BOU) in 1992 as the first and only national distance learning university. Within a decade of its establishment, enrollment of BOU students have reached nearly 400 thousands, and thus enlisted it as one of the mega-universities. BOU has been offering a variety of formal and non-formal academic programs from certificate to Masters levels using print, TV and radio broadcasts, audio-cassettes and face to face tutorials as the media of delivering its academic courses. Considering the rapid expansion of computer and internet in Bangladesh after 1998s, it is now appropriate time to consider inclusion of some interactive ICTs i.e. e-learning in delivering course materials of BOU or other institutes to promote distance education in Bangladesh. In this paper, we discuss the current situation and future prospects for e-learning in Bangladesh considering the current trend of ICTs expansion in the country.
Keywords: E-learning, Bangladesh Open University, Distance Education, ICT, Mega-University
Debra PEAK & Zane L. BERGE
Evaluation and eLearning
In today’s results-oriented, fast-moving business environment, it is critical for trainers to demonstrate the value of training to the organization: There is nothing inherently valuable about training. It is performance gains that training catalyzes that give it worth (Graber, 2000). This is why evaluations tied to business results are becoming commonplace.
If you ask training professionals about measuring training, most will start talking about levels of evaluation, referring to Kirkpatrick’s landmark evaluation model developed in 1959. Kirkpatrick’s levels of evaluation have been the industry standard for nearly half a century.
However, many professionals now believe that elearning and a shift in emphasis toward performance improvement have changed the training business so that these levels are no longer completely relevant.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss what similarities and differences exist between evaluating elearning and traditional classroom instruction, how Kirkpatrick’s evaluation levels are currently conducted, why conducting Kirkpatrick’s Level 4 evaluation is so difficult to do, why elearning evaluation has evolved to include return-on-investment (ROI) calculations, and whether other evaluation methods currently practiced are more relevant and useful.
Keywords: eLearning, Evaluation(s), Return-on-Investment (ROI), Traditional Classroom Instruction, Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation.
The Reflection of the Learning Organization Concept to School of Education
The change and development that has been observed everywhere, it is the result of the knowledge accumulated along the human history. The knowledge was increasing since the primitive era and is now becoming the unique factor of production fast sidelining both capital and power. As a result of this situation, it is treated of the knowledge society. In the knowledge society, it necessitates the learning organisations, which know to profit by knowledge as a basic power.
In our time, the organization should adopt the education as a life style and transform them to learning organisation. This situation is current for educational organisations. The societies of today need the individuals who know how to reach knowledge, how to convert the gained knowledge to the behaviours, how to produce new knowledge using them. For growing up the individuals who have these characteristics, educational organisations have to transform to learning organisations. In this process, the teachers also have important role.
For this reason, it was realised a descriptive study, which aimed to determine whether the schools of education have the learning organisation features. The sample group of study is the academic staff of the school of education at Anadolu University. The data was gathered with the questionnaire of learning organisation features. At the end of study, it was found that the academic staff believed the faculty had many features of learning organization, but some deficiencies about strategies.
Keywords: Knowledge Society, Learning Organization, School of Education, Academic Staff
Felix Kayode OLAKULEIN & Olugbenga David OJO
Distance Education as a Women Empowerment Strategy in Africa
Women emancipation through empowerment all over the world is at its peak and Africans generally are not left out. It is an attempt to make sure that women’s voices are heard and are given their right places in the scheme of things. Nonetheless, the issue of educational attainment of women considering the low level of girls’ education in Africa is at a negative variance to attaining women position since certain educational attainments are required to function effectively in the various available organs; be it work place, group or committees of local or international standing. This paper therefore stresses the use of open and distance institution in Nigeria as an avenue to attain knowledge and education that would put women in a better stead toward achieving their aims and aspirations.
Keywords: Distance Education, Empowerment Strategy, Afric
I. Hakkı MIRICI
Electronic In-Service Teacher-Training for The New National EFL Curriculum in Turkey
A new national curriculum in all subject areas is about to be introduced in elementary schools in Turkey. The new curriculum is based on a “Constructivist” approach. This discussion paper focuses on the new curriculum for English as a foreign language, noting that teachers need information about the philosophy of the new curriculum and how its different elements support each other. The paper sets the curriculum reform in the context of international objectives in education such as the Dakar Conference, the Pisa project, Socrates programmes, the Common European Framework for Languages and the European Language Portfolio. The paper discusses the role of electronic learning in in-service training in both ongoing and one-shot teacher training programmes. The paper identifies four specific challenges and proposes solutions for a successful implementation of the new curriculum. The four challenges are how to make up the new curriculum comprehensible to teachers, how to help teachers develop their own materials, how to persuade teachers to participate in training process, and how to help teachers share their ideas.
Keywords: New EFL Curriculum of Turkey, Online Teacher Training, Common European Framework, European Language Portfolio
Anthony Francis UNDERHILL
Theories of Learning and Their Implications for On-Line Assesment
The pedagogy underlying online learning and teaching is being reconceptualised to incorporate the opportunities being offered by the development of online educational settings. The pedagogy of constructivism and in particular socio-constructivism is underpinning much of the online learning and teaching developments currently being developed. The developments in online learning and teaching however are not being matched by developments in computer based assessment. The scope of computers to offer varied, adaptive and unique assessment is still underdeveloped according to Brown, Race and Bull (1999). This paper briefly reviews the theories of learning and their relationship with traditional forms of assessment and seeks to argue for the need to further develop online assessment tools to further facilitate the growth in process based learning activities such as collaborative and cooperative group work consistent with a socio-constructivist pedagogy.
Keywords: On-line Assessment, Theories of Learning, Socio-Constructivism, Assessment of Group Work.
Reviewed By Dr. Adnan BOYACI
REVIEW: Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation Case Studies from Higher Education, K-12 and Corporate
With the revolution occurred in communication technologies at the beginning of 1990’s, network technologies have emerged as the challenging parameters accelerating improvements of instructional technologies. Online classrooms and management of them appeared as a new domain which necessitates a new paradigm different from the classical ones. User and instructor friendly learning context and management systems (LCMS) have brought new approaches, techniques and tools for the assessment and measurement processes. These approaches, techniques and tools embedded in LCMS have redefined not only the way teachers teach but also students learn. WebCT, Blackboard and eCollege and many others as the online instructional environments have provided new opportunities to construct a coherent instructional system which has never been used as a unique environment any before. Assessment and measurement have been redefined within this framework. The successes of assessment and measurement methodologies or system inevitably depend on conceptualization and then implementation to different educational settings.
Reviewed By Dr. Adnan BOYACI
REVIEW: Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation Emerging Practices
Online assessment, measurement and evaluation have emerged as a new domain challenging process of education and educators in the twenty-first century. As the improvements in online technologies have provided new tools, the vision of traditional methodologies and principles used in assessment, measurement and evaluation has also been challenged. There is a crucial need to make clarify the concepts, issues and systems involved in this new challenging domain of assessment, measurement and evaluation. In this sense, this book provides coherent point of view to the online assessment, measurement and evaluation.
Reviewed By Cengiz Hakan AYDIN
REVIEW: Global Peace through the Global University System
Utopia is defined in Encarta Dictionary as “an ideal and perfect place or state, where everyone lives in harmony and everything is for the best.” Developments all around the world especially in the last decade have supported the idea that global peace is nothing but just a utopian dream. However, for centuries a group of believers have always been in search of global peace via different means. This book, titled as “Global Peace through the Global University System”, can be considered as one of the artifacts of this search.