6 (4), 2005
Welcome to Volume 6, Number 4 of TOJDE
I am pleased to inform you that Volume 6, Number: 4 are appearing on your screen now as which is addressed http://tojde.anadolu.edu.tr. Very much thanks to all of you once more that we met 19th time, since January 2000. As we announced in Volume: 6 Number: 3-4 issue, April 2006 issue of TOJDE would published on special issue is to indicate foresight, innovation, and strategy for the future direction of e-learning, more than web-oriented teaching and multipoint videoconferencing, for collaborative, distributed, experiential learning and creation of new knowledge, with youngsters around the world, which hence promote mutual understanding for global peace.
Scott L. WALKER
Modifying Formative Evaluation Techniques For Distance Education Class Evaluation
Post-secondary classes are usually followed by mandatory summative evaluations, yet changes in teaching and course structure cannot be made with summative evaluations. Formative evaluations in online education can result in candid responses from students if a third-party facilitator is involved in the process. This paper presents a method for conducting formative evaluation in an online class by utilizing the assistance of a colleague. Results of one such evaluation are presented, as are its advantages and disadvantages.
Keywords: Distance Education, Class Evaluation and Instructional Feedback
Individual Learner Differences In Web-based Learning Environments: From Cognitive, Affective and Social-cultural Perspectives
Throughout the paper, the issues of individual differences in web-based learning, also known as online instruction, online training or distance education were examined and implications for designing distance education were discussed. Although the main purpose was to identify differences in learners’ characteristics such as cognitive, affective, physiological and social factors that affect learning in a web-enhanced environment, the questions of how the web could be used to reinforce learning, what kinds of development ideas, theories and models are currently being used to design and deliver online instruction, and finally what evidence for the effectiveness of using World Wide Web (WWW) for learning and instruction has been reported, were also analyzed to extend theoretical and epistemogical understanding of web-based learning.
Keywords: Individual Differences, World Wide Web, Social-Cultural Perspectives, Cognitive, Web-based learning, Web-based Learning Environments
Vibha JOSHI & Anurag SAXENA
Analyzing E-mail Communication of Prospective Learners
Today, computer has replaced all means of communication significantly. E-mail is the most popular means of communication through computers. It has vanished the boundaries between the cities, countries and continents. Earlier Studies that used this medium, had shown evidence of higher quality of responses and also significant cost savings feature of this method (mainly for convenience of dispatch) for research purposes. In this communication, an attempt has been made to utilize email responses of prospective learners in education discipline based programs offered through open learning system. The inception of this study is linked to the creation of website (http://www.ignou.ac.in/) and availability of information related to all activated and prospective programs of studies, various school of studies, faculty email addresses and faculty vis-à-vis program coordinator in the University.
The present study analyzed 65 email responses received from July 2002 to till date by the researcher on her email ID. These respondents got the email ID from the University website and due to their eagerness to attain qualifications in the field of education/guidance/educational management, sent an e-mail to the program coordinator(s). These email responses were analyzed in order to visualize the learner profiles and viability of the ongoing as well as prospective programs of studies. This paper tries to analyze the e-mail responses of the people who either by surfing IGNOU’s website or from other sources came to know about the various programs of studies offered by the School of Education. The study validates that there is an amount of hidden information even in the curiosity of the learners.
Keywords: Communication, e-Mail Responses, Learner Profiles, Open Learning
A Conceptual Framework for the Electronic Performance Support Systems within IBM Lotus Notes 6 (LN6) Example
The concept of Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) is containing multimedia or computer based instruction components that improves human performance by providing process simplification, performance information and decision support system. EPSS has become a hot topic for organizational development, human resources, performance technology, training, and educational development professionals. A conceptual framework of EPSS is constructed under five interrelated and interdependent domains for educational implications. The domains of the framework are online collaboration, cost-effectiveness, motivation, service management, and performance empowering. IBM Lotus Notes 6 (LN6) is used as an example application tool to illustrate the power of this framework. The framework describes a set of relevant events based upon deductive analyses for improving our understanding of the EPSS and its implications on education and training. The article is also pointed out that there are some similarities between the EPSS’ and the LN6’s specific features within this conceptual framework. It can provide some guidelines and benefits to researchers, educators, and designers as well.
Keywords: EPSS, Conceptual Framework, Lotus Notes 6, Training and Education
Aytekin ISMAN & Fahme DABAJ
Diffusion of Distance Education in North Cyprus
The purpose of the present paper is to explore how distance education has diffused in north Cyprus. In this paper, Rogers’ diffusion theory (1995) was used to analyze the acceptance and implementation of distance education in institutions of higher learning in north Cyprus. The four main elements of the diffusion paradigm -- the innovation, communication channels, time, and a social system -- were used to analyze the North Cyprus distance education project. The results of this research indicate that the Rogers’ four elements were useful in analyzing the innovation of distance education in north Cyprus.
Keywords: Diffusion Theory, North Cyprus Distance Education Project
Mudasiru Olalere YUSUF & Ayotunde Atanda FALADE
Media in Distance Learning: The Nigerian National Teachers Instute Distance Education Programme
This study investigated the use of media by distance learners enrolled in the NTI distance education programme. Two hundred and fifty five distance learners drawn from Oyo State, Nigeria, completed a questionnaire to determine the use of media, and factors militating against their effective use by distance learners. Research data were analyzed using percentages. The findings indicated that face-to-face contact and print related media were the major media used for learning. The findings also indicated that lack of fund, ICT facilities, electricity, among others; militate against the use of technology media. Recommendations were made for the provision of basic infrastructures to facilitate the integration of technology in distance education, in Nigeria.
Keywords: National Teachers Institute, Distance Education, Teacher Education Programme, Media
Impact of Online Instruction on Teachers’ Learning and Attitudes toward Technology Integration
This quasi-experimental study was designed to explore the potential impact of online instruction in a graduate course affects K-12 teachers’ attitudes towards technology integration in schools and learning performance in the United States. This study used a nonequivalent control group design. Nineteen participants in both the experimental group (online section) and control group (traditional section) were pretested and posttested with the Stages of Concerns (SoC) Questionnaire in the fall semester of 2003. Due to the unbalanced participants in the experimental and control groups, the nonparametric statistic procedure was used to examine the differences between two groups. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated a significant difference only existed in stage 2-personal stage in both raw score and percentile score between the online and traditional sections. That is, online instruction significantly promoted online learner’s concern only in stage 2-personal stage. No significant differences were found in other six stages of SoC questionnaire between the two groups. In addition, no significant differences were found in students’ final course grades between two groups. Implications for K-12 teacher education were proposed.
Keywords: Online Instruction, Quasi-experimental Study, Learning Performance, No Significant Differences, Significant Differences, Attitudes Toward Technology Integration
Transformation of University Organizations: Leadership and Managerial Implications
Technology and globalization are forcing higher education institutions to transform themselves. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding the leadership and managerial implications of recent developments for higher education. Reviewing unique characteristics and the fundamental changes shaping higher education, the paper examines the need for organizational transformation and the major managerial implications.
Keywords: Globalization, Technology, Educational Transformation, Management, e-Learning
Dele BRAIMOH & Rebecca LEKOKO
The Need for Policy Framework in Maintaining Quality in Open and Distance Education Pragrammes in Southern Africa
The ideals of education for all as proposed by UNESCO (2000) cannot be achieved without tapping into all the existing educational delivery systems. Open and distance education system has caught the attention of a number of Southern African Universities as a viable and ‘Siamese’ twin of the conventional education in achieving flexibility, open and greater access for the heterogeneous clientele of the region.
Despite the glowing virtues of distance education, this mode is still looked down upon by some people as inferior to the conventional teaching and learning processes. Paradoxically, learning through the distance education mode has a greater potential to provide education for more learners than the conventional education system. In a dynamic society such as the Southern African region, development has made education a phenomenon that transcends the four walls of the formal classrooms. Thus, a policy framework is needed to ensure that quality education is provided for learners of diverse cultures, including economic background and geographical regions. Such a framework is not only a basic requirement for positive development of the newly emerging distance education institutions but also an essential instrument for the continued success of the long established institutions, both single and dual mode.
The proposed policy framework addresses some of the following (i) academic (e.g. course integrity, transferability and accreditation); (ii) governance, (e.g. tuition, fiscal regulation); (iii) faculty (e.g. training, workload, support and evaluation); (iv) legal (e.g. intellectual property, students and institutional liability); (v) technical (e.g. physical delivery networks, systems reliability, setup and infrastructural support); (vi) culture and (vii) economics, (e.g. direct and indirect costs of distance education). All these aspects can deter or stimulate certain group of people to develop interest and consequently enrol for learning through the distance education mode.
In this paper, our aim is to stimulate dialogue on the significance, scope of coverage and the processes of formulating a policy framework for maintaining academic excellence as opposed to mediocrity. We are, however, mindful of the fact that practices are diverse in the region, but regardless of this diversity, a regional policy framework is possible to regulate the planning, development and implementation of quality distance education programmes across all levels of education, with particular focus on higher institutions of learning.
Keywords: Academic Excellence, Transferability and Accreditation, UNESCO, Virtues of Distance Education, Open and Distance Education System, and Implementation of Quality Distance Education Programmes.
Ahmed M. J. SADIIG
An Autonomous Mobile Agent-Based Distributed Learning Architecture-A Proposal and Analytical
The traditional learning paradigm invoving face-to-face interaction with students is shifting to highly data-intensive electronic learning with the advances in Information and Communication Technology. An important component of the e-learning process is the delivery of the learning contents to their intended audience over a network. A distributed learning system is dependent on the network for the efficient delivery of its contents to the user. However, as the demand of information provision and utilization increases on the Internet, the current information service provision and utilization methods are becoming increasingly inefficient. Although new technologies have been employed for efficient learning methodologies within the context of an e-learning environment, the overall efficiency of the learning system is dependent on the mode of distribution and utilization of its learning contents. It is therefore imperative to employ new techniques to meet the service demands of current and future e-learning systems. In this paper, an architecture based on autonomous mobile agents creating a Faded Information Field is proposed. Unlike the centralized information distribution in a conventional e-learning system, the information is decentralized in the proposed architecture resulting in increased efficiency of the overall system for distribution and utilization of system learning contents efficiently and fairly. This architecture holds the potential to address the heterogeneous user requirements as well as the changing conditions of the underlying network.
Keywords: Mobile agents, Electronic learning, Information systems, Web-Based Learning
Hanafi ATAN, Zuraidah A. RAHMAN, Omar MAJID, Noraida A. GHANI & Rozhan M IDRUS
The Support System in Distance Education: Factors Affecting Achievements Among Women Learners
istance education has the potential to contribute to the enhancement of women’s development by overcoming not only temporal and spatial barriers but familial commitments as well. It brings education to their home and allows women to learn at their individual pace, seek skills for individual development and at the same time, enables them to fulfill family responsibilities.
An important element of distance education is the provision of the learner support system that provides students the access to learning resources and means of communication that would facilitate the array of educational activities and exposure to various other guidance and advisories.
This paper reports on the study undertaken to elucidate the dimensions of the support system provided by the School of Distance Education (SDE), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) to its women learners that would have significant impact on their achievements. The factorial analysis conducted revealed that the role of the faculty is the main contributing factor affecting these achievements, followed by the provision of the intensive course, the electronic portal, video conferencing and to a much lesser extent, the existence of the regional centres. The implications of this study are discussed with the view of improving the support system provided by the institution and the need to put into action the necessary strategies to further improve the achievement of the women learners.
Keywords: Distance Education, Women Learners, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Factorial Analysis, Video Conferencing, the Support System
Binnur Genç ILTER, Mualla Bilgin AKSU & Nalan YILMAZ
Students’ Views of Distance Education Provision at One University
roviding university students with distance education is of great importance in the global world. Distance education provides advantages and benefits especially for students who don’t have the chance to meet lecturers from other universities face to face. Distance education connects the learner and teacher to resources that are difficult to access otherwise. It is not necessary to gather students in one classroom at the same time in a distance program. Through distance education facilities students and lecturers can store, update and transfer information very quickly.
Furthermore, distance education helps save money in terms of accommodation and travel expenses. This paper describes students’ perceptions and attitudes towards distance education based on their gender, school types attended, age and access to educational technology such as computer and internet. This paper also describes the specific program used by the faculty of Law at Akdeniz University,Turkey.
Keywords: Distance Education, Faculty of Law, and Educational technology
Aytekin ISMAN & Fahriye ALTINAY
Communication Barriers: A Study of Eastern Mediterranean University Students’ and Teachers’ of Online Program and Courses
This research study defines communication barriers in online program and courses by determining the perceptions of students and teachers at Eastern Mediterranean University. It aims to get the answers of question which is what sorts of problems students and teachers face while being involved in online courses and online program. Distance Education, in other words, online programs and online courses is the new challenge that universities face in the knowledge age in order to adapt to contemporary changes. Therefore; most of the universities try to improve their educational systems in relation to the demands of students by presenting alternatives depending on participants’ interests and needs. Eastern Mediterranean University has started to implement distance education program and online courses to meet the demands of its students with the support of developing technologies and trends.
Communication is an essential concept in online context to define the effectiveness and quality of these systems in regards of having qualified communication among participants that provides mutual understanding in educational context for efficient outcomes. For having effective online system, defining the communication barriers is an important process. Therefore; multiple qualitative and quantitative research approaches under mixed approach are used to be aware of communication barriers in online context and make participants to revamp the system by eliminating the weaknesses of the existing system and adapting to new trends that teachers and students have experienced.
Keywords: Communication Barriers, Eastern Mediterranean University, Online Program Online Courses
Reviewed By Mubin KIYICI
REVIEW: V. International Educational Technology Symposium was held in Sakarya University Between 21 – 23 September 2005
V. International Educational Technology Symposium was held in Sakarya University held between 21 – 23 September 2005 by cooperation with Eastern Mediterranean University, Louisiana State University, Governors State University and Ohio University, and TOJET (The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology) journal, at Sakarya University Campus. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aytekin ISMAN who was conference coordinator and Editor in chief of TOJET spoke at the opening ceremony of symposium.
Reviewed By Dr. Adnan Boyacı
REVIEW: Case Studies in Knowledge Management
Case Studies in Knowledge Management provide rich, case-based lessons learned from several examples of actual applications of knowledge management in a variety of organizational and global settings. A variety of KM issues are explored, including issues associated with building a KMS, organizational culture and its effect on knowledge capture, sharing, re-use, strategy, and implementation of KM initiatives and a KMS. The benefit of focusing on case and action research is that this research provides an extensive and in-depth background and analysis on the subjects, providing readers with greater insight into the issues dis
Reviewed By Dr. Ayhan YILMAZ
REVIEW: Advances in Electronic Marketing
There are many challenges facing organizations today as they incorporate electronic marketing methods into their strategy. Advances in Electronic Marketing examines these challenges within three major themes: the global environment, the strategic/technological realm, and the buyer behavior of online consumers.