6 (3), 2005
Welcome to Volume 6, Number 3 of TOJDE
I am pleased to inform you that Volume 6, Number: 3 is appearing on your screen now as which is addressed http://tojde.anadolu.edu.tr. Very much thanks to all of you once more that we met 19th time, since January 2000. As we announced in Volume: 6 Number: 1-2 issue, July 2005 issue of TOJDE would published on the subject that “Use of Distance and e-Learning within and with the Middle East Countries”. And me Dr. Gokdag did it proudly, under patronage of this issue’s guest editor; Dr. Gilly Salmon.
From the Guest Editor
Welcome to a few words from your Guest Editor, fellow inhabitants of the third planet from the sun. We offer you a little treat for your computer sore eyes and your typing and texting fingers. We want to share, across cyberspace, not our differences, oh no, but a few of our similarities and understandings as aspirational educators.
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Developing Critical Thinking Skills through Interactive Radio Programs (IRPs): Building Online Knowledge Networks in Distance Education
In considering how best to optimize distance education systems, economy (cost effectiveness and efficiency), technology (communication technologies) and equity (gender, accessibility, minority, language, religion etc.) are vital issues in any distance education systems. Moreover, how end-users, distance learners, can equally share and exchange knowledge and resources for educational purposes, how they can promote their higher-order thinking skills as well as how they can cope with the limitations they have (such as time, age, gender, language etc.) are major concerns in distance education milieus. Kurubacak strongly emphasize that interactive radio programs, as a forgotten educational media, with a little cost can effectively integrate in any distance education systems. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to focus on interactive radio programs to build critical and creative knowledge networks among diverse learners in the distance education systems of developing countries.
Communities of Practice in an Arabic Culture: Wenger's Model and the United Arab Emirates Implications for Online Learning
With the advent of globalization and the proliferation of online learning, the creation of culturally sensitive online learning environments takes on increasing importance. Online education provides new opportunities for learners from different cultural backgrounds to come together, learn, expand their knowledge, share ideas, and develop passion for their vocation. Emerging models of how communities work, such as Communities of Practice (CoPs) are being increasingly used to understand how online communities might grow and develop.
Schwen & Hara (2003) outline 4 stages of design necessary to ensure that CoPs are properly designed for an online environment: phase 1) Possible Design Interventions, phase 2) Analysis, phase 3) Design and, phase 4) Evaluation and Revision. Phase 1 and phase 2 of this design model are considered in this study, in light of Etienne Wenger’s (2002) elements of a Community of Practice: domain, community and practice. These elements are considered in order to gauge the degree to which they can be applied in an Arab educational culture.
The investigation focuses on College-level education in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and the government-supported Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT) system. By analyzing faculty perceptions related to the students’ propensity to adopt Community of Practice elements into their educational culture, we can provide guidance for the design of online learning that supports a cross-cultural Community of Practice, specifically as it relates to phase 1 and phase 2 of Schwen and Hara’s design structure.
Keywords: Globalization, Proliferation, Online Learning, Community of Practice
Mohammad Bagher ROKNI
E-learning in Type 1 Medical Universities of Iran
Nowadays the Internet is the technological pedestal of organization in the information society and one of the main applications that the Internet offers is the Digital Library (DL). Each society, especially those that claim training of the public, predictably need implementation and endorsement these systems. The time of chalk and board is passed and the globalization and universal village demands a movement targeting to establish an information society. The university is said to be responsible for making "Human". In the era of information explosion, how can a university rely on a physical classroom, a tired teacher and some drowsy students listening to him? Internet "the sweet invention of man" is a bridge, between "slump" and "spurt". It is up to each authority in a university to design, employ, develop and evaluate a system embracing Internet, Multimedia, Network and so on to go parallel in modern era and to introduce the supreme system of E-learning in its program.
Of different aspects of E-learning including computer networks, multimedia, search engines, electronic libraries, distance learning, and all that (Piskurich, 2003), most of the type 1 medical universities of Iran exploit, some how or another, all or some of them. These universities including Tehran, Iran, Shahid Beheshti, Mashhad, Isfahan, Tabriz, Shiraz, Ahwaz, and Kerman, at present encompass a powerful link with their audiences regarding digital libraries, search engine and authentic data bases. The present article is going to have a bird's eye view at various capacities of these universities in this regard.
Keywords: Digital Library, Iran, E-learning, Medical Universities, Internet, Multimedia, Computer Networks
Globally Collaborative Experiential Learning
The Global University System (GUS) [Utsumi, et al, 2003] is a worldwide initiative to create advanced telecommunications infrastructure for access to educational resources across national and cultural boundaries for global peace. GUS aims to create a worldwide consortium of universities to provide the underdeveloped world with access to 21st Century education via broadband Internet technologies. The aim is to achieve “education and healthcare for all,” anywhere, anytime and at any pace.
The GUS works in the major regions of the globe with partnerships of higher education and healthcare institutions. Learners in these regions will be able to take their courses from member institutions around the world to receive a GUS degree. These learners and their professors from partner institutions will also form a global forum for exchange of ideas and information and for conducting collaborative research and development with emerging global GRID computer network technology.
Globally Collaborative Environmental Peace Gaming (GCEPG) project [Utsumi, 2003] with a globally distributed computer simulation system, focusing on the issue of environment and sustainable development in developing countries, is to train would-be decision-makers in crisis management, conflict resolution, and negotiation techniques basing on “facts and figures.” The GUS will supply game players from around the world.
Keywords: The Global University System (GUS), Globally Collaborative Environmental Peace Gaming (GCEPG), Neural Computer Network
E-Reflections: A Comparative Exploration of the Role of e-learning in TrainingHigher Education Lecturers
This paper provides an initial evaluation of data gathered by running versions of a five-week online programme called ‘e-Reflections’. This includes comparisons with a course specifically for academics from (or working in) the Gulf and the wider Middle East Region.
‘e-Reflections’ is an online programme developed at University of Leicester for current or potential online tutors. It is based on Professor Gilly Salmon’s five-stage networked learning model and builds on a history of e-learning initiatives at the University. Salmon’s work provided a framework that not only emphasises the pedagogy of e-learning but provides a means of deeper engagements with e-learning – both in terms of interaction with participation and integration into the blend of courses.
In comparing data from such courses run at the University (including colleagues across the UK) and the Middle East cohort, cultural differences were anticipated. The findings suggest, however, that factors such as comfort and familiarity with the medium were more influential than culture. Whatever the context of those participating, the main finding was that collaborative online reflection is a powerful tool to encourage deeper learning.
Keywords: e-Reflections, Online Programme, Pedagogy of e-Learning, Collaborative Online Reflection, Cultural Differences
Cengiz Hakan AYDIN
Turkish Mentors' Perception of Roles, Competencies and Resources for Online Teaching
Developments in computer-mediated communications are not only providing new opportunities for educators but also changing roles and competencies in learning and teaching environments. Experts agree that teaching online requires different roles and competencies. The literature includes several studies on roles and competencies for online teaching. However, as Le Boterf underlines, roles and competencies largely depend on context. This survey study intends to identify roles, competencies and resources for online teaching in Turkey by asking online mentors of Anadolu University what they think about the roles they should perform and the competencies and resources they should possess in order to teach online successfully. Results have shown that the participant Turkish online mentors agree on the significance of the assessor, the content expert and process facilitator roles; on the other hand, they indicate lower level of necessity for the material producer and the administrator roles. Results have also revealed lack of design competencies among online mentors. Overall, the study has supported Le Boterf’s claim about importance of context on identification of roles and competencies.
Keywords: Online Teaching, Roles, Competencies, Mentors, Online Learning in Turkey
Cengiz Hakan AYDIN, Hasan CALISKAN, Mestan KUCUK & Figen UNAL
REVIEW: Encyclopedia of Distance Learning
Although controversies over the impact and role of distance education continue (Duffy & Krikley, 2004), it has grown at an explosive rate especially during the last decade. A great number of older institutions as well as new ones have started to offer distance education to reach out more learners in all levels and domains of education. Many agree that the wide spread use of computer-mediated communications is one of the key forces for the explosion of interest for distance education. Computer-mediated communication has provided tools for one of the idealist educators’ dreams, extending the walls beyond classroom, come true. Distance education now dominates the discussion agendas for policy makers, administrators, researchers, faculty, and learners. However, it seems that some experts, policy makers, educators and even learners have not understood “the implications of the shift of focus from teachers to learners, implications for how is education conceptualized, how it is organized, what roles teachers should assume, and how financial and other resources are to be distributed” (Moore, 2003, p. ix) in today’s ever-changing society.
Rewied By Daniel S. JANIK
REVIEW: Unlock the Genius within:Neurobiological Trauma, Teaching, and Transformative Learning
ere, Daniel S. Janik, MD, PhD, argues replacing education and teaching with non-traumatic, curiosity-based, discovery-driven, and mentor-assisted transformational learning. Unlock the Genius Within is an easy read that explains-in conversational manner-the newest ideas on neurobiological and transformational learning beginning with what's wrong with education and ending with a call for reader participation in developing an applying neurobiological learning and transformational learning theory and methodology. Janik draws extensively from his own experiences first as a physician working with psychological recovery from trauma, and then as an educator and linguist in applying neurobiological-based transformational learning in clinics, classrooms, and tutoring. Features:· Descriptions of classical and contemporary research alongside allusions to popular movies and television programs· Suggested further readings· Neurobiological learning web resourcesThroughout this book, the author incorporates humor, wisdom, and anecdotes to draw readers into traditionally incomprehensible concepts and information that demonstrates transformational learning. It will be of interest to teachers (postsecondary, secondary, and ESL), administrators, counselors, parents, students, and medical researchers.