6 (2), 2005
Welcome to Volume 6, Number 2 of TOJDE
Time flies. Another quarter has begun. It is a great pleasure to welcome you to the 18th issue, the Volume: 6, Number: 2 of The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE), of looking forward. TOJDE has been driving and shaping by our editorial board, reviewers, authors and even unbelievable readers.
R. Ayhan YILMAZ
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Using of Marketing Communication for Distance Education Institutions
Because of increased competition for scarce resources, marketing has become an important activity of many nonprofit organizations. Higher education institutions, as one of these nonprofit organizations, provide us with excellent examples of this trend (Hayes, 1991). The marketing of higher education has received a tremendous amount of emphasis and attention.
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Information and Communication Technology for Poverty Reduction
It has been estimated that over 700 million of the world's poor live in Asia-Pacifiui region i.e., those who earn $1 or less a day. Nearly one of three Asians is poor. It is claimed by multilateral agencies that the incidence of poverty (proportion of people below the poverty line) is slightly declining. Others question this claim and argue that the term poor should cover all those who cannot cope with survival, security, and enabling needs. If one were to apply this comprehensive definition of poverty, the poor certainly account for more than 900 million in this region.
The headline was dramatic enough to cause a ripple in the reading public. "Students who use computers a lot at school have worse maths and reading performance," noted the BBC news article, citing a 2004 study by Ludger Woessmann and Thomas Fuchs (Fuchs and Woessman, 2004). It was not long before the blogosphere took notice. Taking the theme and running with it, Alice and Bill ask, "Computers Make School Kids Dumber?" They theorize, "If you track the admitted decline of education, you'll probably notice that it follows along with the increase of technology in the classroom." In a similar vein, James Bartholomew asks, "Do you think that the government will turn down the volume of its boasting about how it has spent billions introducing computers in schools (while keeping down the pay of teachers so much that there are shortages)? Do you think it will stop sending governors of state schools glossy pamphlets about insisting that computers are used in their schools as much as possible?"
In this study, therefore, PISA looks well beyond educational attainment, and also includes school demographics, such as whether it is a public or private school, has large or small classes, or has access or not to technological resources. Finally, it does measure student information-their family background, access to books and computers and parental support as well. The PISA survey departs from previous surveys in disregarding the stated curricula of the schools being measured. Therefore, the conclusion is not surprising, nor even wrong for him to consider independently of any parental or teacher support, considered without reference to the software running on it, considered without reference to student attitudes and interests, does not positively impact an education. Finally, he focus on missing the reporting of results
Keywords: PISA, Impact of Education, Computers in Schools, Student Use Computer
Managerial Issues in Open and Distance Education Organizations in Transition: A Need for Systematic Approach
Among the most common issues addressed in the educational literature of recent years have been change and transformation . In the literature on open and distance education (ODE), there has been a marked tendency to address change related issues separately. However, ODE leaders should consider all of the relevant organizational aspects during the change process in order to achieve successful transition. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of what issues should be addressed during the transition process in order to realize a more effective and more competitive ODE organization. It attempts to ensure that all of the major aspects of organizational domains are taken into consideration more systematically in a system-wide transition process.
Keywords: Change, Transformation, Management, e-Learning, Open and Distance Education
Beth PERRY & Margaret EDWARDS
Exemplary Online Educators: Creating a Community of Inquiry
As more university courses are offered online educators have much to learn regarding how to use this technology to facilitate effective learning. Some educators have mastered online teaching and are regarded by their students as highly effective. Researchers in this study consulted graduate students who had completed their degrees by online distance learning and asked them describe what they found made certain professors exemplary. Findings reveal that highly effective online instructors challenge and affirm learners. As well, the exemplary online educators establish a clear presence in the virtual classroom and are regarded by students as persons of influence. When the “Community of Inquiry” ( Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, n.d.) model is used to situate the findings, elements of social, cognitive and teaching presence are evident in the approaches used by exemplary online educators. These study results have implications for the recruitment and selection of new faculty members and for the ongoing coaching and development of current faculty with the overall goal of enhanced quality of online education.
Keywords: Online Educators, Effective Learning, Online Distance Learning, Community of Inquiry, Exemplary Online Educators
Sydney . N. (Dr.) OSUJI
The Mass Media in Distance Education in Nigeriain The 21 St Century
This paper aims at investigating the use of mass media in distance education in Nigeria with a view to making suggestions for their effective use during the 21 st century. Distance education programme, especially those of the Universities of Ibadan and Lagos are examined. These two institutions made bold and commendable efforts. However, while the print media seemed successfully made use of, unfortunately the electronic media were beyond the capabilities of the two institutions. Based on the findings, for effective use of the mass media in distance education in Nigeria , suggestions are proffered. These include, establishment of a separate tertiary institution for the purpose, assigning special radio and television channels or establishment of separate radio and television stations.
Keywords: Distance Education, Radio, Television, Broadcast, Library, Course Team, Tertiary Institution and Print Media
Siew Ming THANG
Comparing Approaches to Studying of Malaysian Distance Learners and on Campus Learners: Implications to Distance Education
This paper compares the approaches to studying of Malaysian distance learners and on-campus learners to find out to what extent the distance learning programme of a public university in Malaysia is effective in meeting the learning needs of its distance learners. The influences of the differences in modes (distance learners vs. on-campus learners) and disciplines (Social Sciences vs. Applied Sciences vs. Business Administration) on approaches to studying were studied statistically using item analysis and scale analysis.
This paper first discusses the findings of this study in the light of other research carried out in this area and secondly, and more importantly, in the light of its contribution towards a better understanding of the learning needs of Malaysian distance learners.
Keywords: Distance Learners, on-Campus Learners, Distance Education, Malaysia
Seema TAKIYA, Jennifer ARCHBOLD & Zane BERGE
Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance
With more companies allowing “flextime”, more access to elearning, and telecomuting, the line between workplace flexibility and work-life balance begins to blur. Companies “sell” to employees the flexibility of being able to complete training programs from the comfort of the participant's home, allowing them to learn at their own speed. In many ways, this solution is of great value to many employees. What also must be considered with the flexibility such training offers, is the unintentional consequences. This article explores questions such as does this flexibility create a 24-hour work day where the employee is continually accessible to work? Does it result in less family, personal and leisure time to the detriment of the worker?
Keywords: ELearning, flexible training, telecommuting, work-life balance.
The Role of Learning Support in Open & Distance Learning: Learners' Experiences and perspectives
This qualitative study reports in some detail the experience of a small group of distance learners as they progress through their courses at Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM). An initial literature review suggested that while a number of studies had been completed in the past two decades that report student characteristics, motivations, and prior experiences of study, most of these studies had been carried out from the point of view and perspective of the providing institutions, not from the perspective of students. This paper looks at distance learning as described by the learners- it is their story , their experience , and their perspective .
In particular, this paper looks at learning support in distance learning at UUM, an issue that arose from discussions with the students, rather than being preordained by the research design or derived directly from my own initial interest as a distance educator and as a researcher. From these findings conclusions have been drawn regarding the role of learning support and guidelines to improve future learning support services to facilitate and provide a better Open & Distance Learning (ODL) educational experience and outcome in Malaysia.
Keywords: Learners' experiences, Learners' experiences and perspectives, Distance Learning, Role of Learning Support , Malaysia
Dual Mode Academics: A Comparison of Conventional and Distance Education Experiences
he experiences of knowledgeable and practiced academics who have held full-time positions both in conventional and distance education (single/dual mode) institutions would be a strong resource in determining the differences and challenges that affect the future evolution of the virtual professor. The issues of instruction, institutional service and professional development are primary areas of concern that require attention. Four knowledgeable and practiced academics who meet this criterion report their insights and concerns and the results suggest that a significant reshaping of the academic's role in distance education should be considered.
Keywords: Distance Education, Faculty Development, Dual Mode, Single Mode.
Razmah MAHMOD, Noornina DAHLAN, T. RAMAYAH, Noorliza KARIA & Muhammad Hasmi Abu Hassan ASAARI
Attitudinal Belief on Adoption of E-MBA Program in Malaysia
E-learning describes the use of information communications technology for learning beyond the boundaries of the conventional classroom. The objective of this paper is to determine what are the factors that are significant in explaining intention towards e-learning, particularly e-MBA adoption in Malaysia . Results indicated that trialability and image were significant influencing behavior intention towards e-MBA adoption.
Keywords: Attitudinal Belief, Behavior Intention, Higher Learning.
Reviewed By R C SHARMA
REVIEW: Distance Education in Technological Age
The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode, joining hands with private initiatives and making a presence in foreign waters, are some of the hallmarks of the open and distance education (ODE) institutions in developing countries. The compilation of twenty six essays on themes as applicable to ODE has resulted in the book, “Distance Education in Technological Age”. These essays follow a progressive style of narration, starting from describing conceptual framework of distance education, how the distance education was emerged on the global scene and in India, and then goes on to discuss emergence of online distance education and research aspects in ODE.
Reviewed By Murat ATAIZI
REVIEW: Global Perspectives on E-learning: Rhetoric and Reality
This book is edited by Alison A. Carr-Chellman who is associate professor of education at Pennsylvania State University , and one of the leading figures in the field of e-learning. Total of sixteen authors contributed to the sections. Authors are varying from doctoral students to professors emeritus, but all of them are experienced in the field of e-learning and distance education.
A Model Proposal for Educational Television Programs
Almost all educational television programs are produced in similar ways and they are usually thought to be produced that way. These programs intend to reach the students of any organisation or any educetion establishment, but their ratings do not match with the expected level. In order to increase the quality of these programs and to make them being regularly watched, people in education and television fields have to work in cooperation.
Keywords: Education, Television, Educational Television Program, Script Writer.