4 (4), 2003
Welcome to Volume 4, Number 4 of TOJDE
I am pleased to inform you that Vol.:4, Number:4 issue of The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE has been issued on the web site http://tojde.anadolu.edu.tr TOJDE is meeting with its readers for the 12th time, since 2000 January.
V. Venugopal REDDY & Manjulika SRIVASTAVA
ICT & The Future of Distance Education
Since the beginning of the previous century institutions offering distance education have employed a variety of technological platforms to support interactions between teachers and learners and among learners separated by distance, time or both.
The convergence of powerful computers with telecommunications technologies, over the past three decades has precipitated a fundamental shift in human history: the so called Information or Knowledge Revolution in the last decade of the previous century. Technological developments in Digitization and Telecommunication have led to fundamental changes in the production, storage and dissemination of materials and information. The focus in the information age or knowledge era is on these new digital information and communication technologies (lCTs).
These are proving to be more powerful than previous technologies because of their ability to integrate multiple media into simple educational applications, interactivity, flexibility of use and connectivity. Not only text but a full range, of media including graphics, speech, sounds, still and moving pictures can all be stored and conveyed. It is 'now possible to combine elements of all these components in a single package (i.e. multimedia) instead of using a variety of components such as printed text, audio/video cassette, broadcasting, etc. (i.e. multiple media). Education seems unlikely to escape the influence of such significant technological developments especially as the cost of access to ICTs continues to fall. The number of institutions adopting ICTs and introducing online courses has been growing. Undoubtedly this is leading to the ascendance of distance education as a popular mode of education being adopted by both distance teaching institutions as well as conventional institutions offering campus bound face to face education. It can be said that the adoption of ICTs has opened up new fundamentally different options for higher education both in how to run the business of higher education as well as in methodologies of teaching and learning. More institutions are involved in distance education today than at any other time in history. Distance education has truly moved to the centre stage today.
Keywords: Distance Education, India, ICT, Multimedia, Communication Technologies, Distance Teaching, Higher Education
A Proposed Collaborative Computer Network-Based Learning Model for Undergraduate Students with Different Learning Styles
In this information and communication technology age, computer network-based learning is widely used for expanding learning opportunities and facilitating learning activities to students separated by time and distance as well as for delivering effective content to students and instructors interacting with each other in a face-to-face classroom. Collaborative Computer Network Based Learning (CCNBL), in particular, is appropriate for learner center, constructivist, and problems-solving activities in that it uses computer network technologies for effective communication in learning activities. However, differences in student learning styles are one of the major problems that affect all students who prefer not use the same style of activity for effective learning. With that in mind, the best method is to use specific activities designed for each student learning style but this is difficult to do because there are a wide variety of student characteristics in virtual classroom.
This research shows a way to solve this problem by developing Collaborative Computer Network Based Learning model for all student learning styles to receive effective learning at the same level by using KOLB’s learning styles. By supporting learning activities for this developing prototype model, designers can integrate collaborative learning technologies and collaborative learning strategies in the design and development process. The result from this process is an appropriate Collaborative Computer Network Based Learning model for higher education level.
Keywords: Collaborative Learning, Learning Styles, Computer Network-Based Learning
Directions for Future Research in On-line Distance Education
Although institutions have invested much in developing on-line environments or using already established commercial platforms, only few studies have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of on-line courses based on empirical data (Jung and Rha, 2000). A review of the literature conducted in this study showed that most of online learning studies investigated the effectiveness of Web-based interaction or Internet conferencing on learning, not the entire learning environment. Even in those studies that investigated entire on-line environments, student achievement was the most common indicator for evaluation and no other indictors or factors, which may influence students’ achievement, were investigated. This study sheds light on current research in online learning and provides guidelines for future research needed in this area.
Keywords: On-line Distance Education, Egypt, Web-based Interaction, Online Learning
The Applications And Problems On The Distance Teacher Training in Turkey
The aim of this study is to review, comparatively, the applications on utilizing the distance education for teacher training in the world and Turkey.
The study, firstly, introduces the international literature on utilizing distace education for teacher training in the world;explains some applications and major problems on using instructional media and technology programs in developing countries and Turkey; presents distance education and current scene of teacher training in Turkey ; evaluates the national literature on utilizing distance education for teacher training in Turkey;and ,finally, discusses the distance teacher training applications in Turkey comparing with developed countries.
Keywords: Distance Education;Teacher Training;Turkey;World;Instructional technology
H. ATAN, I. JAAFAR, S. K. GUAN, N. A. AZLI, Z. A. RAHMAN & R. M. IDRUS
Self-Transitional Characteristic Of Distance Education Learnes: A Case Study Of Three Malaysian Univerties
This study is undertaken to elucidate various aspects of the self-transitional characteristics of learners enrolled in the distance education programmes at Universiti Malaysia, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Universiti Teknologi MARA (formerly known as Institut Teknologi Mara). The aspects of the self-transitional characteristics studied included study skills, recreational activities, health, finance, and religious activities. The findings of this study will provide distance education institutions with information regarding the characteristics of the self-transition experienced by adults as a result of becoming distance education learners. Such information is important for the institution in order to provide an adequate and suitable support system for learners in distance education that takes into account the self-transition that occurs among them in order to facilitate and assist them the learning process.
Ashwini KUMAR, R. C. SHARMA & R.V. VYAS
Impact of Electronic Media in Distance Education: A Study of Academic Counsellor’s Perception
The academic counselors in distance education system play a key role in enabling the students to become an active and effective learner. As a facilitator of learning, the academic counselors are aware of as how various media can be helpful to learners in terms of developing necessary skills to achieve their academic goal. This paper describes empirical findings related to the perceptions of the academic counselors on impact of using electronic media in teaching learning process of distance education system. The quality of assignment attempt by the learners, their active participation in counseling sessions, performance in Term-End Examinations, improvement in their skill of understanding the facts, attendance during counselling sessions and the over all performance of the learners were considered as the indicators for judging the impact of electronic media for the purpose of this study. The findings of this study indicated the positive perception of academic counselors regarding the impact of electronic media on various academic activities associated with teaching learning process in Distance Education.
Keywords: Electronic Media, distance education, Academic Counsellor, Perception, India
Issues and challenges for Non Formal Education A case study of Indira Gandhi National open University (IGNOU) With Reference to J&K State
Non formal education system is justifiably recognized today as an innovation. Countries world over are attempting to provide mass education by supplementing the formal delivery mechanism with alternate schooling popularly known as non formal system. The purpose was to radically reconstruct the existing system with a large scale programme of part time education for those who cannot attend schools specially from rural and remote areas.
Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) is a State located in extreme northern part of India with Pakistan, Afghanistan and China as border Countries. J&K is unique in its features in terms of geographical conditions, population, literacy, economy and other conditions (extreme cold climatic and terrorist activities). Jammu being one province of the State which has low resources and more expenditure, students have to travel long distances for School and Higher education. Radio is very popular medium in J&K State due to its geographical situation yet it is under utilised. Because of hilly geographical conditions of the State, Jammu Division of J&K State started with non formal education system as complementary to formal education system on 2nd October 1978 as a part of the 6th five year plan.
With this back drop a case study of Jammu Division of J&K State was made with the twin objectives to :
(1) examine type of Non Formal programmes introduce in J&K State and find their relevance.
(2) suggest suitable policy measures in respect to delivery channels of IGNOU programmes for their effective implementation.
Materials and Methodology
(a) Design: The strategy, as envisaged was carried out by using survey technique in reference to a pilot study covering sample respondents. Universe of sample comprised of students pursuing Non Formal Progammes through IGNOU chosen from the study centres in Jammu University.
(b) Tools and Techniques : A structured questionnaire based on Personal Interview Method was used for data collection. Analysis of data was done with the help of percentages calculated on the basis of responses of the respondents.
(c) Result : The present study has far reaching educational implications, perhaps non formal education system can achieve the desired goals better by reaching to the un-reached through the channel of technology. The study further indicates that effective and efficient use of appropriate delivery mechanism especially the radio as a medium of information delivery seems to have significant effect to make non formal system of education worth while.
Keywords: Non Formal Education, Malaysia, IGNOU, India, Reconstruct, Part Time Education
Reviewed By Prof. Dr. Ugur Demiray
REVIEW: The Desing & Management of Effective Distance Learning Programs
As computers, telecommunications technology and other electronic media have reduced the constraints imposed by geographic location, increasing numbers of organizations are using information technology to geographically disperse education. And as the number of distance learning programs continues to increase, a variety of challenges and issues must be faced. These issues include: costs incurred for remote space and equipment used, the loss of traditional evaluation methods, and the potential losses of academic integrity.