4 (2), 2003
Welcome to Volume 4, Number 2 of TOJDE
Three months are over since the 1st January 2003. Now again I am pleased to inform you that Vol.:4, Number:2 issue of The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE has been issued on the web site http://tojde.anadolu.edu.tr TOJDE is meeting with its readers for the 10th time, since 2000 January.
A Study of the Problems Associated with ICT Adaptability in Developing Countries in the Context of Distance Education
Communication technologies have come to play a vibrant role in democratizing Education not only in the Developed but also in the Developing Countries. However, in spreading the use of Information and communication technology some major difficulties are felt by the policy makers as well as the implementers. These difficulties are felt both at the growth and application stages of communication technology. Yaverbaum and Reisman highlight the importance of three aspects in the application of new information and communication technology. They are People, software and hardware. Different permutations and combinations with regard to the three variables create different implications for the growth and application of Information and communication Technology (James C Taylor, “Computer assisted Distance Education: A pedagogic and professional Development Perspective”). Among these, they stated that the most difficult aspect to address would invariably be the human element. Pete Thomas and Dean Taylor state that as access to Information and communication technologies become more extensive, their use is extended from the activities related to internal administrative aspects towards more of interaction with students (James C Taylor, “Computer assisted Distance Education: A pedagogic and professional Development Perspective”). Such a scenario throws up new challenges before technologists in terms of both technical and human aspects. Hidetoshi Kato states that in the years to come communication technologies will play a major role in deciding learning outcomes. (Kato, Hidetoshi (1995) “Technology and Distance education”, Indian Journal Of Open Learning, pp.11-14)
The problems associated with the growth of ICT that have been focused upon in this paper are Political factors, Economic factors, Cultural factors and technological factors. Among the major problems associated with application of ICTs the focus will be laid on Socio-political factors, Human and Administrative factors, Economic factors and Technical factors. Further, the paper based on various case studies derives important conclusions and also provides pertinent suggestions to ensure the smooth growth and effective application of ICT in the Third World.
Keywords: ICT, ICT in the Third World, Distance Education, Communication Technology, Democratizing Education
Senem YILDIZ & Carrie CHANG
Case Studies of Distance Students' Perceptions of Participation And Interaction In Three Asynchronous Web-based Conferencing Classes In The U.S
To understand distance students’ perceptions of participation an interaction in 3 asynchronous web-based conferencing classes offered by Language Education Department at a large Midwestern University in the U.S., end-of-semester course evaluation and follow-up e-mail survey was analyzed for different components of classroom interaction. Findings suggested that students perceived no difference regarding quantity of feedback from peers or instructors in web-based courses face-to-face courses.
They also tended to agree that they received more valuable feedback from both peers and instructors in web-based courses than in face-to-face courses. It was also reported that feedback was received more promptly from peers and instructors alike in web-based courses than in face-to-face courses. Limitations of the study were discussed and recommendations for teachers and researcher presented.
Keywords: Web-Based Conferencing, Midwestern University,Interaction, Distance Education, Asynchronous Education
Antonis LIONARAKIS & Demetra PAPADEMETRIOU
The Quality of the Learning Experience: a Comparative Study Between Open Distance and Conventional Education
The text that follows aims at pointing out and analyzing the quality of the process and practice of learning, emanating from the learning experiences of two different groups of postgraduate students studying open and distance education through the "Studies in Education" course of the Faculty of Human Studies of the Hellenic Open University and through the Pedagogic Department of Primary Education of the University of Athens, Greece.
As noted by Figueroa (1993), relevant research references have been made in the past in which the point of reference lies more in the quality of the learning experience and in the value of understanding "how" the students learn more effectively, than in to what degree do they accomplish and achieve their objectives (Marton and Salif, 1976a; Thomas and Harri – Augstein, 1985; Thomas and Fransella, 1988).
The new forms of education, whether they are following models of distance education using printed material, or education aided by technology and other alternative forms of learning material, are still very young and have not received the recognition they ought to have received. This research has the ambition to cast its own stone to the new building of educational principles emerging.
Keywords: Quality of Learning Experience, ODE, Conventional, Similarities, Differences.
Noriko HARA & Rob KLING
Students’ Distress with a Web-based Distance Education Course: An Ethnographic Study of Participants' Experiences
Many advocates of computer-mediated distance education emphasize its positive aspects and understate the kinds of communicative and technical capabilities and work required by students and faculty. There are few systematic analytical studies of students who have experienced new technologies in higher education. This article presents a qualitative case study of a web-based distance education course at a major U.S. university. The case data reveal a topic that is glossed over in much of the distance education literature written for administrators, instructors and prospective students: students' periodic distressing experiences (such as frustration, anxiety and confusion) in a small graduate-level course due to communication breakdowns and technical difficulties. Our intent is that this study will enhance understanding of the instructional design issues, instructor and student preparation, and communication practices that are needed to improve web-based distance education courses.
Keywords: Distance education, WWW, Asynchronous Communication, Students’ Experiences
Simulation and Discovery Learning in an Age of Zapping and Searching: Learning Models
Discovery learning is one of the oldest and commonest forms of learning. Adults apply this principle daily although they are not aware of it. So do children in different stages of their development. As early as the sixties, 'discovery learning' was officially promoted by educationalists in the United States as a method of learning. The 'International Simulation and Gaming Association' (ISAGA), with among others Cathy Greenblatt, published a lot in the eighties about the effect of games, simulations and role plays in particular (Greenblatt, 1979). Recently, complete scientific schools have arisen around micro-worlds, constructivism and concept mapping (Vygotsky, 1981; Dicheva & Kommers, 1999).
Certain interesting parts from the real world can be copied on computers by means of simulation and micro worlds. In this way, children and students can try and learn something with the help of the tools offered or with a simulated reality. Meanwhile we have found that if you want to achieve your targets, 'coaching' is essential. During the past twenty years, learning tools technology experienced an enormous evolutionary development in the field of computers which, over the past five years, may even be called revolutionary. No one in education and educational science can pass by the computer in its latest form: the world wide web. Many people are daily in front of a screen. A lot of contents is digital and many things take place at a distance, in other words: teacher-free. In the future, learning will become increasingly common. It will be in front of screens and online. There will not be anyone present, - it will be 'teacher free' - on the world wide web. (See a.o. Collis, 1998.) Contents are digital, and software is relatively small and compact: e.g. java-applets for simulations with proper instruction and canned streaming video (Min, 1999).
Keywords: Simulation, Discovery Learning, 'International Simulation and Gaming Association-ISAGA
Reviewed By Ismail Hakki MIRICI
REVIEW: Uzaktan Egitim (Distance Education) By Zeki Kaya
Education is, undoubtedly, the most important and the most fruitful investment for a peaceful and productive world. And it is also a striking fact that due to lack of either time or place it is not possible to provide everybody with education in schools. Hence, the concept of “Distance Education” has a special meaning for those who are related to education as an authority, teacher, expert or learner. Owing to technological innovations in our age, distinguished academicians like the author of this book are determined to make use of every available opportunity in order to achieve their ultimate objective; to educate as many people as they can.
Reviewed By Prof. Dr. Dursun GOKDAG
REVIEW: Anadolu University Distance Education System And The Educational Television of Distance Education Faculty in its 20 th. Year By Sensu CURABAY AND Emine DEMIRAY
The history of Distance education in Turkey can be extended back to 1927. But the system gained its continuity with the Anadolu University Distance Education Faculty after 1982. Today, Anadolu University, with its nearly 630.000 students is one of the biggest distance teaching university in the world.