The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education
From The Editor
Welcome to the Volume 19, Number 1 of TOJDE
Dear TOJDE Readers,
Welcome to Volume 19, Number 1 of TOJDE,
This current issue is dedicated to the founder of our journal, Dr. Uğur Demiray, in memoriam.
Deniz Mertkan GEZGIN, Müge ADNAN & Meltem ACAR GUVENDIR
Mobile Learning According to Students of Computer Engineering and Computer Education: A Comparison of Attitudes
Mobile learning has started to perform an increasingly significant role in improving learning outcomes in education. Successful and efficient implementation of m-learning in higher education, as with all educational levels, depends on users’ acceptance of this technology. This study focuses on investigating the attitudes of undergraduate students of Computer Engineering (CENG) and Computer Education and Instructional Technology (CEIT) departments in a Turkish public university towards m-learning from three perspectives; gender, area of study, and mobile device ownership. Using a correlational survey method, a Mobile Learning Attitude Scale (MLAS) was administered to 531 students, analysis of which revealed a positive attitude to m-learning in general. A further investigation of the aforementioned three variables showed a more positive attitude for female students in terms of usability, for CEIT students in terms of advantages, usability and independence, and for those owning a mobile device in terms of usability. An important implication from the findings, among others, is supplementing Computer Engineering curriculum with elective courses on the fundamentals of mobile learning, and/or the design and development of m-learning software, so as to create, in the long run, more specialized and complementary teams comprised of trained CENG and CEIT graduates in m-learning sector.
Keywords: M-learning, education, attitude, mobile programming, mobile technologies..
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382653
Facilitating Multiple Intelligences Through Multimodal Learning Analytics
This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner’s 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as multiple intelligences by online education systems and then suggests a framework of the advanced form of learning analytics i.e., multimodal learning analytics for tracing and facilitating multiple intelligences while they are engaged in online ubiquitous learning. As multimodal learning analytics is still an evolving area, it poses many challenges for technologists, educationists as well as organizational managers. Learning analytics make machines meet humans, therefore, the educationists with an expertise in learning theories can help technologists devise latest technological methods for multimodal learning analytics and organizational managers can implement them for the improvement of online education. Therefore, a careful instructional design based on a deep understanding of students’ learning abilities, is required to develop teaching plans and technological possibilities for monitoring students’ learning paths. This is how learning analytics can help design an adaptive instructional design based on a quick analysis of the data gathered. Based on that analysis, the academicians can critically reflect upon the quick or delayed implementation of the existing instructional design based on students’ cognitive abilities or even about the single or double loop learning design. The researcher concludes that the online education is multimodal in nature, has the capacity to endorse multiliteracies and, therefore, multiple intelligences can be tracked and facilitated through multimodal learning analytics in an online mode. However, online teachers’ training both in technological implementations and adapting educational theories to online education is necessary to achieve this ideal.
Keywords: Learning analytics, multimodal learning analytics, multiple intelligences, online learning, instructional design, double loop learning
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382655
Cahit ERDEM, Abdullah SAYKILI & Mehmet KOCYIGIT
The Adaptation Study of the Questionnaires of the Attitude Towards Call (A-Call), the Attitude Towards Cal (A-Cal), the Attitude Towards Foreign Language Learning (A-Fll) to Turkish Language
This study primarily aims to adapt the Foreign Language Learning (FLL), Computer assisted Learning (CAL) and Computer assisted Language Learning (CALL) scales developed by Vandewaetere and Desmet into Turkish context. The instrument consists of three scales which are the attitude towards CALL questionnaire (A-CALL) (composed of 20 questions), the attitude towards CAL questionnaire (A-CAL) (composed of 9 questions) and the attitude towards FLL questionnaire (A-FLL) (composed of 31 questions) respectively. The participants consisted of 375 university students who volunteered to answer the questions. The participants were students at the foreign language preparatory school of a state university in Turkey. The participants were selected using convenience sampling method. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out on the data. The results were often compared with the original scale. The adapted version of the A-CALL questionnaire indicates a similar goodness of fit with the original one, which is mediocre. CFA results indicate that the adapted version of the A-CAL questionnaire is compatible with the original questionnaire showing a fit from mediocre to good. Again, CFA results of the A-FLL subscales reveal a consistent fit with the original subscale.
Keywords: Computer assisted language learning, computer assisted learning, foreign language learning, attitude, scale adaptation.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382659
Akhmad HABIBI, Amirul MUKMININ, Yatim RIYANTO, Lantip Diat PRASOJO & Urip SULISTIYO, Muhammad SOFWAN, Ferdiaz SAUDAGAR
Building an Online Community: Student Teachers’ Perceptions on the Advantages of Using Social Networking Services in A Teacher Education Program
This inquiry examined student teachers' perceptions on the advantages of using Social Networking Services (SNS) in an English teacher education program at a public university in Jambi, Indonesia to ease the communication, supervision, discussion, and report submissions between supervisors and student teachers. The networking types included in the program are Whatsapp, Telegram, Email, and Google Form. The method of the research was qualitative through using focus group discussions as the technique of collecting data involving forty-two student teachers. We organized our analysis and discussion around their perceptions and the contexts in which the advantages they perceived emerge. The analyses of the texts revealed that two salient themes with their sub-themes related to the advantages of using Social Networking Services (SNS) in a teacher education program were social interaction (peer discussion and platform to interact with supervisors or lecturers) and learning motivation and experience supports (self-directed learning, promotes critical thinking, content engagement). Some pedagogical and social implications are also discussed.
Keywords: Student teachers, social networking services, teacher education.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382663
Imane KAMSA, Rachid ELOUAHBI & Fatima EL KHOUKHI
Study Smart Not Hard
Learners’ concentration is an essential factor for learning and acquisition. The duration of concentration varies from one individual to another. Some learners have a long duration of concentration; whereas, others have a short one. Leaving the learner in front of a screen for a random duration is a strategy that does not optimize online learning. In this perspective, we have implemented an approach based on three intelligent agents customizing and adapting the learning time according to the learner's concentration time. The first agent is called "Detector Agent" (DA).The task of this agent is to measure the learner's concentration time and to detect the factors that may influence it. The second agent is named "Scheduler Agent" (SA). Its function is to cut the time of a session in proportion to the concentration time measured by DA and to program relaxing breaks in order to regenerate the degree of concentration. And finally, the third agent is called "Rectifier Agent" (RA). The latter is responsible for rectifying the factors that negatively influence the concentration of the learners. These agents continuously communicate between each other in order to ensure an efficient treatment. The experienced results show that the approach contributes effectively in the acquisition and the performance of learners. Success rates have risen sharply and the learners express a growing satisfaction.
Keywords: E-learning, concentration, intelligent agent, optimization, time planning.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382666
How Are the Results of Quality Assurance Programs Used to Inform Practices at A Distance Higher Education?
This paper is to examine the implementation of quality assurance (QA) programs in distance higher education. Different challenges related to the development of QA programs at a distance higher institution and how to manage and implement the programs are discussed to show how the programs have been used to ensure the survival of the institution. A qualitative case study through semi structured interview and documentary analysis was employed to investigate the issue. The evidence indicates that the development and implementation of QA programs were very demanding and called for strong commitment of the top management and staff at all levels. Despite the challenges, the results of quality programs have generated significant benefits for the university through its regular self-assessment and stakeholders’ feedback. The employment of the QA programs has called for different quality guidelines to maintain consistency in the management process and to ensure products and rendered services correspond with quality criteria. The results of this study might support sharing practical recommendations on how QA programs could be adapted in different distance higher institutions with different social and educational settings.
Keywords: Quality, quality assurance, distance higher education.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382730
Meirani HARSASI & Adrian SUTAWIJAYA
Determinants of Student Satisfaction in Online Tutorial: A Study of A Distance Education Institution
Education system nowadays tends to utilize online learning, including in higher education. Online learning system becomes a major requirement in implementing learning process, including in Indonesia. Universitas Terbuka has implemented online learning system known as online tutorials to support the distance learning system. One interesting issue that needs to be explored is to analyze factors that can influence students’ satisfaction in online tutorials. This research aims to analyze factors that determine student satisfaction in online tutorials and what factors that need to be improved. Research procedure includes collecting data via email, validity test, reliability test, and hypothesis test using multiple linear regression. This paper will discuss the results of research procedures to find out what factors are affecting student satisfaction and some improvements required based on the viewpoint of the students.
Keywords: Course structure, online tutorials flexibility, online tutorials quality, student satisfaction, technology quality.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382732
Ayse TASKIRAN, Eylem Koral GUMUSOGLU & Belgin AYDIN
Fostering Foreign Language Learning with Twitter: What Do English Learners Think About It?
Education in 21st century is dominated by the generation of digital natives who are greatly exposed to and participate in technology in their social and educational lives. There is no doubt that anything experienced in social life directly affects learners' educational experiences. Highly popular social networks are being used in almost every educational area. In the process of teaching English as a foreign language social networking sites enhance active participation of learners for real purposes. This helps them gain motivation and real life experience through gaining different roles, such as authors and readers. One of the most widely used social networking sites is Twitter, a microblogging platform. This study focuses on use of twitter as a microblogging platform by learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) at Anadolu University School of Foreign Languages. The study aims to gain insights about learners' perceptions of the use of Twitter in language learning process and how participants feel about their tweeting as an extra -curricular activity throughout 4 weeks, each consisting of three different hot topics either determined by the class teachers or by students themselves. The study based on voluntary participation, and the content had no relation with the curriculum. The participants answered a questionnaire and evaluated Twitter along with language learning process. The results reveal that Turkish learners had mostly positive opinions on using Twitter and stated that twitting messages facilitated their language learning experience. Including extracurricular activities, such as Twitter, into language teaching is suggested as a result of this study.
Keywords: Twitter, Social Networking Site, EFL, micro-blogging, foreign language learning.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382734
Fabio R. Da COSTA, Anderson S. PELISSARI & Inayara V. D. P. GONZALEZ
Corporate Image of Public Higher Education Institutions: Relevant Factors to Distance Learning Students
Technological advances are generating a significant increase in the supply of distance learning (DL) courses via the Internet, increasing the importance of this type of education for the university’s structure. This article identifies factors associated with perceptions of the public higher education institutions’ image from the perspective of DL students. This is a field study that is exploratory, descriptive and quantitative in nature. The units of analysis are institutions in the Higher Education Distance Learning Centre of the state of Rio de Janeiro (Centro de Educacao Superior a Distancia do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – CEDERJ) consortium that offer undergraduate courses, and the observation units are students enrolled in the Sao Fidelis Centre (Polo de Sao Fidelis). The data were collected by means of a survey, then tabulated and analyzed using the SPSS program. The results indicate that the image is a snapshot, generated from the current stimuli projected by the organization and translated by the public, based on relevant cognitive and affective aspects, according to the individual’s manner of observing the environment. The study demonstrates the multidimensionality of the image and that the studied institutions’ global image is associated most strongly with their affective image. Furthermore, the results show that the amount of time that a member of the public interacts with an organisation does not affect her perception of that organization’s image.
Keywords: Corporate image, distance learning, higher education, public institution, CEDERJ.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382738
Derya ORHAN GOKSUN, Ozan FILIZ & Adile Askim KURT
Student Teachers’ Perceptions on Educational Technologies’ Past, Present and Future
The aim of this study is to reveal Computer Education and Instructional Technologies student teachers’, who are in a distance teacher education program, perceptions on past, present and educational technologies of future via infographics. In this study, 54 infographics, which were created by student teachers who were enrolled in Special Teaching Methods II course at spring semester of 2013-2014 academic years, were analyzed. The infographics were analyzed via document review technique. These themes are “Educational technologies of past” (f=241), “Educational technologies of present” (f=240) and “Educational technologies of future” (f=158). Student teachers mentioned the most frequently “CD” (f=34) and “Television” (f=32) oriented to educational technologies of past. The most frequent views on educational technologies of present were “Smartboard” (f=24) and “Online Courses” (f=23). The most frequent opinion of student teachers about the educational technologies of future is “Holograms” (f=26) and “Virtual classroom” (f=22).
Keywords: Infographics, educational technologies, classrooms of future.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382782
Duygu Saniye OZTURK, Faruk OZTURK & Rasit OZEN
The Relationship between Prospective Teachers’ Readiness and Satisfactions About Internet-Based Distance Education
Distance education is a kind of education in which learner and teacher communicate through a means either simultaneously or at different times being present in different places. In this study, it is aimed to determine the prospective teachers’ readiness and satisfaction levels after the procedure related with the courses which they take through distance education. Correlational study model is used in the study. The study was conducted with 261 undergraduate students who took some of the courses distantly in diverse undergraduate programs in the faculty of education at Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey and 232 students of pedagogical formation in the same faculty. The participants of the study consisted of 493 prospective teachers. In the study, “e-Readiness Scale” and “e-Satisfaction Scale” were used as data collection tools. As a result, the levels of readiness and satisfaction from web based distance education of prospective teachers was found to be above the mean score. Readiness levels according to the sub dimensions of the Readiness Scale were generally positive; however, prospective teachers thought that they were equipped in the subjects including the sub dimensions of “technical skills” and “factors that affect success”. It was determined that prospective teachers were generally satisfied with the subjects related to all the sub dimensions of the Satisfaction Scale. It was revealed that there was a meaningful relationship between readiness and satisfaction levels. The readiness and satisfaction levels of the prospective teachers having pedagogical formation education were higher when compared to those of the prospective teachers of education faculty. The department having the highest readiness and satisfaction levels was History-Geography department.
Keywords: Web-based distance education, e-readiness, e-satisfaction, online learning, prospective teacher.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382791
Ozlem CAKIR, Tugra KARADEMIR & Funda ERDOGDU
Psychological Variables of Estimating Distance Learners' Motivation
The correlation between distance education motivation levels of students and their online experiences and satisfaction is studied in this paper; and the reasons of their satisfaction and dissatisfaction according to their motivation levels are described. In this study, 183 students, who were taking English and Turkish courses at Ankara University between 2013-2014 academic year through distance education participated. The study which was designed in the form of sequential mixed method research design, “Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory” and “Online Student Satisfaction Scale” were utilized to collect data and structured interview forms that were developed by the researchers and they were also used to determine students’ online learning experiences and their satisfaction levels about distance education. Three motivation levels as low- medium-level- high were identified by clustering analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate motivation levels and satisfaction data and content analysis was applied to evaluate the reasons behind their satisfaction. A significant correlation was found between the students’ motivation levels and their online learning experiences and satisfaction. When it comes to the reasons of their satisfaction and dissatisfaction, the students who have low and medium-level motivation levels said that their dissatisfaction was due to lack of interaction and negative perceptions and their dependence on conventional education. On the other hand, the students who have high motivation stated that their satisfaction was because it is free from time and space, suitable for reviews, provides effective learning and meets the requirements of this age. The students who were not satisfied in three different motivation levels mentioned the problems of internet access and lack of synchronization between the picture and the sound in the videos.
Keywords: Distance education motivation, online learning experience, distance education satisfaction, clustering analysis, logistic regression.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382795
George GYAMFI & Panida SUKSEEMUANG
EFL Learners’ Satisfaction with the Online Learning Program, Tell Me More
This study investigated EFL learners’ satisfaction with the asynchronous online learning program Tell Me More (TMM). 340 EFL learners’ satisfaction with the TMM program was surveyed. In addition, a semi-structured focus group interview was conducted with 10 of the participants to gain in-depth insight into their satisfaction. The findings showed that the learners’ were highly satisfied with the vocabulary, reading and listening aspects of the program. It further indicated learners’ satisfaction to use TMM for self-study, meaningful content and its language learning potential. Moving forward, in selecting tutorial CALL programs, stakeholders could consider programs with contents that can be adapted to cater for learners’ needs and preferences. Additionally, TMM could be improved to include aspects that will help learners develop spontaneous communication skills that will appeal most to learners’ interest. Furthermore, CALL programmers are enlightened on aspects in online learning programs that does not only satisfy EFL learners the most but also aspects that needs to be improved to ensure maximum satisfaction. Further research could consider how learners’ perceptions influence their satisfaction and how it translates to overall learners’ achievement.
Keywords: Learners’ satisfaction, Tell Me More, asynchronous online learning program, EFL learners.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382798
Mithat ELCICEK, Hüsamettin ERDEMCİ & Hasan KARAL
Examining the Relationship between the Levels of Digital Citizenship and Social Presence for the Graduate Students Having Online Education
The aim of this study is to determine the levels of digital citizenship and social presence of the graduate students having distance education and to reveal the relationship between these two variables. The research was carried out with 50 women (35%) and 93 men (65%) graduate students enrolled in distance education master programs of Karadeniz Technical University. Individual Information Form, Social Presence Scale and Digital Citizenship Scale were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were used in the study to determine the levels of digital citizenship and social presence of the students. Correlation analysis for the relationship between variables and linear regression for the predictive power were used. The results indicated that graduate students enrolled in distance education master programs had high levels in digital citizenship and social presence. Furthermore, the mentioned levels were comprehended to have significant and positive relationship among themselves. While the levels of digital citizenship and social presence didn’t differentiate significantly in terms of gender, social presence levels differentiated in favour of Educational Sciences Insitute. Also the level of social presence for the graduate students was concluded to be significantly predictive for digital citizenship level.
Keywords: Online education, social presence, digital citizenship.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382801
Ignacio DESPUJOL, Linda CASTANEDA & Carlos TURRO
Developing A MOOC Initiative: Lessons Learned from the Universitat Politècnica de València Experience
Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) was the European institution with more MOOC course runs done by December 2016. This paper describes and analyses the decision-making process, and rationale of the development of this low budget real MOOC institutional initiative carried out by a traditional higher educational medium sized institution. This analysis is done using an Evaluative Research (ER) method based on an iterative approach of 6 cycles of formative evaluation. It has been a multiple stage process that includes many aspects. In this paper, we will analyze two of them: the creation, organization and management of a fast and cheap MOOC production process, including the several tools, plans, and procedures that have enabled UPV to create courses fast and with a low-cost; and the technical evolution of the initiative, with the different platforms that have been used. As a consequence of this process, UPV has its own platform (upvx.es) based on openedX and is a member of edx.org, with 50 courses, 177 editions, and more than 632.000 enrollments. The completion rate is 8.69%, and post-course surveys reveal a high level of satisfaction from students. The paper will finish addressing the challenges of making this an entirely self-sustainable initiative and reflecting about what is required for evaluating this experience globally.
Keywords: MOOC, e-learning, Open Universities, higher education initiatives.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382805
Kemlall RAMDASS & Fulufhelo NEMAVHOLA
Quality Practices: An Open Distance Learning Perspective
Global transformation in higher education over the past two decades has led to the implementation of national policies in order to measure the performance of institutions in South Africa. The Higher Education Quality Council (HEQC) adopted the quality assurance (QA) model for the purposes of accountability and governance in South African Higher Education. The first Council of Higher Education (CHE) audit, encouraged a compliance mentality through a ‘tick box’ mentality, thereby encouraging compliance of minimum standards. Thus, quality assurance audits became a ‘feared’ phenomenon in all higher education institutions in South Africa. The complete lack of stewardship in addressing the culture of quality and its’ implications for continuous improvement has led to inefficiencies in the entire higher education landscape. In this paper the ‘fuzzy’ and perhaps ‘slippery’ nature of quality is addressed through a critical analysis of the concepts of development, enhancement and assurance in relation to the quality of teaching and learning in higher education through a case study methodology using qualitative analysis in an open distance learning institution (ODL). The key argument is that although quality is important for improvement, practices at the institution are not changing in the way they should because of a quality culture that is determined by the Department of Higher Education and Training. Hence the research question is to determine the status of quality with a view of recommending total quality management as a strategy that would enhance the practice of quality in the organization. Therefore, this paper explores the current quality practices with the intent to improve the delivery of teaching and learning in an ODL environment.
Keywords: Quality practices, open distance learning, total quality management, quality management, re-engineering.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.382806
Reviewed By Hakan ALTINPULLUK
REVIEW: Posthumanism and Massive Open Online Course Contaminating the Subject of Global Education
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) is one of the revolutionary online learning applications in this period, in which communication technologies connect the Earth, that brings academicians in the most elite universities to individuals who are autonomous in a remote corner of the world and learns to study on his own. Although MOOC concept, in academic circles, are perceived as free and open online courses being given by respected academics from elite universities around the world, the theoretically criticized studies are rare. This book titled "Post-humanism and the Massive Open Online Course: Contaminating the Subject of Global Education" has made critical analysis through theoretical frameworks by approaching the MOOCs which have become very popular in recent years and attracted attention, with a critical perspective. While the book is making these analyzes, it uses "critical post humanism", a well-structured form of humanism derived from philosophical and critical theory, an umbrella concept covering many theories. Jeremy Knox, the author of the book, has turned his thesis into a book due to the fact that there are not many critical analyses for online education and MOOC concepts. The book, consisting of 5 chapters and 238 pages, has first been published by Routledge in 2016.