17 (2), 2016
From The Editor
Welcome to the Volume 17, Number 2 of TOJDE
Dear TOJDE Readers,
Welcome to the Volume 17, Number 2 of TOJDE,
In April 2016 issue, there are 9 articles and 2 book reviews. 18 authors from 7 different countries write the articles. All these articles are from Colombia, India, Indonesia, Israel, Malaysia, Mexico, and Turkey.
Marcela Gerogina GOMEZ-ZERMENO & Lorena ALEMAN DE LA GARZA
Research Analysis on Mooc Course Dropout and Retention Rates
This research’s objective was to identify the terminal efficiency of the Massive Online Open Course “Educational Innovation with Open Resources” offered by a Mexican private university. A quantitative methodology was used, combining descriptive statistics and probabilistic models to analyze the levels of retention, completion, and desertion, as well as the characteristics of the students who completed the course. The results show a 14% of student retention and an 11.7% of student completion, relative to the total number of participants, who had some common characteristics: having a graduate (master or doctorate), being experienced in online education, committed to the course and self-taught. The participants who abandoned the course expressed the following reasons: problems with the course’s structure, limitations in the use of information and communication technologies or limited English proficiency, family reasons or low time disposition. It is recommended to take actions that will increase the knowledge in order to explain the MOOCs’ desertion rates and to strengthen their structures to improve the retention and completion rates.
Keywords: Distance education, Open educational resources, MOOC, Terminal efficiency, School desertion
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.23429
Hasan UCAR & Mujgan YAZICI BOZKAYA
Pre-Service EFL Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Goal Orientations, and Participations in an Online Learning Environment
This study examined the pre-service EFL teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs, goal orientations, and participations in an online learning environment. Embedded mixed design was used in the study. In the quantitative part of the study, the participants were 186 senior pre-service EFL teachers and data were collected on two scales and a questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected in form of one-on-one interviews from 2 pre-service EFL teachers, the most representative of the population, to understand the motivation and behaviour variables. The findings of this research revealed that pre-service EFL teachers’ self-efficacy believes are high but fragile. However, some of the participants had more than one goal orientation. The mastery and performance oriented pre-service teachers displayed different characteristics of motivation. Moreover, few of the pre-service EFL teachers participate in the online learning environment. Results also showed several positive associations between teachers’ goal orientations and self-efficacy beliefs. The results as well as their implications are discussed and suggestions for future research are presented.
Keywords: Pre-service EFL teacher, self-efficacy, achievement goal orientation
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.66088
Djoko RAHARDJO, SUMARDJO, Djuara P. LUBIS & Sri HARIJATI
Internet Access and Usage in Improving Students’ Self-Directed Learning in Indonesia Open University
Internet is well known nowadays, however higher distance education students who live in remote rural areas still have not been able to take advantages of this medium optimally for their learning process. For accessing the internet the students have to be available with the minimum prerequisites: the existence of adequate devices and the sufficient capabilities. For education purposes, the students use the internet to meet their information and fulfill learning needs, facilitate interpersonal communications, and provide groups of discussion, as well as to be connected with friends in social media. This study aims to analyze the relationship between internet access and usage in improving students' self-directed learning which is using structural equation model method. The survey is conducted in seven districts in Surakarta Regional Office of Indonesia Open University with a sample size of 320 respondents. The result shows that the internet usage is still low due to limited internet facilities that affect the knowledge and willingness of students to access the internet. The strategy in improving student internet usage is applying social media as guidance that can be accessed through cellular phones.
Keywords: Internet access, internet usage, distance education, self-directed learning
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.90196
Gurhan DURAK, E. Emre OZKESKIN & Murat ATAIZI
QR Codes in Education and Communication
Technological advances brought applications of innovations to education. Conventional education increasingly flourishes with new technologies accompanied by more learner active environments. In this continuum, there are learners preferring self-learning. Traditional learning materials yield attractive, motivating and technologically enhanced learning materials. The QR (Quick Response) Codes are one of these innovations. The aim of this study is to redesign a lesson unit supported with QR Codes and to get the learner views about the redesigned material. For this purpose, the redesigned lesson unit was delivered to 15 learners in Balıkesir University in the academic year of 2013-2014. The learners were asked to study the material. The learners who had smart phones and Internet access were chosen for the study. To provide sectional diversity, three groups were created. The group learners were from Faculty of Education, Faculty of Science and Literature and Faculty of Engineering. After the semi-structured interviews were held, the learners were asked about their pre-knowledge about QR Codes, QR Codes’ contribution to learning, difficulties with using QR Codes about and design issues. Descriptive data analysis was used in the study. The findings were interpreted on the basis of Theory of Diffusion of Innovations and Theory of Uses and Gratifications. After the research, the themes found were awareness of QR Code, types of QR Codes and applications, contributions to learning, and proliferation of QR Codes. Generally, the learners participating in the study reported that they were aware of QR Codes; that they could use the QR Codes; and that using QR Codes in education was useful. They also expressed that such features as visual elements, attractiveness and direct routing had positive impact on learning. In addition, they generally mentioned that they did not have any difficulty using QR Codes; that they liked the design; and that the content should include both superficial and in-depth information.
Keywords: Mobile learning, QR Code, Communication, Distance education
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.89156
Teaching and Learning Methodologies Supported by ICT Applied in Computer Science
The main objective of this paper is to show a set of new methodologies applied in the teaching of Computer Science using ICT. The methodologies are framed in the conceptual basis of the following sciences: Psychology, Education and Computer Science. The theoretical framework of the research is supported by Behavioral Theory, Gestalt Theory. Genetic-Cognitive Psychology Theory and Dialectics Psychology. Based on the theoretical framework the following methodologies were developed: Game Theory, Constructivist Approach, Personalized Teaching, Problem Solving, Cooperative Collaborative learning, Learning projects using ICT. These methodologies were applied to the teaching learning process during the Algorithms and Complexity – A&C course, which belongs to the area of Computer Science. The course develops the concepts of Computers, Complexity and Intractability, Recurrence Equations, Divide and Conquer, Greedy Algorithms, Dynamic Programming, Shortest Path Problem and Graph Theory. The main value of the research is the theoretical support of the methodologies and their application supported by ICT using learning objects. The course aforementioned was built on the Blackboard platform evaluating the operation of methodologies. The results of the evaluation are presented for each of them, showing the learning outcomes achieved by students, which verifies that methodologies are functional.
Keywords: Methodologies for virtual learning, virtual education, ICTs, virtual learning platforms, virtual assessment.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.48315
Muhammad Razuan ABDUL RAZAK & Ahmad Zamzuri MOHAMAD ALI
Instructional Screencast: A Research Conceptual Framework
The literature review indicates that the benefit of screencast as an instructional media has not clearly proved effective for all categories of students. This is due to the individual differences in processing the information. Inadequate screencast design will cause strain to students’ cognitive process which might impede learning. This shortcoming can be reduced by imposing principles of reducing the external processing in screencast design. However, the exact design effectiveness of screencast also depends on the cognitive style and learning style of the students. The cognitive style will ultimately affect how information is processed in the students’ memory structure. Students will also easily process the given information, if it is performed in accordance with their dominant learning style. Taken together, this article discusses the conceptual framework design of screencasts for instructional purpose.
Keywords: Cognitive style, instructional media, learning style, screencast
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.21316
Moanes H. TIBI
Essential Components in Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Forums
Online learning has been used over the past decade in most disciplines at higher education while the asynchronous online courses are one of the more popular modes of conducting online learning. Within the asynchronous online course, the asynchronous discussion forum plays an important role since it can replace the face to face interaction of the traditional classroom. Since discussions are critical in any learning process, the question is what are the essential components of the asynchronous discussion forum that can make asynchronous discussions more effective for learning and knowledge construction? This paper reviews the literature regarding the main elements and components that makes an asynchronous discussion forum more effective for knowledge acquisition and thereby increases the quality of online learning.
Keywords: Online Learning, asynchronous discussion forums, structured discussion forums, online collaborative learning
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.12429
Harun CIGDEM & Mustafa OZTURK
Critical Components of Online Learning Readiness and Their Relationships with Learner Achievement
This study aimed to examine the relationship between certain factors of online learning readiness and learners’ end-of-course achievements. The study was conducted at a two-year post-secondary Turkish military school within the scope of the course titled Computer Literacy, which was designed and implemented in a blended way. The data were collected from 155 post-secondary military students through an online questionnaire. Three sub-scales of Hung et al.’s Online Learning Readiness Scale were used to collect the data during the first two weeks of the course. Descriptive and inferential statistics, such as Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression analyses were performed to analyze the data. The descriptive results of the study indicated that students’ motivation for online learning was higher than both their computer/Internet self-efficacy and their orientations to self-directed learning. The inferential results revealed that the students’ end-of-course grades had significantly positive relationships with their computer/Internet self-efficacy and self-directed learning orientations. Finally, the students’ self-direction towards online learning appeared to be the strongest predictor of their achievements within the course; whereas computer/Internet self-efficacy and motivation for learning did not predict the learner achievement significantly.
Keywords: Online learning readiness, learner achievement, blended learning, computer literacy
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.09105
Open Educational Resources (OER): Opportunities and Challenges for Indian Higher Education
Creation of knowledge workers holds key for success of a country. Unfortunately, many of the countries though having chain of human resources yet are unable to transform human resources to their advantage as they face multiple challenges like poverty, poor economy, poor infrastructure, limited access to education and inadequate technological growth. Fortunately, India is one of among such countries in the recent past which has improved its position in the world forum and has taken a big stride by transforming human resource into knowledge workers. The entire credit goes to government of India, their schemes and most importantly the people working tirelessly in the higher education institutions. But, the percentage is very low.The reason is higher education of India is plagued with several challenges like poor quality of teachers, poor infrastructure, poor libraries and poor educational resources. Unless high quality of education both in terms of infrastructure and academic is not provided and sustained in all higher education institutes, it will be difficult to match with global world. One way it could be done at least in academic front is developing and disseminating quality educational material among the institutes of higher education. National Knowledge Commission has recommended that problems of educational material to a large extent can be reduced by Open Educational Resources (OER) and Open Access (OA). The easy and widespread availability of high quality educational material will change the paradigm of teaching and learning and thus improve the quality of education. Government of India has started several innovative programs and schemes like SHAKSHAT, NMEICT, NPTEL, OSCAR, E-grid etc. related to developing and disseminating educational resources. The national and global level are tremendous but it comes with many challenges specifically in a country like India which has a diversified population.The present paper will try to focus on the opportunities and challenges with respect to OER in Indian higher education.
Keywords: OER, higher education, challenges, opportunities
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.34669
Reviewed By Hakan ALTINPULLUK
REVEW: E-Learning Paradigms and Applications Agent-Based Approach Edited By Mirjana Ivanovic And Lakhmi C. Jain
E-learning involves the use of digital technology applications in learning and teaching processes, and grows out of an interdisciplinary field, in which are contained a variety different approaches and components. Since the field of e-learning requires the use of high-level technology, it is very much affected by technological developments. Software agents are computer systems that have features such as autonomy, reactivity, intentionality and interactivity. The integration of software agents into e-learning mediums strengthens e-learning systems and allows for higher quality learning outcomes.
Keywords: E-Learning, digital technology
Reviewed By Aylin OZTURK
REVIEW: Educational Data Mining: Applications and Trends Edited by Alejandro Pena-Ayala
Educational Data Mining (EDM) is a developing field based on data mining techniques. EDM emerged as a combination of areas such as machine learning, statistics, computer science, education, cognitive science, and psychometry. EDM focuses on learner characteristics, behaviors, academic achievements, process of learning, educational functionalities, domain knowledge content, assessments, and applications. Educational data mining is defined by Baker (2010) as ‘‘an emerging discipline, concerned with developing methods for exploring the unique types of data that come from educational settings, and using those methods to better understand students, and the settings which they learn in’’. EDM is concerned with improving the learning process and environment.