16 (2), 2015
From The Editor
Welcome to the Volume 16, Number 2 of TOJDE
I want to announce a special message to you as readers and authors at the beginning of this
issue. Each TOJDE article has got its DOI number since January 2014 issue and next issues.
You can check DOI number near pdf files in every article. TOJDE will continue to give DOI
numbers for the articles in the forthcoming issues.
Francisco Antonio COELHO JUNIOR, Rodrigo Rezende FERREIRA, Tatiane PASCHOAL, Cristiane FAIAD & Pedro Paulo Murce MENESES
Evidences of Validity of A Scale For Mapping Professional As Defining Competences And Performance By Brazilian Tutors
The purpose of this study was twofold: to assess evidences of construct validity of the
Brazilian Scale of Tutors Competences in the field of Open and Distance Learning and to
examine if variables such as professional experience, perception of the student´s learning
performance and prior experience influence the development of technical and attitudinal
competences. Participants were 200 tutors (69 males and 131 females), residents in the
Northeast of Brazil (46%), aged between 18 and 56 (Μage=22, SD=8.69). The vast majority
of tutors (84.5%) exercise other professional activities or beyond the academic tutoring.
The scale consists of two factors: a) attitudinal competences and b) technical competences.
Results from exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of construct validity.
Additionally, results indicated that tutors who had previous experienced and who believed in
the students’ distance learning scored higher than those belonging to other groups (less
experienced tutors and tutors who had no belief in students’ learning distance learning).
Also, results indicated that those who had former experience presented a statistically higher
score towards the factor “technical competences”. Overall, the study underlines the
necessity of adaptation and usage of such an questionnaire of competences in other global
contexts, not just the Brazilian one.
The relationship between individual performance and student learning should be
investigated in a cross-cultural research.
Keywords: Technical Competences, former experience, perception of student learning, individual differences, attitudinal competences.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.55245
The Relation Between Distance Education Students' Motivation And Satisfaction
The aim of the present study, within the frame of self-determination theory (SDT),
was triple: a) to examine the structural validity of the “Situational Motivation Scale”
(SIMS) in the field of distance education, b) to investigate the correlation between
the subscales of the motivation and satisfaction of students who attend distance
education classes and c) to examine the possibility of predicting the subscales of
satisfaction from the subscales of motivation in the open and distance education.
The sample consisted of 144 students who participated in the course of “Arts II:
Overview of Greek Music and Dance” of the Hellenic Open University. For the
purposes of the study, two scales were used: a) The modified Greek version
(Papaioannou et al., 2007) of the “Situational Motivation Scale” (SIMS) (Guay et al.,
2000), b) The modified Greek version (Theodorakis, & Bebetsos, 2003; Bebetsos, &
Theodorakis, 2003) of the “Scale of Satisfaction” (Chelladurai & Riemer, 1997).
The results of the research are considered positive for the adjustment of the
instrument measuring the motivation of students in distance education. Identified
regulation and intrinsic motivation presented high values, as much as the two
subscales of satisfaction: personal outcome and leadership. Extrinsic motivation
presented middle levels and the subscale amotivation, very low levels. The subscale
personal outcome is connected positively to the self-determined forms of motivation
and negatively to those which are less self-determined.
Finally, it has been found that intrinsic motivation and amotivation are subscales
which predict personal outcome and leadership. In conclusion, the findings of this
research allow a better understanding of the motivation process, which explains the
satisfaction of the students, while attending a class.
Keywords: Distance education, motivation, satisfaction, leadership, personal outcome.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.50678
Students’ Evaluation of Google Hangouts Through A Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity
The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an
instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese
universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and
discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies.
After the activity, students responded to a survey to evaluate the ease of use and
usefulness of Google Hangouts. Qualitative data were also collected through the survey to
examine their overall learning experience. The results indicated that Google Hangouts is a
useful instructional tool, but not easy to use. Although technical problems occurred
during the conference, the activity provided valuable experiences for both U.S. and
Japanese students. The study provides suggestions for how Google Hangouts can be
integrated into online classrooms based on the findings.
Keywords: Videoconference, computer mediated communication, online learning.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.98784
Elina ANAGNOSTOPOULOU, Ilias MAVROIDIS, Yiannis GIOSSOS & Maria KOUTSOUBA
Student Satisfaction In The Context of A Postgraduate Programme of The Hellenic Open University
The aim of this study is to empirically examine the correlation between student
satisfaction from their studies and three important distance learning factors in a blended
distance education environment, namely the student-tutor interaction, the performance
of the tutor and the course evaluation by the students. The study involved 81
postgraduate students from a modular course of the School of Humanities of the Hellenic
Open University (HOU). A questionnaire of 35 closed type questions was used. The
majority of the students were satisfied from their studies, from the tutor’s performance
and from the communication and interaction with their tutor, while they also provided a
positive overall course evaluation. Regarding the course evaluation, they would like the
course programme to be better formulated and more clearly communicated. The data
analysis yielded a significant, positive correlation between the satisfaction of the students
from their studies and all three examined factors. Finally, there was a statistically
significant difference on student satisfaction levels among different age groups, a
statistically significant difference regarding the number of course modules attended in
relation to the evaluation of the tutor's performance and a statistically significant
difference regarding the number of Counseling Group Sessions (CGS) attended in relation
to student satisfaction.
Keywords: Blended distance education, student satisfaction, tutor performance, communication, interaction, course evaluation.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.52944
Serkan IZMIRLI & Ozden SAHIN IZMIRLI
Factors Motivating Preservice Teachers For Online Learning Within The Context of Arcs Motivation Model
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors motivating pre-service teachers
for online learning within the context of ARCS motivation model. The study, in which the
phenomenology model was used, was carried out with 52 pre-service teachers attending
the department of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies at the Education
Faculty of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University in Turkey.
The participants were experienced in online learning. In the study, the data were
collected with an open-ended questionnaire within the framework of the ARCS motivation
model. The research data were analyzed with descriptive analysis and examined fewer
than four themes (attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction).
Also, for each theme, sub-themes were obtained. The most frequent factor motivating for
online learning was “relevance to individual differences” found under the theme of
“confidence”. As for the least frequent motivating one, it was “flexibility” found under the
theme of “relevance”.
Keywords: Online learning, motivation in online learning, ARCS model.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.26620
Sodip ROY & Abdus SATTAR
Open And Distance Learning Towards The Eradication Of Illiteracy Of The Tea-Garden Workers In Bangladesh: Problems And Prospects
Development of a society means the accumulation of improvement of all units of the society
whatever it is small or large and important or less important. Needless to say that education
goes identical with development. We have a large number of marginal people in different
sector and region. Tea garden workers are one of them who are working silently for the
improvement of the nation but they are not getting any educational degree in spite of their
noble intention. Most of them are illiterate. Even they cannot make simple calculation of
their household. Moreover, tea garden worker are low paid. About 56 percent labor work six
days and 23 percent in seven days in a week but most of them are paid monthly less than
2500 taka for each. Yet they (63 percent) want to study again though they face financial
problem (77 percent) and rest of them say about communication problem, unavailability of
schools, adjustment problem with the schedule of the school, unwillingness of the authority
and limited scope for the aged and dropped. Few of them claim against the management
authority who often reluctant to give any chance for their betterment. It is impossible for
them to avail conventional education. Resultantly it seems that only education through open
and distance learning will be effective for them. In this study, it will endeavor to explore
strategic issues and prospects of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) provided by Bangladesh
Open University for the tea garden worker in the different regions of Bangladesh.
Keywords: Open and distance learning, tea-garden worker, illiteracy.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.33813
The Evaluations of The College Students’ Perceptions on Distance Education From The Point of The Technical And Educational Factors
The purpose of the research was to investigate the college students’ opinions about
distance education courses. The distance education questionnaire (DEQ) was developed
for evaluating the perceptions of the students. The DEQ was conducted on 66 college
students enrolled in the compulsory courses. The DEQ consisted of 18 items and two
factors covering the technical and educational factors in the light of statistical analyses.
When the results of the research were generally evaluated, it could be said that the
majority of the students were not pleased with the distance education courses from the
point of the technical (connection, accessibility, etc.) and educational (interaction,
communication, etc.) factors. Some implications were presented regarding the results.
Keywords: Distance education; distance learning; higher education; perception.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.19025
David BISHAU & Wellington SAMKANGE
Causes of Low Student Enrolment At The Zimbabwe Open University’s Harare-Chitungwiza Region for The Period 2008-2013
The focus on Open and Distance Learning (ODL) has given people an alternative to acquiring
and developing skills in areas of their choice especially those related to their jobs. While its
introduction was met with different responses, it could be noted that in some cases ODL has
been viewed with scepticism and in others it has been received with excitement and hope.
Such euphoria and hope has in some instances contributed to an increase in enrolment in
higher institutions of higher learning that offer the ODL model. However, these high
enrolments have not been sustained in the case of the Zimbabwe Open University, Harare-
Chitungwiza Region. There has been a decline in enrolments over the past five years.
This study sought to identify the causes of low student enrolment at the Zimbabwe Open
University’s (ZOU) Harare- Chitungwiza Region was conducted. The study used the
qualitative research methodology, guided by the grounded theory paradigm as it sought to
answer the questions about ‘why’. Data were collected through open-ended questionnaires,
interviews, participant observation and through the social medium. The data were collected
from current students, inactive students and alumni. Data were analysed through open
coding and axial coding. The study concluded that there was a causal relationship between
student enrolments at the Zimbabwe Open University’s Harare-Chitungwiza Region and a
number of causal factors and conditions. The main causal factors were knowledge about
ZOU and the Region, the ODL mode of delivery, the ZOU image, policy changes on payment
of fees and negative media reports about ZOU. The study recommends strategies that would
help improve the ZOU image.
Keywords: Enrolments, Open and Distance Learning, Causal conditions INTRODUCTION The
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.00843
An Analysis on Distance Education Computer Programming Students’ Attitudes Regarding Programming and Their Self-Efficacy For Programming
This study aims to analyze the attitudes of students studying computer programming
through the distance education regarding programming, and their self-efficacy for
programming and the relation between these two factors. The study is conducted with
104 students being thought with distance education in a university in the north region of
Turkey in spring semester of 2013-2014 academic years. Attitude Scale toward Computer
Programming (AStCP) and Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Inventory (CPSEI) are
used as data collecting tool. The study is conducted within the descriptive scanning
model. The data collected during the study is analyzed with Mann Whitney U test,
independent t-test and Pearson Correlation coefficient for answering the research
questions. According to the results of the study the attitudes of the students regarding
programming are generally positive and their self-efficacy for programming are at high
level. There is statistically important difference in the attitudes of students regarding
programming in accordance with their gender and grade level. Accordingly, their selfefficacy
differentiates statistically by these two variables. Finally, it is concluded that
there is a positive relation in average level between the attitudes of the students
regarding programming and their self-efficacy for programming.
Keywords: Attitudes Regarding Programming, Programming Self-Efficacy, Distance Education, Computer Programming.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.58767
Hojjat MALEKI, Ali Aaghar GHASEMI & Mehdi MOHARAMI
CAVL: Does it develop learner’s attitude?
Individual’s response to anything related to the immediate context can form attitudes
concerning the learning situation where the language is taught. As an attempt to shed
new light on the issues relevant to attitude, this study investigated the extent to which a
Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Learning (CAVL), Mandegar, can improve learners’
perceptions about the program. To fulfill the aim, eighty first-grade high school learners,
divided as control and experimental groups, were randomly selected. Two questionnaires,
in the first and last session adopted from Altiner (2011) and Bulut & Farhan (2007)
respectively, were administered to the participants to investigate their perception to use
CAVL in the future. The results, obtained using Paired Samples T-Test (p=0.002 < .05),
revealed a significant difference between CAVL users and nonusers in favor of the
experimental group. Students in the experimental group showed a positive attitude
toward CAVL and perceived its utility for helping them speed up vocabulary learning. The
present finding might have important implications for decision makers and teachers to
further involve Computer-Assisted based programs to increase Language learning.
Keywords: Attitude, Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Learning, CAVL, perception, vocabulary learning.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.18103
Chetana H. KAMLASKAR & Manoj KILLEDAR
Design And Delivery Of Online Courses In YCMOU
The School of Science and Technology of ‘Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University
(YCMOU)’ has proposed to offer ‘Web Based Live Teaching Learning Support’ from 'real'
teacher, with ‘Live Virtual Online Class (LVOC)’ integrated with ‘Learning Management
System (LMS)’ for all courses of all programmes on offer. In the first phase, school has
started LVOC for total ten courses in from Feb 2014. This web-based system is designed to
provide an opportunity to:
Ø maximize interaction, discussion and spontaneous exchanges with ‘real’
teacher during live virtual class
Ø present quality learning material to individual to suit his/her learning styles,
interests, needs, and at their own pace.
Further, LVOC is integrated with LMSs to present a set of features designed to provide an
effective continuous assessment. The strategies adopted to provide learning support with
guidance at every step of the way is elaborated here. In the next phase, school is planning
to launch ‘Online Certificate Course’ for which all planned LVOC are already developed. As
Learning is a collaborative process, authors have suggested additional strategies to be
incorporated by ‘real teacher’ to offer ‘Online Course’. This will help to ensure better quality
and to develop confidence, comfort, and experience in online teaching.
Keywords: eLearning, Online Courses, Learning with Technology Enhancement, LMS, Live Virtual Online Class, Distance Learning.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.46501
Experience in Implementing Resource-Based Learning in Agrarian College of Management and Law Poltava State Agrarian Academy
The introduction of resource-based learning disciplines of computer cycles in Agrarian
College. The article focused on the issue of implementation of resource-based learning
courses in the agricultural cycle computer college. Tested approach to creating elearning
resources through free hosting and their further use in the classroom. Noted
that the use of Internet technology makes it possible to create educational environment
Agrarian College is through the development and deployment of electronic educational
resources on the Web, because the Internet is constantly expanding its capabilities,
services, hosted with them information that is relevant in terms of education.
The author proposes to consider e-learning resource "Інформатика+="Information+":
http://informatika-resurs.jimdo.com which combines the characteristics and principles
of creation of electronic media for educational purposes and is a modern didactic
resource for the study of the disciplines of computer cycle. Demonstrates Cloud
resources from the disciplines of computer cycle, e-learning content "IT–education",
developed with the help of Google services for online learning. Cloud resource is a
collection of electronic teaching systems such disciplines of "Computer Science and
Computer Engineering", "E-commerce", "Data Protection", "Computer technologies in
legal activity". The study is focused on free hosting for the development of electronic
learning resources (Jimdo, uCoz), which enable the creation of a site (does not require
special skills and knowledge of programming languages), fast and, most importantly,
free of charge, which is particularly important given the current financial support of
Keywords: Resource-based learning, e-learning resources, information and educational environment, Agrarian College
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.38232
Reviewed By Aras BOZKURT & Ela AKGUN-OZBEK
REVIEW:Online Distance Education: Towards A Research Agenda Edited by Olaf Zawacki-Richter and Terry Anderson
Online Distance Education: Towards a Research Agenda is edited by Olaf Zawacki-Richter
and Terry Anderson. The first edition of the book was published in 2014 in Edmonton by
AU Press, Athabasca University. The online edition of the book has a total of 507+xii
pages. The ISBN of the book for different versions are 978-1-927356-62-3 for print, 978-
1-927356-64-7, for epub and 978-1-927356-63-0 for PDF. Doi number of the book is