16 (1), 2015
From The Editor
Welcome to Volume 16, Number 1 of TOJDE
Welcome to the Volume 16, Number 1 of TOJDE,
In this issue, there are 16 articles. These articles are written by 25 authors from 10 different countries including Bangladesh, Brazil, Brunei, Colombia, India, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, and Turkey.
Modular Rapid E-Learning Framework (MORELFT) in Desktop Virtualization Environment: An Effective Hybrid Implementation in Nurse Education
Generally it is not easy for an instructor to prepare and deliver electronic courses via e-learning. Therefore it is necessary to work and develop an easy system. In this context module technology was used to for provide modularity in conducting educational development of e-learning course. Then, rapid e-learning was used for more quick and easy course development. In order to implement modular rapid e-learning, a desktop virtual environment was set up. Modular rapid e-learning was used by teachers and students in a one semester course and student success and reactions were evaluated. And also the overall hybrid system cost was calculated and reported. In implementation we combined modular course design with rapid e-learning and desktop virtualization in education of 3rd year nursing students for a one semester course. The effectiveness of this hybrid method was evaluated with respect to students’ success, students’ opinions and over all cost effectiveness. It was seen that the hybrid method was educationally more effective than traditional method comparing with previous year students' success and fit with students’ requirements. The cost reduction was %41 comparing with traditional desktop and e-learning system.
Keywords: Modular design, rapid e-learning, desktop virtualization, course design, modular framework, e-learning modules.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.21716
Edvalda ARAÚJO LEAL & Alberto LUIZ ALBERTIN
Determinants of the Use of Technological Innovation in Distance Learning: A Study with Business School Instructors
This study’s overall purpose is to identify the factors determining the use of technological innovation in Distance Learning (DL), as perceived by instructors of Business Education programs. The theoretical basis for the study is the Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT).
The study’s sample is made up of 436 instructors; we used a quantitative approach and applied Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multiple regression. We found that not all of the attributes selected for analysis as proposed by IDT showed a direct effect for the use of innovation for the instructors investigated. The identified attributes were: compatibility, which shows how consistent innovation is with their values, practices and needs; relative advantage, indicating an innovation’s perceived improvement from its predecessor; and demonstrated results, according to which instructors understand the tangible results obtained from the use of innovation.
Keywords: Instructors; Diffusion of Innovation Theory; Distance Learning.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.70207
P. SATYANARAYANA & Emmanuel DK MEDURI
Use of Information and Communication Technologies in India's First Open University : Experience and Perceptions of Learners and Learner Support Providers
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University (BRAOU), the first distance teaching university in India, was a great educational event. It started a new chapter in the history of India’s distance higher education. The general objects these research studies are:
• to identify the information and communication technologies used in open distance education system in general and in BRAOU in particular,
• to find out the process of planning and management of the technologies for distance teaching of BRAOU,
• to assess the impact of the technologies on the distance learning of BRAOU students, and
• to make suggestions, on the basis of the study, for effective and efficient management of technology in BRAOU.
This study adopted descriptive method of research, which is widely used in educational research. Experiences, opinions and perceptions of 510 undergraduates students, 184 postgraduates, 110 academic counselors and 52 study center Heads are collected through separate questioners. Important results of survey are briefly stated here.
Keywords: Distance education, information and communication technologies, selection of media and management.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.37193
Belgin BOZ YUKSEKDAG & Gul UNSAL BARLAS
The Attitude Scale Towards Distance Nursing Education (astDNE)
In this study, a measurement is seen as an instrument to measure the attitudes of the nurses towards the distance nursing education was developed. The study population consist of nurses who working in two hospitals of the ministry of health and two special hospitals in Istanbul. The sample of the study consisted of 194 nurses who agreed to participate in this study. The scale total cronbach alpha coefficient was found .94, test-retest reliability coefficient .89. The correlations of each item with total point were between .49 and .69. In factor analysis done with varimax rotation for construct validity, whose eigenvalue is over 1, explaining 65.02 % of total variability, 5 factors consisting of 25 items was obtained the scale. These factors are called “Interaction”, “Learning Styles”, “Support Services”, “Interaction Tools” and “Content Presentation”. Consequently, findings show that The Attitude Scale towards Distance Nursing Education (astDNE) is a valid and reliable instrument.
Keywords: The attitude scale, distance nursing education, astDNE.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.94776
Revolution in Communication Technologies: Impact on Distance Education
Information and Communication Technologies have transformed the way the world lives and thinks. Education, especially, Distance Education is no different. While the technologies per se are an important factor, the social milieus in which these technologies are implemented are equally important. Technological convergence in the Indian context surely has to account for “Old Generation Technologies” on their platform as much as new technologies. The vibrant interface between social and technological issues in the Educational field is an important area of discourse. The current paper discusses these and many more issues in ample detail.
Keywords: Communication Technology, Technology and Distance Education in India, Convergence of technologies.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.26353
Qadir BUKHSH & Muhammad Ajmal CHAUDHARY
Exploring the Role of Distributed Learning in Distance Education at Allama Iqbal Open University: Academic Challenges at Postgraduate Level
Distributed learning is derived from the concept of distributed resources. Different institutions around the globe connected through network and the learners are diverse, located in the different cultures and communities. Distributed learning provides global standards of quality to all learners through synchronous and asynchronous communications and provides the opportunity of flexible and independent learning with equity, low cost educational services and has become the first choice of the dispersed learners around the globe. The present study was undertaken to investigate the challenges faced by the Faculty Members of Department of Business Administration and Computer Science at Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad Pakistan. 25 Faculty Members were taken as sample of the study from both Departments (100% Sampling). The study was qualitative in nature and interview was the data collection tool. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis technique. The major challenges faced by the Faculty Members were as: bandwidth, synchronous learning activities, irregularity of the learners, feedback on individual work, designing and managing the learning activities, quality issues and training to use the network for teaching learning activities
Keywords: Distributed learning, Faculty challenges, Allama Iqbal Open University, web-based learning, flexible learning, network learning
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.00342
Ricardo T. BAGARINAO
Students' Navigational Pattern and Performance in An E-Learning Environment: A Case from UP Open University, Philippines
The study analyzed the navigational patterns of learners in an online course in Science, Technology, and Society using movement ecological concept. The course site consists of five important pages, namely: home page, resource page, user page, forum page, forum discussion page, and forum add post page. About 11,413 logged data were mined and analyzed for the learners’ mean number of visits (NOV) in each page. The computed mean NOV was correlated with the learners’ performance, which was measured through their final grades.
Results indicate that learners had visited more frequently the pages that contained information they need to accomplish the course requirements: home page (mean NOV=87.38); resource page (mean NOV=40.33); and discussion forum page (mean NOV=56.29). Those who had visited the resource page were more likely to visit the discussion forum page, participate in the on-going discussion, and/or create a new thread of discussion. These patterns show that learners seek information that is necessary in their learning transactions. The patterns of navigation however did not show a significant relationship with learners’ performance (p>0.05). Other factors may have contributed to their performance, and they must be identified as well to create a virtual environment that can maximize the learners’ learning experience.
Keywords: Navigational pattern analysis, science, technology and society, navigation behaviour, UP Open University, movement ecology, open and distance e-learning
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.47684
Value Education Through Distance Learning: Opinions of Students who already Completed Value Education
Individuals in a society should be systematically trained on value education so that they can appreciate values such as love, respect, tolerance, and honesty. Employment of value training approaches within Anadolu University Open and Distance Learning System will make it possible to educate many people on values. The purpose of this research is to determine the opinions of university students about providing value education through distance learning system. This study has been completed via use of semi-structured interview technique based on qualitative research approach. The participants are registered students studying at Social Studies Teacher Training Program, Faculty of Education, Anadolu University during the fall term of 2013-2014 academic years. Based on the selection criteria, 15 students who had already completed value education course and who were familiar with Anadolu University’s open and distance learning system partook in the study. Research data was analyzed through content analysis. Participating students believe that value education is a necessary component of social life and that students within distance learning system should be provided with value education. Furthermore, participants stated that value education could be integrated into distance learning. Based on the findings, it is possible to conclude that offering value education to students through distance learning system may significantly contribute to social life as it facilitates maintaining social order and raising effective citizens.
Keywords: Value, value education, distance learning
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.89079
Representative Model of the Learning Process in Virtual Spaces Supported by ICT
This paper shows the results of research activities for building the representative model of the learning process in virtual spaces (e-Learning). The formal basis of the model are supported in the analysis of models of learning assessment in virtual spaces and specifically in Dembo´s teaching learning model, the systemic approach to evaluating virtual learning by Badrul H. Khan, and the Cybernetic model for evaluating virtual learning environments. The e-Learning model is systemic and of feedback by nature. The model integrates the society, Institution of Education, virtual training platform, virtual teacher and students, and finally the assessment of student learning in virtual learning spaces supported by ICT. The model consists of fourteen processes. Processes are defined taking into account the following dimensions: identification, academic, pedagogical, educational, formative, evaluative, assessment of virtual learning and technological. The model is fundamental to the management of e-learning supported by ICT, justified by the fact that it is an operative model of the teaching-learning process in virtual spaces. The importance of having an operative model in virtual education is to project the management and decision in virtual education. Then the operational, administrative and decision phases will allow the creation of a set of indicators. These indicators will assess the process of virtual education not only in students but also in the virtual institution.
Keywords: Virtual education. ICTs, virtual learning platforms, process virtual learning, virtual assessment
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.82918
Education Faculty Students' Views About Use of E-Books
Parallel to technological developments, numerous new tools are now available for people’s use. Societies adapt these tools to their professional lives by learning how to use them. In this way, they try to establish more comfortable working environments. Universities giving vocational education are supposed to teach these new technologies to their students to help them become successful in their future profession. Books that serve as the basic sources of information for education faculty students are increasingly being transformed into e-books parallel to these new technologies. In line with these developments, identifying students’ approaches and preferences regarding e-book could help determine the needs regarding this type of new technologies. In line with this purpose, the present study aimed at determining the views and preferences of preservice teachers regarding e-book as well as their levels of general knowledge about this technology. The participants of the study were 1179 students attending an education faculty (660 female, 519 male). In the study, qualitative and quantitative methods were used together. The results revealed that the students did not have sufficient knowledge about e-book and that they regarded any digital source on the Internet as e-book. Of all the participating preservice teachers, only 6% of them had sufficient knowledge about e-book.
Keywords: e-books, reading books, digital printing, e-book readers.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.40854
Sangeeta NAMDEV DHAMDHERE
Importance of Knowledge Management in the Higher Educational Institutes
Every academic institution contributes to knowledge. The generated information and knowledge is to be compiled at central place and disseminated among the society for further growth. It is observed that the generated knowledge in the academic institute is not stored or captured properly It is also observed that many a times generated information or knowledge in the academic institute is not known to any one and remains as grey literature, which might be useful if proper recoding is maintained in the organization. In fact academic environment is treasure of knowledge but it is not organized properly and hence utility is also lacking and cause for the repetitions of the activity. This project is undertaken under Board of University and Colleges, University of Pune for finding importance of KM of past knowledge of an institute. Also study on data capture, data analysis, data categorization, data mining, data mapping, knowledge mapping, concept mapping, indexing, linking and repackaging of knowledge, tools, techniques, strategies and copyright issues in sharing this knowledge through knowledge base.
Keywords: Knowledge management, knowledge sharing, Tacit knowledge management, knowledge management strategies, knowledge management policies in higher education.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.34392
Aliff NAWI , Mohd Isa HAMZAH & Azwin Arif ABDUL RAHIM
Teachers Acceptance of Mobile Learning for Teaching and Learning in Islamic Education: A Preliminary Study
This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of the religious teachers' readiness to use mobile phones as m-learning. The focus of the study is to examine some aspects namely;
types of handset used;
the use of mobile applications,
mobile learning activities, and;
the acceptance of mobile phones in teaching and learning. The targeted population was the religious teachers from Putrajaya, Selangor.
The purposive sampling technique was used to gather data from 32 religious teachers from five secondary schools. Data were collected via questionnaires based on Likert-five-point scales. The data were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted using descriptive findings to find the frequency distribution and percentage. Research findings revealed that religious teachers are exposed to learning activities using mobile phones, and they are ready to make mobile phones as m-learning.
Keywords: M-learning, mobile phones, Islamic Education, teaching and learning
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.30611
Behzad NAZARI & Sahar NIKNEJAD
E-mail Writing: Providing Background Information in the Core of Computer Assisted Instruction
The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via e-mail by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners’ writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran.
Through the placement test of Oxford English Language Placement Test (OELPT) the students' proficiency level seems to be nearly the same. Participants were randomly assign into two groups of experimental and control, each consisting of 25 students. After the administration of the proficiency test, all groups were assigned to write topic 1 as the pre-test. Next, the teacher involved the learners in the new instruction (treatment).
During writing topics 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 experimental group’s background knowledge was activated through e-mail before writing and e-mailing topics while the control group received no background knowledge activation through e-mail. After the treatment was given to the experimental group, the students in both groups were required to write another composition about the last topic, topic 8. Again, in this phase, none of the groups received any background information.
The results indicated that providing background information via e-mail by the teacher to write e-mail by the students significantly improved learners’ writing ability.
Keywords: Computer-assisted language learning, Computer-mediated communication, Asynchronous computer-mediated communication, Synchronous computer-mediated communication, Writing, Background Information, Holistic Scoring
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.22561
Shaista MAJID & Adeela RAZZAK
Designing A Model of Vocational Training Programs for Disables through ODL
This study was conducted to designing a model of vocational training programs for disables. For this purpose desk review was carried out and the vocational training models/programs of Israel, U.K., Vietnam, Japan and Thailand were analyzed to form a conceptual frame work of the model. Keeping in view the local conditions/requirements a model of vocational training program was proposed. The proposed model involved the vocational training plan for the job of cashier for mild group, receptionist for moderate and computer operator for severe group. It specified the type of disability as well involved in the training plan.
The model recommended the vocational training of three levels of disability; mild, moderate and severe irrespective to the type. The model consisted of details of structure, objectives, professional support involved, vocational training plan and syllabus/activities, evaluation and on job training etc. International practices regarding VT mixed with the national existing situations were critically analyzed during desk review and finally a plan of VT for disables was proposed. A survey was conducted via a questionnaire to get opinion of the heads and senior vocational instructors of Federal Government vocational training and rehabilitation centers for PWDs. The collected data was statistically analyzed to quantify the suggestions on proposed model.
The major findings included that all stakeholders considered VT helpful in rehabilitation of PWDs. All heads and vocational instructors are willing to adopt this model, minimum or no extra funds are needed in its implementation, the vocational teacher employed in the centers can easily manage to adopt this model at their centers because no extra training is required for the staff and they all endorse the VT plan proposed in this model.
A vocational training model is required to reduce socio-economic gap and to set professional standards by developing human resources trained in trades. The syllabus, activities and methodology proposed for the vocational training of the students at special education centers for the disables was agreed upon by the experts. It was recommended that vocational training model on various jobs for specific disabilities may be developed. Vocational training model for after school youth may also be developed on similar pattern. It was recommended that vocational training must be implemented through ODL for the training of PWDs in acquiring vocational skills if there is no vocational skill training teacher or resources available at the centers.
In this way a large number of individuals who are taking education at special education centers and institutions can take benefits from VET programs at a time with minimal cost provided at their door steps or at institutions.
Keywords: Disable persons, vocational training, rehabilitation, ODL, model on specific jobs for disable.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.53238
Sufiana Khatoon MALIK
Strategies for Maintaining Quality in Distance Higher Education
The current paper was produced with the purpose of suggesting strategies for bringing quality in distance education programs at higher education level. In recent times distance education is becoming an indispensable part of education system globally. Every institution is trying to offer their educational course through general as well through distance education means in order to make market for its programs. There is need to introduce quality distance education programs. It can be done through bringing quality in the curriculum and instruction of distance education programs, providing students quality support services, training faculty members in innovative methods of instruction of distance education, provision of technical support for promotion of research culture, adopting multiple ways of assessment of distance students, developing code of ethics for distance education faculty members and students, provision of quality infrastructure and technology, launching courses of distance education only through approval of national accreditation council for distance education (NACDE) and taking measures of check at every delivery system of distance education courses through quality control agencies.
Keywords: Strategies, quality distance education, curriculum, national accreditation council for distance education, delivery modes.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.62095
Saima AHMAD & Sharker Md. NUMAN
Potentiality of Disaster Management Education through Open and Distance Learning System in Bangladesh Open University
Bangladesh Open University (BOU) is the only public educational institution in Bangladesh, where, a dual-mode method of learning system has been introduced. Established in 21st October, 1992, the University now accommodates 1,74,459 learners in 2012. The wide range networking of this university provides it a great prospect to execute a broad spectrum of activities to accomplish its social responsibilities.
Despite the aims of BOU at continuous quantitative improvement and greater equity in the society, like most of the ODL method universities in the world, BOU framed a limited objective to create awareness and preparedness about the contemporary global disaster proneness among its learners. Bangladesh for its geographical location, experiences several natural disasters like annual flood, heavy rainfall, cyclone and tidal surge, earth quake, river bank erosion, drought, etc. Lack of awareness of the sustainable use of the natural resources, and the consequences of the heedless consumption of them by the inhabitants enhanced the degree and frequency of these natural disasters during the last decades. The present study emphasizes on the role of Bangladesh Open University in creating awareness among its learners about the causes and pattern of disasters, pre and post disaster management strategies, etc. The study proves that BOU is a unique educational institution which, through the ODL method of teaching, using various educational medium like, tutorial support, printed study materials, electronic media, internet, and cellular phone, etc. can provided a wide range of knowledge about the disaster vulnerability, risk reduction and management strategies to its learners.
Keywords: ODL, natural and man-made disaster, Vulnerability, risk reduction, disaster management.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.24161