15 (1), 2014
Welcome to Volume 15, Number 1 of TOJDE
Welcome to the Volume 15 Number: 1 of TOJDE!
In this issue, One Note for editor and 15 articles of 31 authors from 11 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are arrived to the TOJDE from, Argentina, Greece, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and USA.
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Twitter As An Educational Environment
The purpose of the study is to present a review of Twitter as an educational environment, as research is relatively new. The reviewed studies have been categorized into three sections:
Ø Reasons to use Twitter,
Ø Twitter as an educational environment, and
Ø some drawbacks.
Twitter and language teaching and learning and Twitter and libraries were subtitled under the section of Twitter as an educational environment. To conclude, current literature reflects that Twitter has a positive impact on education, while there has been a very serious lack of research on Twitter as an educational environment. Finally, the study ends with practical recommendations for researchers and educators.
Keywords: Twitter, Education, Educational Environment.
Muhammad K. AL-ALAWNEH
Examining E-Learning Barriers As Perceived By Faculty Members Of Engineering Colleges In The Jordanian Universities
Employing computer's technology that includes e-learning system in the field of Engineering is a vital issue which needs to be discussed. Therefore, this study purposed to examine e-learning barriers as perceived by faculty members of engineering in three major universities in Jordan (Yarmouk University, Jordan University of Science and Technology, and Al-Balqaa Applied University) in the second semester of 2012. The study's instrument was distributed to collect the data from a sample of 176 faculty members who are involved in delivering online courses through web-based management tool. The finding of the study shows that, overall, the three barriers domains were high. However, the results show that online degree experience and the gender of participants' variables were no significant. Based on the results, the study suggested that institutions of higher education should set a vision and a strategic plan to encourage faculty members to offer online courses and provide them with training and professional development to follow up with technology.
Keywords: E-learning Barriers, Higher Education, Engineering Faculty Members, Jordan.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.21352
C. Osvaldo RODRIGUEZ
MOBIMOOC 2012: A New Tree Structure For The Delivery Of Connectivist MOOCs
Based on the explicit principles of connectivism (autonomy, diversity, openness and interactivity) and on the activities of aggregation, remixing, repurposing and feeding forward resources and learning, connectivist Massive Open Online Courses (c-MOOCs) have made a large impact in online education since 2008.
Ideally a great part of c-MOOC participants should share, produce and consume digital media. But this does not happen and a majority of learners stay on the side as silent participants that only consume (lurkers). Those active never exceed 10% of those registered.
The way c-MOOCs have been delivered up to date can be divided into: i) those that make use of a daily newsletter used by the facilitator to syndicate fundamentally the blog posts from the active participants and ii) those that rely on a centralizing web page and where all course discussions happen via the usage of a mailing list. In each format participants undergo a very different learning experience but the relation active-to-lurker is in both ve similar.
After the success of MobiMOOC 2011, Inge de Waard organized and coordinated in September 2012 a three weeks course on mobile learning. MobiMOOC 2012 relied on a format of a centralized wiki and mailing list but introduced a new delivery structure: a tree arquitecture. Participants concentrated in only one topic in the first week, four were offered on the second and eight on the third.
MobiMOOC 2012 and this experimental new organizational structure are described in detail in this paper. We particularly analyze if a more balanced distribution of participants in active and lurkers roles was achieved when compared to previous experiences.
Keywords: Mobile technology; mLearning; MobiMOOC; MOOC; collaborative learning.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.59168
Using Of Teleconference As A Medium To Establish An “E-Global-Learning-System”: An Experience Of 1000guru-Association On Facilitates Open And Distance Learning Activities With Schools In Indonesia
Information communication and technology (ICT) has been used in various fields. The use of teleconference for teaching and learning activities is currently not a new topic in global world. In Indonesia, through IMHERE Program from Directorate of Higher Education, some universities have been connected with a network of teleconference as a medium of disseminate knowledge. However, when compare to university, the use of teleconference is not yet well-known in schools in Indonesia.
This paper aims at presenting the experiences on the use of Teleconference as a medium of teaching secondary school pupils new information on different subjects they discovered in international learning environment. This activity is carried out by Indonesian students who study abroad e.g. students who study in Germany, Japan, Canada, Australia and USA. This paper will also analyse the feedback from the beneficiaries of the teleconference program, to gather opinion about the prospect, challenges in the administration, organisation, and the pedagogy implication of the use of information communication and technology in schools in Indonesia. The author will also give suggestions or recommendations on the best strategies of improving the use of information technology in schools. This is important to further promote and establish the e-Global-learning-system in Indonesia.
Keywords: Teleconference, Learning Activities, Open and Distance learning, 1000guru.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.25210
Dual Mode Offering As Viable Approach For Promotion Of Higher Education In Pakistan
Pakistan is a developing with 148 universities and degree awarding institutions including public and private sector. The enrolment as given in the National Educational Policy 2009 was up to 5% only. It reflects greater demands of higher/tertiary education and calls for alternative strategic measures for addressing the issue. An innovative approach was necessary to address the issue of access. Therefore, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur –a formal mode university took an innovative initiative to become a dual mode university by establishing an Institute of Distance Education (IDE) in 2011.
The institute offered along with others, an M.Phill programme in ten disciplines through distance education mode in semester fall 2011. More than eight hundred applications were received by potential learners against 275 seats.
However, after test and interview 189 students were enrolled in M.Phill programme in Applied Psychology, Arabic, Education, English, Media Studies, Islamic Studies, Pakistan Studies, History, Persian, and Urdu. In the beginning, the Institute organized an orientation workshop for learners to guide them studying in distance education system. The programme was offered under semester system and the semester was broke up into two halves –mid-term and final term.
The respective departments provided learning materials to students whereas the IDE provided instructional booklet. Submission of two assignments was compulsory for the entire semester; one before mid-term and second before final-term workshop/ examination for each of the courses. Similarly, students’ presence in workshops for 24 hours (12 during mid-term and 12 during final-term workshop) for one 3-credit hour course was mandatory. Students’ support services were provided through Skype conference, social media and mobile phones. Students necessarily had to give presentations and submit their assignments after checking their similarity index by using turnitin software.
At the end of the course work the instructors rated performance of learners’ to be good. Learner’s appeared to be enthusiastic for continuing their studies. The experience appeared to be a milestone in promoting higher education and feasible for replication at larger scale in Pakistan. The process and procedures; achievements; and problems, issues and challenges were discussed paper to be presented during the conference. The detailed experience will be shared during the conference.
Keywords: Dual Mode University, Educational Technology, Distance Education, Viable Approach, Learning Experience
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.81051
Evaluation Of Webquest In Biology:Teachers’ Perception
Teaching and learning based on web or web-based learning is a concept which integrates information and technology in education. Teachers and instructors have to assist their learners to learn to function in this information environment. However, teacher trainers and instructors have limited experience in the integration of ICT by using web in their teaching, mainly for Biology subject. The Indonesian Ministry of Education has started to implement ICT in the process of learning and teaching. Hence, it geared our attention to evaluate the suitability of WebQuest to be used in teacher training among Biology teachers in central Kalimantan. Results showed those teachers’ perceptions towards WebQuest on technical, content, as well as teaching and learning structure were on the high level. However, there was no significant difference on teachers’ perception towards WebQuest based on their experience. Further evaluation study should be done on students to gauge their perception towards the WebQuest.
Keywords: Evaluation, Therapeutic Stem Cell Cloning, Web-based Learning, WebQuest
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.79867
Prantosh Kr. PAUL & Kiran LATA DANGWAL
Cloud Based Educational Systems And Its Challenges And Opportunities And Issues
Cloud Computing (CC) is actually is a set of hardware, software, networks, storage, services an interface combines to deliver aspects of computing as a service. Cloud Computing (CC) actually uses the central remote servers to maintain data and applications. Practically Cloud Computing (CC) is extension of Grid computing with independency and smarter tools and technological gradients. Healthy Cloud Computing helps in sharing of software, hardware, application and other packages with the help of internet tools and wireless media.
Cloud Computing, has benefits in several field and applications domain such as Agriculture, Business and Commerce, Health Care, Hospitality and Tourism, Education and Training sector and so on. In Education Systems, it may be applicable in general regular education and other education systems including general and vocational training. This paper is talks about opportunities that provide Cloud Computing (CC); however the intention would be challenges and issues in relation to Education, Education Systems and Training programme.
Keywords: Information, Information Science, Cloud Computing (CC), Cloud Based Education, E-Learning, Online Education, Challenges, Issues, Opportunities, Higher Education, Degree, Hi-Tech Education.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.71698
Maria GIANNOUSI, Nikolaos VERNADAKIS, Vassiliki DERRI, Panagiotis ANTONIOU & Efthimis KIOUMOURTZOGLOU
A Comparison Of Student Knowledge Between Traditional And Blended Instruction In A Physical Education In Early Childhood Course
ed learning model combines different advantages of face to face education and e-learning to ensure an effective learning environment for students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of traditional and blended instruction, in students´ knowledge in a Physical Education in Early Childhood course. For the purpose of this study a knowledge test was created and item analysis and validity and reliability tests were conducted. The course was developed to meet the learning needs of students and the course’s objectives. The curriculum lasted 13 weeks and included for the traditional instruction 12 face to face lectures and for the mixed 7 face to face lectures and 6 on line lectures. The software platform supporting the operation of blended instruction was the course management system E-Class. The study involved 60 students, (35 men, 25 women) aged 19-23 years old (M=20,22, SD=.98). Data analysis indicated that the knowledge test was valid and reliable. Although both groups improved their cognitive learning in this course, the blended learning group was more successful than the traditional on students´ achievement. Based on the findings, blended instruction appears as an alternative teaching practice that should be embraced by educators, in order to assist students to improve their performance.
Keywords: Blended Learning Instruction; Traditional Learning Instruction; Knowledge Test.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.99593
Michael K. BARBOUR, Tamme Quinn GRZEBYK & John EYE
Any Time, Any Place, Any Pace-Really? Examining Mobile Learning In A Virtual School Environment
Over the past decade, the number of K-12 students engaged in online learning has increased from between 40,000 and 50,000 to more than two million. Students have also gained increased access to mobile devices throughout recent years, and educators have actively looked for ways to capitalize on this trend.
A case study of students enrolled in an Advanced Placement European History course, offered by a statewide, supplemental virtual school in the Midwest. The students were studied over the course of four weeks, using Mobl21, an app that works on mobile devices, and offers an emulated version that runs on a computer.
The results showed that despite the fact that existing literature indicated students’ perceptions were positive toward mobile technologies; these students’ perceptions were negative. The isolated implementation of the project may have affected these perceptions. However, students’ access to mobile devices limited the project implementation.
Keywords: K-12 Online Learning, m-Learning, Mobile Learning, Virtual School, Virtual Schooling.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.45828
Muhammad K. AFIFI & Saad S. ALAMRI
Effective Principles In Designing E-Course In Light Of Learning Theories
The researchers conducted an exploratory study to determine the design quality of some E-courses delivered via the web to a number of colleagues at the university. Results revealed a number of shortcomings in the design of these courses, mostly due to the absence of effective principles in the design of these E-courses, especially principles of pedagogy in relation to learning theories.
So, this study seeks to identify effective principles in the design of courses for internet-based learning in the light of current learning theories, by answering the following question: What are the most effective principles when designing E-learning courses in the light of current learning theories? After an extensive review and analysis of the literature and previous studies relating to quality standards for the instructional design of E-courses delivered via the web, in particular, and quality standards for E-learning, in general, the results of this study revealed a number of principles for course design in E-learning. These are: identifying learning and performance outcomes; identifying methods and strategies of learning; designing learning activities; providing feedback and motivating the learner and determining the context and impact of learning. In the light of the findings of this study, with reference to the literature, we present a set of recommendations and pedagogical implications for professionals working in course design in E-learning at University of Dammam.
Keywords: E-Learning, E-Course, Instructional Design, Learning Theories, University of Dammam.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.43806
Unal CAKIROGLU & Mucahit OZTURK
Implementation Of Elaboration Theory In Material Design For Distance Education
Distance Education is a kind of teaching in which a variety of teaching activities and the communication between students are achieved through peculiarly prepared contents and environments at a certain station in the cases when there is no possibility to conduct in-class activities. One of the most significant constraints of distance education conducted by several universities is the lack of qualified content and the limitations in the presentation of the content. Herein there is a need for reference models that will show how to make material design, constitute an efficient theoretical base for presentation of the course content. Therefore, in this study for material design in Distance Education, Elaboration Theory was employed, and a sample course design was accomplished. With its seven basic components (an Elaborative Sequence, Learning Prerequisite Sequences, Summarizers, Synthesizers, Analogies, Cognitive Strategy Activators, Learner Control) Elaboration Theory guides the teaching designers about how the teaching content and its presentations should be. In this study, a material design including four subjects was conducted for an introductory programming course in the scope of guiding principles of ET, and at every stage of this design, four experts’ views were received in order to ensure its validity. The suggested style of material design is hoped to eliminate at a visible level the insufficiencies in favor of synchronous distance learning practices.
Keywords: Distance Education, Material Design
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.58963
The Perception Of English Literature Students On E-Xamination And Online (Web- Based) Learning
The purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of students on the implementation of e-examination and their preparedness for facilitation through a web-based learning platform at the National Open University of Nigeria. Information gathered from the year three and year four students who registered for courses in English Literature in the undergraduate English Programme and Law at the Lagos Study Centre of the university was evaluated. This group of students has participated in the e-examination as well as the pen on paper (POP) examinations so are in a better position to evaluate the e-examination. The investigation was carried out through interviews, focus discussions and questionnaires and the result indicated that the students’ perceptions of online examination were generally positive and that they were enthusiastic about online facilitation but skeptical about its workability at this stage of our nation’s technological development.
Keywords: E-xamination and Online (web- based) Learning, NOUN, Perception.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.04350
Shelia Y. TUCKER
Transforming Pedagogies: Integrating 21st Century Skills And Web 2.0 Technology
According to (P21), Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d.), unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today’s education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these changing conditions in order to thrive. Students must be equipped to live in a multifaceted, multitasking, technology-driven world. And, regardless of their economic background, we must also ensure that all students have equal access to this new technological world. Collaborative learning theory which is connected to constructivism pedagogy requires students to work together to solve problems. Students need lifelong learning skills i.e., communication and information skills, problem-solving and thinking skills, and interpersonal and self-directional skills. The challenge becomes to deliberately incorporate learning skills into classrooms strategically and broadly. In this digital age, students must learn to use tools essential to everyday life and workplace productivity. They live in a world of almost unlimited streams of profound information, difficult choices and enormous opportunity. Teachers can create a 21st century context for learning by taking students out into the world, by bringing the world into the classroom, and by creating opportunities for students to collaboratively interact with each other (Learning for the, n.d.). One way of accomplishing this task is by employing the use of the Internet to connect Web 2.0 technology and 21st century skills. These skills are essential due to increased global competition, rising workforce capabilities, and accelerated technological change (Learning for the, n.d.).
Keywords: Web 2.0 Technolgy, 21st Century Skills, Pedagogy.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.32300
Zamri ARIFIN, Ezad Azraai JAMSARI , Khaulah RIDDZWAN, Muhamad Ridzuan ABDUL LATIF & Zulazhan AB. HALIM
Attitudes Of Distance Learning Students At Ukm’s Faculty Of Islamic Studies Towards Learning Arabic Language Skill Courses
Attitude is the most important element in determining one’s achievements in learning the Arabic language either as a full or part-time student. This study is based on the Gardner's socio-educational model, and focuses on two types of motivational orientation, which are integrative and instrumental, and attitudes toward the learning conditions.
The main purpose of this study is to identify the level of integrative orientation, attitudes toward the learning conditions and instrumental orientation among students in a Distance Learning (DL) program at the Faculty of Islamic Studies (FPI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM, The National University of Malaysia).
This study used a quantitative research design. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed descriptively. A total of 170 distance learning students were selected using the simple random sampling technique. Findings show that the students possessed a high level of integrative orientation and their attitudes toward learning environment were positive. The level of instrumental orientation, on the other hand, was very high with the instrumental orientation obtaining the highest mean score. One of the implications that can be drawn from this study is that teachers and students need to take into account and emphasize integrative orientation, attitudes toward learning conditions and instrumental orientation in order to develop a positive attitude in students who aim to master the Arabic language. Other than that, educational institutions should provide support and carry out other related activities and programs in order to ensure that students consistently have positive attitudes whilst achieving excellent results in learning the Arabic language.
Keywords: Attitudes, Arabic language, instrumental, integrative, learning, Arabic language skills.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.04949
F. Zeynep OZATA & Nilgun OZDAMAR KESKIN
Students’ Preferences And Opinions On Design Of A Mobile Marketing Education Application
The purpose of this study was to define and better understand business school students’ opinions and preferences on the design of a mobile marketing education application. To accomplish this purpose an explanatory mixed methods study design was used and the data was collected sequentially. First, a questionnaire was conducted with 168 business school students from Anadolu University to define their learning styles. The learning orientation questionnaire produced five factors: visual, auditory, dependent, collaborative, and reading & writing learning styles. In the second phase of the study, semi-structured in depth interviews were conducted with nine graduate students at Anadolu University to better understand their preferences and explore their opinions on the mobile application. After the coding process three themes emerged: learning styles, content, and tools. Added to these themes, eight motives for the use of a mobile marketing education application were also identified.
Keywords: Marketing Education, Learning Styles, Mobile Learning, Mobile Applications, Mobile Learning Design
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.76203
Zeki KAYA & Seref TAN
New Trends Of Measurement And Assessment In Distance Education
Distance education is a discipline that offers solutions to some important education problems. Distance education, contribute to the solution to the problems such as; inequality of opportunities, lifelong education, the implementation of a series of individual and social goals that can contribute to and benefit from educational technology and self-learning. In distance education, methods of measurement and assessment must be consistent with the objectives and contents of teaching. A major interest of formative assessment is determining the students’ learning level of each behavior in the interested unit. In summative assessment, performances of students on some units are measured broader than formative assessment. A computerized adaptive testing, CAT, is the test managed by computer in which each item is introduced and the decision to stop are dynamically imposed based on the students answers and his/her estimated knowledge level.
In CAT applications, students do not take the same test. Despite item numbers and properties of items are different for the students; the precise of measures improves in positioning students on an ability or success continuum in CAT applications. In CAT applications, questions answered by a student depend on the student's ability or learning level. In item response theory, there are some models to estimate a student’s ability level, such as three-parameter logistic model. Cheating in exams or other academic assignments can be defined as use resources not allowed to use or having someone else to take exams or assignments. Some precautions must be taken about cheating such as a live proctoring, using web cams, and using a plagiarism detection program.
Keywords: Distance Education, Computerized Adaptive Testing, Online Testing, Item Response Theory, Preventing Cheating, Measurement And Assessment.
DOI : 10.17718/tojde.30398