The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education
Gail D. CARUTH & Donald L. CARUTH
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Understanding Resistance To Change: A Challenge For Universities
Change is inevitable. Today more than ever the pace of change is accelerating. Where there is organizational change there will be resistance to this change. To deal with the resistance effectively university administrators must understand the nature and causes of resistance to change. Only by dealing effectively with resistance to change can organizational change be implemented successfully. This paper explores organizational change and the challenge it poses for universities. Because universities are slow to change due to maintaining a balance of tradition and change successful implementation of change will continue to be a challenge both now and in the future. The challenge of change is real but the task is not impossible. Historically, universities have met the challenges that faced them; they must be prepared to confront this challenge too.
Keywords: Change, Resistance to Change, University Management, Online Education
Catalina MARIN, Jace HARGIS & Cathy CAVANAUGH
NOTE FOR EDITOR: iPad Learning Ecosystem: Developing Challenge-Based Learning Using Design Thinking
In order to maximize college English language students' learning, product development, 21st Century skills and engagement with real world meaningful challenges, a course was designed to integrate Challenge Based Learning (CBL) and iPad mobile learning technology.
This article describes the course design, which was grounded in design thinking, and provides an overview of the pilot implementation of the course. The course achieved its goals to a great extent in that learners felt that they were beginning to help build a better college community by sharing stories of their learning experience and their insights about the essential question they chose with other students and with other teachers. The course also helped the students discover the use of English as they found ways to reach out to the broader college community and held meaningful conversations with teachers, librarians, managers, and staff from different departments and other students. The course transformed the teacher/researcher into an observer of learning and a guide, thus flipping the classroom and allowing the learners to take responsibility and steer their own learning experiences.
Further development is needed in the areas of CBL assessment rubric development in English Language Teaching (ELT) and the analysis of student generated content through iPad applications.
Keywords: Mobile Learning, English Language Learning, Challenge Based Learning, Design Thinking.
P. SATYANARAYANA & Emmanuel DK MEDURI
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Use Of Distance Education By Christian Religion To Train, Edify And Educate Adherents
Distance Education has been growing fast, in a marvelously diverse fashion. The efficiency, effectiveness, validity and utility of distance teaching-learning are on increase. All communities and religious groups are making use of distance learning methodology to upgrade their knowledge, skills and attitudes. Christina educational institutions in all the parts of the world are being benefitted by the Christian distance education programme. Christian websites make up more than 80 percent of the websites of the world’s five major religions. Globalisation is facilitating many Christian pioneers of multiple denominations to adopt distance teaching-learning beyond all frontiers and barriers. Baker’s guide to Christian Distance Education profiles upto 150 Christian degree programmes. Some of the popular programmes are indicated here.
Christians who constitute 2.33 percent of Indian population are educationally benefitted by Christian distance education programmes. A major Christian distance education programme is offered by Andhra Christian Theological College. Its four distance courses attract students all over the country.
Keywords: Christian Distance Education, Baker’s Guide To Christian Distance Education, Christian Distance Education In India, Andhra Christian Theological College, Distance Education Challenges.
Scaffolding In Connectivist Mobile Learning Environment
Social networks and mobile technologies are transforming learning ecology. In this changing learning environment, we find a variety of new learner needs. The aim of this study is to investigate how to provide scaffolding to the learners in connectivist mobile learning environment:
Ø to learn in a networked environment,
Ø to manage their networked learning process,
Ø to interact in a networked society, and
Ø to use the tools belonging to the network society.
The researcher described how Vygotsky's “scaffolding” concept, Berge’s “learner support” strategies, and Siemens’ “connectivism” approach can be used together to satisfy mobile learners’ needs. A connectivist mobile learning environment was designed for the research, and the research was executed as a mixed-method study. Data collection tools were Facebook wall entries, personal messages, chat records; Twitter, Diigo, blog entries; emails, mobile learning management system statistics, perceived learning survey and demographic information survey. Results showed that there were four major aspects of scaffolding in connectivist mobile learning environment as type of it, provider of it, and timing of it and strategies of it. Participants preferred mostly social scaffolding, and then preferred respectively, managerial, instructional and technical scaffolding. Social scaffolding was mostly provided by peers, and managerial scaffolding was mostly provided by instructor. Use of mobile devices increased the learner motivation and interest. Some participants stated that learning was more permanent by using mobile technologies. Social networks and mobile technologies made it easier to manage the learning process and expressed a positive impact on perceived learning.
Keywords: Connectivism, Mobile learning, Scaffolding.
Roxana CRIU & Ciprian CEOBANU
E-Learning-Implications For Adult Learning
If a few decades ago, the education received in school could be in most of the cases enough to go with for the rest of one’s entire life, today the situation has changed dramatically. The individual has to be prepared for a new type of life and training, namely lifelong learning. The individual’s survival in society could depend on his capacity to learn, to re-qualify, to forget what he once learned and to train for the future in an entirely different manner. Within this context, e-learning and distance education can be viable alternatives for the necessary and imperative adaptation process. Modern man’s education has to go beyond the stage of level oriented education (limited in terms of trainee number and training duration) and advance towards continuous education, which is able to train the individual irrespective of his location and with no limitations in terms of time. The passage towards the information society involves mutations in the object of the activities, mainly in terms of selecting, storing, preserving, managing and protecting information.
Against this extremely fluctuant background, a relevant question rises: is the adult capable of coping, both individually and socially, with the challenge of e-learning?
Keywords: Adult Learning, e-Learning, Learning Styles
C. Osvaldo RODRIGUEZ
Two Distinct Course Formats In The Delivery Of Connectivist Moocs
Massive Open Online Courses based on the principles of connectivist educational pedagogy known as connectivist MOOCs (c-MOOCs) have been carried out with great success during the last years with hundreds of registered participants. Examples are CCK08 (2008), PLENK2010 (2010), MobiMOOC (2011), EduMOOC (2011), Change11 (2011/12), and LAK12 (2012). Their implementation required conceptual changes in perspective from both “facilitators” (tutors) and learners. They are so novel that much research needs to be done for their understanding and improvement. Basically two very distinct delivery formats have been used:
Ø Those that use what’s referred to as an aggregator, an emailed daily newsletter, called “The Daily” that captures contributions from tutors and participants mainly from their blogs: Format A.
Ø Those where all events go through a “centralizing” web page or wiki and discussions happen with the use of a mailing list, in most cases using Google Groups: Format B.
In this paper we study in detail representative courses. From their comparison we establish that connectivist MOOCs delivered with formats A and B share many common features but that their differences are such that the learner’s experience and the outcome of the courses are very different depending on the format used.
Keywords: Open Online Courses, MOOC, and Learner Experience.
Vasif NABIYEV, Hasan KARAL, Selahattin ARSLAN, Ali Kürsat ERUMIT & Ayça CEBI
An Artificial Intelligence-Based Distance Education System: Artimat
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the artificial intelligence-based distance education system called as ARTIMAT, which has been prepared in order to improve mathematical problem solving skills of the students, in terms of conceptual proficiency and ease of use with the opinions of teachers and students.
The implementation has been performed with 4 teachers and 59 students in 10th grade in an Anatolian High School in Trabzon. Many institutions and organizations in the world approach seriously to distance education besides traditional education. It is inevitable to use the distance education in teaching the problem solving skills in this different dimension of the education. In the studies in Turkey and abroad in the field of mathematics teaching, problem solving skills are generally stated not to be at the desired level and often expressed to have difficulty in teaching.
For this reason, difficulties of the students in problem solving have initially been evaluated and the system has been prepared utilizing artificial intelligence algorithms according to the obtained results. In the evaluation of the findings obtained from the application, it has been concluded that the system is responsive to the needs of the students and is successful in general, but that conceptual changes should be made in order that students adapt to the system quickly.
Keywords: Distance Education, Problem Solving, Artificial Intelligence.
Discourse Functions And Vocabulary Use In English Language Learners' Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication
This study explores the discourse generated by English as a foreign language (EFL) learners using synchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) as an approach to help English language learners to create social interaction in the classroom. It investigates the impact of synchronous CMC mode on the quantity of total words, lexical range and discourse functions of EFL learners’ writing from different genders (males vs. females). Thirty-two intermediate EFL students discussed four topics in four CMC sessions. The findings reveal that gender plays a major role in shaping the quantity of discourse (total words), lexical range (variety), and linguistic output (i.e., the quantity and type of discourse functions) the participants’ generated using synchronous CMC mode.
Generally, the female participants produced more words, complex lexical range and output discourse functions than males in CMC setting. In addition, the study showed that the participants produced discourse functions shaped by the particularities of local social arrangements. Users found opportunities in the virtual world of CMC which enable them to blind their identities, so people in subordinate conditions such as females in certain conservative societies, EFL learners, and shy students may find CMC useful for fostering their communicative competence.
Keywords: Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC), Discourse Functions, Lexical Range, Synchronous CMC, Gender.
Emrah CINKARA & Birsen BAGCECI
Learners’ Attitudes Towards Online Language Learning; And Corresponding Success Rates
Online teaching has long been a key area of interest recently in every field of education as well as English language teaching. Numerous hardware tools, such as, mp3 players, mobile devices, and so on; and software applications, such as, podcasts, wikis, learning management systems, and so on, have been used in distance and online instruction and they have proved to be useful in facilitating learning individually (Finger, Sun, & Jamieson-Proctor, 2010). Learning management systems (LMS) provide a virtual environment and various tools to support learning. The current institution where the researchers work deliver two 2-credit online English courses for a specific group of learners at a state university in south-eastern Turkey by using Modular Object Oriented Distance Learning Environment (MOODLE). Moodle is an open code LMS which provides teachers and course developers with numerous online tools to enhance distance learning/teaching environment.
The course has both a synchronous and asynchronous instruction. Synchronous and asynchronous instructions are associated with the delivery of content in campus-based environments; however, their role differs in off the campus environments as they solve the problems of distance learners. Universities, colleges, and other education institutions are integrating online learning into every aspect of higher education. Many teachers and faculty members at higher education institutions who already run face-to-face courses have a website to post lecture notes or slide presentations as well as other course material. There is no doubt that these are effective strategies to expand teaching efforts. Still, there are other educators who design and teach totally online classes. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate learners’ attitudes towards these online language courses, and there are two objectives of this research.
The first one is to discover learners’ attitudes towards the online English course; and the second purpose is to evaluate and correlate learners’ attitudes with their success determined with their end-of-the-year grades.
For the unique purpose of this study, an Online Language Learning Attitude Test (OLLAT) has been constructed and distributed to about 7000 learners who were invited to complete this task online. 3516 of these learners took the OLLAT voluntarily and 1783 were successfully completed the test and were included in this study. The findings showed that there is a statistically significant positive correlation between learners’ OLLAT scores and their course success.
Keywords: Attitudes, Online Language Learning, Success
Ahmet Murat UZUN, Erhan UNAL & Ahmet YAMAC
Service Teachers’ Academic Achievements In Online Distance Education: The Roles Of Online Self-Regulation And Attitudes
The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service teachers’ academic achievements in terms of different variables such as online self-regulated learning skills and attitudes towards distance education. This study is descriptive in nature. Survey study design was implemented to examine the relationships among variables.
The study was implemented at Afyon Kocatepe University Faculty of Education in Turkey. The study group consists of 114 students from different departments including primary school education, social studies education and preschool education. 84 (73.7%) were females and 30 (26.3%) were males. Ages of the group ranged between 18 and 28 with a mean of 19.42 (SD: 1.30). In Afyon Kocatepe University some courses named “Computer II” and “Principles of Ataturk and the History of Revolution” are presented by using computer based online distance education. We selected “Computer II” as data collection medium. The course was introduced to students for one semester. Online self-regulated learning scale (α=0.948) and attitude scale towards distance learning (α=0.835) are used as data instruments. Students’ final grades were taken into account as achievement scores to examine the relationship between achievement attitude and self-regulated learning. Pearson’s correlation coefficient, multiple regression analysis, independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA are conducted to analyze collected data. The results showed that online self-regulated learning strategies and attitude towards distance education accounted for 15 % of variation of students’ achievement. Attitude made a significant contribution to the prediction of achievement while the sub factors of self-regulated learning did not make a significant contribution to achievement.
Keywords: Self-regulated Learning, Distance Education, Attitude, and Achievement.
Gail D. CARUTH & Donald L. CARUTH
Distance Education In The United States: From Correspondence Courses To The Internet
Online learning is a descendent of distance education. Online education has a shared history with correspondence learning. In 1873, Anna Eliot Ticknor founded the Society to Encourage Studies at Home. Ticknor's Society established one of America’s first correspondence schools, a distance learning option conducted through the mail. This Society was aimed at the education of women and enrolled more than seven thousand women. Education by mail was a quality approach to provide education for all because it allowed universities to access an infinite number of potential students. Today there are institutions that offer only online courses. At the same time, brick and mortar or traditional institutions offer online courses in addition to their face-to-face courses. A review of the literature suggests that as indicated by enrollment figures, the number of students taking online courses is growing and continued growth can be expected in the future.
Keywords: Distance Education, Online Education, Internet Courses, Web-Based Education, And Correspondence Education.
Manoj ROY. V & Chimoy Kumar GHOSH
The Benefits Of The E-Learning Agricultural Project Kissankerala To Digital Immigrants And Digital Natives
In recent times Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been able to make inroads into the ways information is disseminated among those involved in direct farming and farming related enterprises.
This paper arose from a two-year study of the KissanKerala, the e-learning project underway in Kerala, a small state in India. It is more conspicuous when we learn that the KissanKerala project is able to disseminate agricultural information also among digital immigrants. Since 2003, the KissanKerala has been providing advisory services to the farming community in Kerala using a combination of technologies. Salient features of the project are discussed. Noteworthy are its interactive web portal and the online agri-video channel that uses the video sharing platform of YouTube.
In this paper, we look at the e-learning strategies adopted; virtual learning environments created and also discuss participative tools used for communication. We have also made an impact-study of the project with a large number of beneficiaries. We learn that the Kissan Kerala is one of the most successful learning projects undertaken in distance mode in India.
Keywords: E-Learning, ICT, Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants, E-Readiness, Distance Education.
Iskender Hakkı SARIGOZ
Adjusting Language Level In Teacher-Talk In Elt Microteachings With Specific Reference To Distance Education Teacher
Foreign language teacher education requires microteaching practices carried out by teacher trainees for learning and assessment purposes. During microteachings, teacher trainees operate many teaching skills concurrently. Interlanguage compatible teacher-talk in the target language is essential for the production of student talk at elementary and intermediate levels in English language teaching (ELT). It is a demanding task for ELT trainees to adjust the language level according to the given interlanguage level. Nevertheless, during the microteaching sessions observed by the author and other teacher trainers attributed whose impressions are disclosed below, critical unintended flaws in teacher-talk adjustment in reference to the predetermined interlanguage levels were observed. Such a mismatch causes critical problems in the comprehension of the lesson. The recognition and discussion of the matter and the search for ways of teaching at the appropriate level play a big part in foreign language teacher education.
In the first part of the study, the pre-service teaching performance from this perspective is being explored in a two-part questionnaire administered subsequent to language-skills microteachings carried out by the trainees attending the third year of college with maximum attention on language level adjustment. A parallel questionnaire was administered to the teacher trainers who observed and evaluated similar microteachings. The second part of the study argues the skill of language level adjustment from the perspective of distant foreign language teacher training. It suggests a set of pre, while, and, post microteaching adjustment strategies primarily for distance training.
Keywords: English Language Teacher Training (ELT), Microteaching, Teacher Trainees, Teacher-Talk, Language Level Adjustment, Distance Teacher Training
Belingtone Eliringia MARIKI
Use Of Ict In Distance Education At Hanyang Cyber University: Possible Best Practices For The Institute Of Adult Education
This study was carried out at Hanyang Cyber University (HYCU) in the Republic of Korea. The main purpose of this study was to explore Hanyang Cyber University’s experience in the use of ICT in Distance Education (DE) so as to learn best practices that can be adapted by the Institute of Adult Education (IAE) in Tanzania. Specifically, the study explored on how HYCU uses ICT in DE and the challenges that they encounter in the course of using ICT in DE. Both structured and unstructured interviews were used for data collection.
Findings showed that HYCU use various ICTs such as Learning Management System and online interaction assessment methods to enhance DE. Challenges such as difficulties in meeting online teaching and learning requirements and lack of human and material resource to undertake DE courses were identified to constrain effective use of ICTs in DE at HYCU. It is recommended that IAE should consider contextualization of the Learning Management System that is currently used at HYCU when establishing online study programme to ensure quality DE in the Institute.
Keywords: Information And Communication Technology, Distance Education
Abdurazzag A ABURAS & Müjgan AYRAN
M-Health For Higher Education
Better education is required better advanced tools to be used for students. Smart phone becomes main part of our daily life. New medical design interface is introduced for medicine student based mobile. The Graphic User Interface must be easy and simple. The main interface design issue for mobile is simple and easy to use. Human Mobile Interaction-HMI is the most advanced research area at present time. This research work is introducing new HMI for On Table Counter-OTC. OTC is the medicine that can sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional. This research paper is introducing and creating new advanced teaching tool for higher education especially medical (Pharmacy) students using smart phone. Advanced MHealth system for basic symptoms applied for training medical student to have the best selection (diagnose). The MHealth system will give small and best list of Free Prescription Medicine - FPM using mobile device platform. Johnson &Johnson (J&J) Medicine Company has been used for creating our HMI mHealth database. It has one of the biggest OTC database medicine companies worldwide. J&J database is used for developing the proposed mHealth system. The main goal of this research work is designing smart and simple HMI interacting interface for the Mobile device. The research goal has been achieved. The OTC database size for mobile memory was 400KB. The proposed research work has been completed and new advanced HMI based mHealth application has been introduced.
Keywords: HMI, Higher Education, OTC, mHealth, Mobile
The Effects Of Different Interaction Types In Web-Based Teaching On The Attitudes Of Learners Towards Web Based Teaching And Internet
It might be said that attitudes impact success directly in web-based teaching and timely and appropriate fulfillment of learners’ expectations bear utmost significance for their success. From this perspective a properly designed web supported teaching application can provide positive contribution as well to learners’ attitudes towards web supported teaching and internet. Based on this premise, the objective of present research is to explore the effects of different interaction types in web-based teaching setting on the attitudes of learners towards web-based teaching and internet. An experimental pattern with pretest-posttest control group was used in the study. Study group of research consists of 77 students.
Research data have been compiled via Attitude towards Internet Scale (α=0,77) and Attitude towards Web-based Learning Scale (α=0,86). In one of the experimental groups, synchronous web-based training interaction and in the other group asynchronous web-based training interaction and in the control group learner-content only interaction has been provided. In data analysis; standard deviation, arithmetical means, one-way variance analysis and LSD tests have been employed.
As a result: Web-based training applications with synchronous interaction, compared to web-based training application with learner-content only interaction, have significantly higher contribution on learners’ attitudes towards web-based teaching.
In Web-based teaching settings different types of interaction have no effect on learners’ attitudes towards internet which may be attributed to the fact that learners’ attitudes towards internet were already in quite high levels prior to the procedure.
Keywords: Web-supported Teaching, Internet, Attitude, Interaction.
Attitudes Of Undergraduate Students Towards An Online English Class
Distance online learning has been regarded as a useful learning method, especially when we faced the big flood crisis in Thailand. To solve the lack of classrooms, our university administrators decided to implement WebEx system as an alternative to continue teaching. And, there were some relevant aspects that we needed to consider. Therefore, this study investigated students’ attitude toward WebEx system.
It aimed to examine students’ attitudes toward using WebEx for an online English class, compare students’ attitudes toward WebEx system with their background and investigate the relationship between students’ computer aptitude and their attitudes towards WebEx system. The samples were 211 undergraduate students enrolled in Fundamental English course. The instrument in this study was a questionnaire. Results indicated that the levels of computer aptitude and attitudes towards WebEx system in general were moderate. There were no statistically significant differences at .05 level found in students’ attitudes toward WebEx system as classified by gender, computer ownership, and monthly allowance.
As hypothesised, there was a positive relationship between students’ computer aptitude and their attitudes toward WebEx at .01 levels. Students with high computer aptitude were found to have more positive attitudes toward WebEx system than those with low computer aptitude. The research was done during the flood crisis.
Thus, it is interesting to find out whether an English online class through WebEx system will be more accepted by users in the future, especially in a normal circumstance after the flood crisis. Nevertheless, the results of this study will give some ideas to institutions that plan to use online learning technologies.
Keywords: Attitudes, WebEx, Online Learning
Learners And Collaborative Learning In Virtual Worlds: A Review Of The Literature
The purpose of this paper is to present selected literature on learners and collaborative learning in virtual worlds. Research in virtual worlds on collaborative learners is gradually emerging and will gain in significance, particularly in online and distance education environments. It will be argued that the design and functionality of virtual worlds provides a platform for collaboration, particularly for learners that have grown up with digitalized learning environments and may have developed a preference for them.
The paper starts with a clarification of terms, a description of the various categories and a chronological overview of the emergence and development of these environments. The familiarisation with the subject matter continues through a discussion of the significance, opportunities and barriers that this medium offers and is followed by an examination of learners’ characteristics and their implications for teaching and learning in virtual worlds.
Drawing on recent examples of virtual worlds in education and some current statistics, the paper strives to meet the continuing education needs of practitioners and educator using virtual worlds. It concludes with an examination of the challenges and perspectives on collaborative learning in these environments and the trends in virtual worlds that impact the delivery of student learning.
Keywords: Virtual Worlds, Learner Characteristics, Collaborative Learning.
Silima NANDA & Ashlesh SAXENA
A Novel Learning Environment:Case Study Of The Pan African E-Network Project
The constructivist form of learning creates such an environment where the learners are not only active but they become actors’ i.e members and contributors of the social and information space without taking into consideration the geographic boundaries. Such an innovative form of distance education was initiated in India in the year 2007 and it was meant to be offered as cross-border tele-education to the states of the African Union. The objective was two-fold: first to benefit the disadvantaged African learners who missed out opportunities to attend regular universities and earn degrees or seek employment. Secondly it was to promote the educational service of India under the umbrella of GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) which was operational since 1996. Initiatives were taken by the Government of India and the African Union to boost the usage of the available resources in IT, medical sciences etc. for the growth of the people of the African countries so that they could compete with the rest of the world. African learners can access higher education with the usage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which is considered to be the demand of the coming generation. The tele-education concept employs sophisticated technology, state of the art studio and the best of the class facility. The mode of this tele-education is made feasible through a virtual platform where education is imparted through a two way audio and two way video communications spreading over multiple countries of Africa in a single session.
This paper is in attempt to describe this innovative form of virtual education and look into its impact on the African learning community. The general feedback is that the students have been greatly benefitted and the demand for such form of education has also increased multi fold with the students’ enrolment having increased manifold, especially for the management programme.
Keywords: Cross-border Tele-education, African Union, Virtual, Learning Community.
Strategies For Online Educators
For a variety of reasons, online education is an increasingly viable option for many students seeking to further their education. Because of this, the demand for online instructors continues to increase. Instructors transitioning to the online environment from the traditional classroom may find teaching online overwhelming. While some practices from the traditional classroom may apply in the new environment, there are many strategies that are unique to online learning. Additionally, the field of online instruction is changing so rapidly that the techniques for teaching online must be revisited regularly as well.
This paper explores research regarding some current strategies for teaching online for both new and current online instructors. The practices examined include training, organizing the course, remaining proactive, providing regular and timely communication, maintaining a presence in the classroom, facilitating effective discussion boards, scaffolding, and desiring to improve one’s online instruction. By utilizing these techniques in one’s courses, online instructors are several steps closer to successful and satisfied students excited to continue learning in the online environment.
Keywords: Online Instruction Strategies; Distance Education; Teaching Online
Hamdy AHMED ABDELAZIZ
From Physical Benchmarks To Mental Benchmarks: A Four Dimensions Dynamic Model To Assure The Quality Of Instructional Activities In Electronic And Virtual Learning Environments
The objective of this paper was to develop a four dimensions dynamic model for designing instructional activities appropriate to electronic and virtual learning environments. The suggested model is guided by learning principles of cognitivism, constructivism, and connectivism learning theories in order to help online learners to build and acquire meaningful knowledge and experiences. The proposed model consists of four dynamic dimensions:
Ø Cognitive presence activities;
Ø Psychological presence activities;
Ø Social presence activities; and
Ø Mental presence activities.
Cognitive presence activities refer to learner’s ability to emerge a cognitive vision regarding the content of learning. The cognitive vision will be the starting point to construct meaningful understanding. Psychological presence activities refer to the learner’s ability to construct self awareness and trustworthiness. It will work as psychological schema to decrease the load of learning at distance. Social presence activities refer to the learner’s ability to share knowledge with others in a way to construct a community of practice and assure global understanding of learning. Finally, mental presence activities refer to learner’s ability to construct mental models that represent knowledge creation. It will help learners to make learning outcomes and experiences transferable. Applying the proposed model will improve the process of developing e-based activities throughout a set of adaptive and dynamic frameworks and guidelines to meet online learner’s cognitive, psychological, social and mental presence.
Keywords: e-Learning, Virtual learning, Instructional Activities, Quality Assurance, E-based Activities
Rusmanizah USTATI & Sharifah Sariah Syed HASSAN
Distance Learning Students’ Need: Evaluating Interactions From Moore’s Theory Of Transactional Distance
This study draws on the experience from a focus group interviews under the distance learning programme known as Program Pensiswazahan Guru (PPG) organized by the Malaysian Ministry of Education in collaboration with local universities and institutes of education. Its purpose is to uncover students’ perception about the platform used by International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) which is the Learning Management System (LMS). LMS is a vital instructional medium especially for the varsity distant learners. Michael Moore’s Theory of Transactional Distance is used as the guiding framework to gain insights on learning and interactions in this e-learning setting. Teacher-student interactions are analyzed for better understanding of the phenomena under study.
The findings indicate that in terms of usability LMS is perceived as a good platform to acquire information on content and to receive feedback from instructors. However, IIUM learners hope for more interactivity where learners can communicate amongst themselves beside engaging with the instructor-learner- content interactions that they currently experience via the system. This study aspires to provide insights on the significance of interactions from distance learners’ perception.
Keywords: Distance Learning, Theory of Transactional Distance, Student-Teacher Interaction, E-Learning
Mahir KALFA & Haydar YALCIN
Technology Related Expectations Of Turkish As A Second Language Learners At Hacettepe University
Aside from ‘lingua franca’ of the current age, technology enhanced language learning is stil in its infancy for the less commonly taught languages. Hacettepe TOMER has been teaching Turkish as a foreign/second language to the exchange students for several years though; technology related expectations of the language learners have never been precisely determined. The current study, as an action research of which the institution would benefit from, aimed to explore the language learners’ technology related expectations. The sample of the study is 17 foreigner students attending Turkish as a second language programs with different native languages. The data were gathered through a questionnaire form developed by the researchers and a thorough literature review. The results revealed that HUTOMER should enhance their technologic facilities and improve the quality of the language education provided at the institution because participants do expect more multimedia resources during their language education. Suggestions were made for further research.
Keywords: Turkish as a Second Language, HUTOMER, Digital Natives, Technology Enhanced Language Learning.
Sami ALHOMOD & Mohd Mudasir SHAFI
E-Governance In Education: Areas Of Impact And Proposing A Framework To Measure The Impact
Information Technology (IT) is said to be the technology of 21st century. There has been a huge growth in the field of information technology. Traditionally IT was used only to provide the back office support to organizations.
Nowadays it plays a strategic role in organizations supporting many business functions and also shapes new strategies in organizations. The IT field has also been introduced in the field of governance called “E Governance”. This IT based E governance has also been introduced in the field of education. The implementation of e governance in education has led to new broader innovations. E governance has enabled universities to expand their current geographical reach, to interact to prospective students all around the world and to establish themselves as global education providers. This paper examines the need for implementation of e governance in education sector and its possible advantages.
The paper also proposes a framework to measure the success of an e governance initiative in an educational organisation. The aim of this paper is to examine the nature of change in Education with respect to the introduction and growth of IT based e governance.
Keywords: E-Governance, E Learning, Information And Communication, Education, Improved Education, E-Services.
Reviewed By Kadir KOZAN
REVIEW: Cognitive Load Theory
Cognitive load theory (2011) by John Sweller, Paul Ayres, and Slava Kalyuga presents the state-of-the art form of cognitive load theory (CLT) including instructional guidelines produced by the theory so far. The book achieves this in a precise, detailed and well-organized manner thereby being very informative from the very beginning to the very end. For instance, even the preface provides an ample amount of information about CLT after stating the main premise of this theory: “Without knowledge of human cognitive processes, instructional design is blind.” (p. v). As stated in the book, CLT is that sort of a theory that informs instructional design from a cognitive perspective or on the basis of how human cognition works.
Reviewed By S. K. PULIST
REVIEW: Expending Domains in Indian Higher Education
The Higher Education System in India has shown a remarkable growth during the past few decades. It has been able to expand its horizon in terms of approach as well as use of technology. This expansion requires recapitulation of the journey the Education System has traversed with a clear perspective for the developments that have occurred and are still taking place. The current Volume by K B Powar tries to highlight the expanding domains in Higher Education System in India focusing on topics of contemporary relevance.
Welcome to the Volume 14 Number 2 of TOJDE
In this issue, 3 Notes for Editor, 2 Book Reviews and 21 articles of 40 authors from 14 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are arrived to the TOJDE from Argentina, Australia, Bosnia Hersek, Egypt, India, Malaysia, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab Emirate and USA.