The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education
Welcome to Volume 14, Number 1 of TOJDE
Welcome to the Volume 14 Number: 1 of TOJDE!
In this issue, 31 articles of 65 authors from 12 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are arrived to the TOJDE from Australia, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Nigeria, Russia, Taiwan, Turkey, USA and Zimba bwe.
Sunday O. ADEGBESAN
Effect Of Principals’ Leadership Style On Teachers’ Attitude To Work In Ogun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria
The purpose of this study was to investigate why some principals prefer to embrace certain leadership styles and the effect of such styles on the teachers’ attitude to work.
The study adopted a descriptive research design. The random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of teachers and principals from the secondary schools in Abeokuta South Local Government Area. Structured questionnaire and interview were used to elicit information from the respondents. The questionnaire adopted the four point rating, which enabled respondents to indicate the extent of agreement or disagreement with the questionnaire items.
The data collected were subjected to a number of statistical analyses, including frequency counts and percentages, t-test and x2-tests.
The following were the finding of the study: The administrative styles adopted by the principals of secondary schools in Abeokuta South Local Government Area were found to be inadequate for effective school administration. The personality traits exhibited by the principals appeared somewhat harsh to their subordinates. Teachers in these schools were not adequately motivated and encouraged to carry out their duties.Based on the above findings it is recommended that principals in Abeokuta South Local Government Secondary Schools should not see themselves as all in all. They should involve their subordinates when taking vital decisions. There should be free flow of information in the schools. The work has implication for policy and practice of secondary education in Abeokuta South Local Government Area.
Keywords: Principals, Leadership Style, Attitude to Work, Teachers.
Relationship Between Web-Based Learning Time Outside The Classroom And Academic Achievement In German As A Tertiary Language By The Students On Vocational High Schools
The purpose of this empirical research is to investigate the relationship between web-based learning time and academic achievement in German. 36 learners of L3 German with L1 Turkish and L2 English from Vocational High School of Kahta at Adiyaman University were the participants of this study. The empirical process of the study continued 6 weeks in 2011-2012 fall semesters. During this time, the German, as tertiary language, course was lectured by traditional face-to-face method in the classroom. But the students studied outside the course the same subjects in interactive form via web page, specifically designed for this study.
At the end of the empirical process, the data about the study were obtained. The Pearson product-moment correlation was used to find out the relationship between web-based learning time and academic achievements in German.
As a result of this study it is found out that there is a significant relationship between web-based learning time and academic achievement in German as a tertiary language.
Keywords: German as a Tertiary Language, Web-based Learning, Academic Achievement
Guided Assessment Or Open Discourse: A Comparative Analysis Of Students Interaction On Facebook Groups
Web 2.0 and specifically Social Networking Software have become ubiquitous tools for communication over the last five years. Across many disciplines, practitioners and researchers have been exploring these technologies with the hope of tapping into their perceived potential. Not least in this endeavor is the field of Education. Educators and Researchers have been engaged in active research on the practical and pedagogical benefits and implications of Web 2.0 and Social Networks.
This paper explores the use of Facebook Groups in the Undergraduate Computer Science Program at the University of Guyana. Specifically, Guided Assessment strategies using Facebook Groups are compared with unguided and non-assessed Facebook Groups. Specifically, this study provides a comparative outline of the usage patterns of two (2) Instructor-Guided and Assessed Facebook Groups with three (3) student-led, non-assessed Facebook Groups that supported a form of Open Discourse. Results suggest that planned and guided, instructor-directed activities provide more focused responses from students compared to Open Discourse. However, information sharing and communication is common among both groups and in similar patterns.
Particularly, students shared links, videos, and blogs with their colleagues. Planned activities are recommended for specific course objectives, while students should be encouraged to evaluate and share information among their peers.
Keywords: Facebook Groups, Web 2.0, Social Networks, Structured Learning, Higher Education.
John MPOFU, Sylod CHIMHENGA & Onias MAFA
Developing Effective Learning Material To Students With Hearing Impairment (Hi) Through Odl In Zimbabwe
Students with Hearing Impairment (HI) are experiencing learning problems in most institutions of Higher Learning in Zimbabwe. Access to colleges and universities is limited and where they are accepted, there are no facilities to cater for their needs, hence there is need to develop learning materials that enable these students to learn effectively through Open Distance Learning(ODL) especially with Zimbabwe Open University(ZOU). The few Hard of hearing students enrolled at Zimbabwe Open University and other Institutions of Higher learning have expressed difficulties in coping with their studies partly due to the fact that the learning materials used are tailor made for the mainstream form of education. The research will use a descriptive survey method to extract information from students with HI and find ways and solutions on how to develop effective learning materials through ODL in Zimbabwe. Questionnaires and Interviews of students with HI, and lecturers /teachers will be used to collect data.
Second Life As A Foreign Language Learning Environment: A Review Of Research
The purpose of this paper is to present a review of research on Second Life (SL) as a learning environment within English as a foreign language (EFL) context, as research on its use within EFL learning is relatively new. T
he study is categorized into four main sections. Introduction section introduces the rationale of the paper and SL. Next section reviews the studies on Second Life in EFL learning, and focuses on the effects of SL on affective states, interaction and communication in SL, collaborative and autonomous learning in SL, sharing culture in SL, engagement and participation in SL, some other issues and drawbacks.
Third, the study compares SL usage in Turkish EFL context to its use in a global scale. Last, the study concludes that there has been a serious lack of research on the use of SL, as current literature reflects how SL might more readily be utilized as EFL learning environment.
Finally, the study ends with recommendations for teachers and researchers.
Keywords: Second Life, English as a Foreign Language, Learning Environment.
John MPOFU, Sylod CHIMHENGA & Onias MAFA
The Impact O Ict In Learning Through Distance Education Programmes At Zimbabwe Open University (Zou): Roles Of Ict In Learning Through Distance Education Programmes
Zimbabwe Distance Open University is enrols students from both urban and rural settings. The majority of students living and working in rural areas have limited or no access to computers and electricity as a result the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in the learning process is very limited. Though government has realized the importance of developing ICT for learning purposes, in practice very little has materialized in the provision of the ICT technology especially in rural areas. The majority of Zimbabwe Open University students have expressed difficulties in coping with their studies partly due to lack of supplementary reading materials from internet.
The research will use a descriptive survey method to extract information regarding use of ICT from students living in rural areas and those in urban areas. Observation on what actually takes place in the library and learning process will be highlighted by the researching team comprising three lecturers who all work for ZOU. A contrastive approach will be used to compare the performance of students with access to internet with those without access to internet. Interviews of ZOU students and lecturers will be used to collect data.
Alexander Aleksandrovich RYBANOV,
Set Of Criteria For Efficiency Of The Process Forming The Answers To Multiple-Choice Test Items
Is offered the set of criteria for assessing efficiency of the process forming the answers to multiple-choice test items. To increase accuracy of computer-assisted testing results, it is suggested to assess dynamics of the process of forming the final answer using the following factors: loss of time factor and correct choice factor. The model application results show the high efficiency of suggested set of criteria.
Keywords: E-Learning, Distance Learning, Web-Based E-Learning System, Computer-Assisted Testing, Multiple-Choice Test Items, Computer-Based Assessment.
Levent CALLI, Cem BALCIKANLI, Fatih CALLI, Halil Ibrahim CEBECI & Omer Faruk SEYMEN
Identifying Factors That Contribute To The Satisfaction Of Students In E-Learning
There has been an increasing interest in the application of e-learning through the enhancement of internet and computer technologies. Satisfaction has appeared as a key factor in order to develop efficient course content in line with students’ demands and expectations. Thus, a lot of research has been conducted on the concept of satisfaction in electronic environments.
Satisfaction has been seen to be the most significant variable on loyalty and usage intention in marketing and information science terms, which can also be highly related to academic success. In this regard, this study set out to investigate the effects of several variables on the learning processes of 930 e-learning students in the Sakarya University distance learning program. The findings of the research indicated that factors perceived playfulness, perceived ease of use and multimedia content effectiveness had a significant effect on perceived usefulness. Furthermore, it was concluded that satisfaction was affected by perceived usefulness, perceived playfulness and multimedia content effectiveness.
Keywords: E-learning, Satisfaction, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Playfulness, Multimedia Content Effectiveness.
Donald L. CARUTH & Gail D. CARUTH
Grade Inflation: An Issue For Higher Education?
Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are:
Ø student evaluations of professors,
Ø student teacher dynamics,
Ø merit-based financial aid, and
Ø student expectations.
Among the reasons for higher student grades on the part of professors are:
Ø fear of student evaluations,
Ø avoidance of bad relations with students,
Ø below average teaching skills,
Ø lack of experience,
Ø a lack of clearly stated objectives, and
Ø job security.
While grades are not a perfect answer to assessing student performance in a course they are still the best answer we have for evaluating students. In order to evaluate students more accurately, universities must identify the problems in grading and grading practices. Once this is accomplished new practices can be designed and policies implemented.
Keywords: Grade Inflation, Assessment, Evaluation
Hisham DZAKIRIA, Azilah KASIM, Abdul Halim MOHAMED & Anne Althea CHRISTOPHER
Effective Learning Interaction As A Prerequisite To Successful Open Distance Learning (Odl): A Case Study Of Learners In The Northern State Of Kedah And Perlis, Malaysia
The provision of ODL is now largely available in most part of the world, and is just a matter of choice for working adults to pursue. With the competing priorities of work, home, and school, adult learners everywhere desire a high degree of flexibility and accessibility. The structure of ODL provides learners with the greatest flexibility. It provides control over time, place and pace of education; however, learning at a distance is not without problems. Loss of student motivation due to lack of face-to-face (f2f) contact with tutors, peers and content; high startup costs, and lack of support are all barriers to the success of ODL. One important element of success factor for students attending ODL program is the level of interactivity within the student-tutor-content dyads.
This paper looks at the issue of interactivity as reported in this research on students’ perspectives and experiences of ODL programs in the northern part of Malaysia. The study supported the widely held belief that a high level of interaction is desirable in ODL environment (Dzakiria, 2008, Dzakiria & Idrus, 2003; Rumble, 2000; Walker, 2002)) and positively affects the learning experiences.
Recent technological advancements, allowing an increasing level of interaction between the interactivity dyads have implicated how teaching and learning should be in an ODL environment. This study believes to improve ODL experience, decrease dropout rates and maintain success stories for ODL, tutors and all-important stakeholders in ODL must improve the provision of interaction and interactivity. It is evident from the literature that there is a still research gap on interaction issues in ODL which must be pursued and address to improve the learners’ educational experience-for they are the primary clientele of ODL.
Keywords: Interaction; Learning Interactivity; interactivity dyads; Open Distance Learning.
Dilek CAGIRGAN GULTEN
Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Views On Distance Education And Their Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge
This research aims to investigate primary preservice mathematics teachers’ views on distance education and web pedagogical content knowledge in terms of the subscales of general web, communicative web, pedagogical web, web pedagogical content and attitude towards web based instruction. The research was conducted with 46 senior students in the department of Primary Mathematics Education in Istanbul. Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge scale developed by Lee, Tsai and Chang (2008) and adapted into Turkish by Horzum (2011) was used as the data collection tool. Values of frequency and percentage and Kruskal Wallis test were used in the analysis of the data. Whether preservice teachers’ perceptions towards adequacy levels for web pedagogical content knowledge differ or not was discussed in terms of their views on distance education and their habits of using the Internet and e-mail.
Keywords: Distance Education, Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Primary Preservice Mathematics Teachers, Internet, Email
David CARROLL, Eric NG & Dawn BIRCH
Strategies To Improve Retention Of Postgraduate Business Students In Distance Education Courses: An Australian Case
In spite of the clear value of postgraduate business students to many providers of distance education courses, the factors affecting the retention of these students have received limited attention in the literature. In addressing this gap, this paper presents the findings of a qualitative study into the factors affecting the retention of postgraduate business students at a major Australian distance education university. The findings of this study suggest that a range of situational, dispositional and attitudinal factors impact upon student retention on this context, both as enablers of and obstacles to ongoing participation. In many cases, these factors differ to those identified in the existing literature on student retention. Based on these findings, we present a range of strategies designed to improve the retention of postgraduate business students by maximising enabling factors and minimising the impact of any identified obstacles. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are also presented.
Keywords: Distance education; Student Retention; Retention Strategies; Postgraduate; Australia.
Soheila HAFEZI, Seyed Mohammad SHOBEIRi, Mohammad Reza SARMADI & Abbas EBADI
A Novel Conceptual Model Of Environmental Communal Education: Content Analysis Based On Distance Education Approach
Environmental education as a learning process increases people's knowledge and awareness about the environment. Although in some countries, the Environmental Communal Education (ECE) is the core of the environmental education by formal and informal organizations and groups, but, it has not clarified the meaning of the ECE’s concept. Therefore the aim of this study was to scientific clarification of the ECE and to develop conceptual model by using the distance education approach. In this study to concept clarification of the ECE, five-step method of Norris was used. Also, a summative content analysis approach is used to interpret meaning from the content of text data. Findings from the content analysis of ECE plotted as a conceptual model. The results of the content analysis led to the extraction of meaning units, sub-codes and the main themes. According to data explication 6 themes extracted. They were Condition-based, Methods-based, Learner-based, Concern-based, Workgroup-based, and Field-based. On the base of themes and operational definition the Hexa-based model of the ECE developed. According to extracted operational definition and the Hexa-based model of the ECE, the diversity of the target population and educational content, it seems the most appropriate teaching methods, are the distance education methods.
Keywords: Environmental Communal Education, Concept Clarification, Distance Education,
Murat Pas UYSAL
Towards The Use Of A Novel Method: The First Experiences On Measuring The Cognitive Load Of Learned Programming Skills
Teaching object-oriented programming (OOP) is a difficult task, especially to the beginners. First-time learners also find it difficult to understand. Although there is a considerable amount of study on the cognitive dimension, a few study points out its physiological meaning. Moreover, it has been suggested that neuroscientific studies and methods can enable educational researchers gain an insight into brain and cognitive processes as well. Therefore, this experimental study explored the previously learned OOP skills in terms of cognitive load. By using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) method, we measured the cognitive load of participants when executing OOP tasks. The average oxygenation changes in prefrontal cortex of the brain represented their total cognitive response to a set of OOP tasks. There were two research questions investigated by this study. The first research question explored whether the average oxygenation changed according to the participants’ academic achievements and task completion status. The second research question was for identifying the instant changes in the oxygenations to find out which programming tasks were more contributing to the oxygenation. Later, we compared the findings with experts’ judgments. We observed that the fNIRS system was an effective and promising technology for monitoring cognitive tasks both in classrooms and in experimental environments.
Keywords: Cognitive Load, Object-oriented Programming, fNIR Spectroscopy.
Value-Addition For Empowerment And Employability Through Intervention Of Odl Mode Of Ignou
In the developing country like India, the output of graduates from higher educational institutions is high. But, the major concern is that majority of graduates are not employable, especially from rural areas for want of skills expected by the employer. The soft skills, communication skills and multidisciplinary knowledge are essential to become employable. In this context, the short-term six months courses of Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) delivered through the ODL mode is an alternative intervention to the graduates towards empowerment. This article analyses the benefits of self-learning though ODL mode of IGNOU. The IGNOU Regional Centre, Madurai has made a pilot attempt in enrolling formal mode college going students in a few specific certificate programmes of IGNOU for enrichment and empowerment. The certificate level programmes of IGNOU which match the discipline of study at the graduation level as a value added course are also explored in this work. Self-study through ODL promotes the many skills and builds confidence to link learning to real-life situations and as well as ability to understand the changing demands in the world of work. Also, ability to manage information is a significant dimension of self-learning. Thus, the short-term programmes of IGNOU extend value-addition to the graduates in the form of transferable skills and the value-added outputs are expected to be employable or self-employable, thus contributing to the growth of the nation.
Keywords: Open learning; Self-learning; Skills; Value-addition; Empowerment; Employability.
C. ANITHA (Corresponding Author) & T. S. HARSHA
Ethical Perspectives In Open And Distance Eduation System
Today, e-learning and various online education applications are used in many countries and educational institutions than ever before. Ethics deals with the principle governing ideal or good behavior, it focuses on what is right or what is wrong. Although in education, the ethical issues that they may be facing are not about of life and death issues. An ethical dilemma will take place when the educator faced with a decision that maybe incongruent with the organization’s values and policies. There are several examples of ethical issues in education.
In this reason, the educator must be guided with the appropriate decision-making strategies. With the increasing use of new communication technologies, adoption of distance education by traditional educational institutes and owing to growing demand on the part of learners, it becomes more important to discuss the ethical issues. This important title provides academicians, students, and professionals with ethical insight into the world of e-learning through fascinating case studies that elucidate the issues through real-world examples. Pioneer’s experience in the field of distance education indicates that the profile of distance learners varies, cutting across barriers of gender, class and caste.
The distance learner may be suffering from a sense of isolation as he/she makes a return to study after a gap of time or while working. It is there that the distance educator makes a positive, ethical and interventionist role by helping the student to learn beyond the stereotypical classroom situation and can act effectively as the friend, philosopher and guide of the learner. However, the industry of education is a serious one, requiring well defined ethics and values, well bound in visible legal outlines to regulate its exchange and distribution.
Because as the industry grows, so do the issues of ethical concern such as plagiarism, electronic voyeurism, and licensing.
The objective of this paper is to raise awareness of additional ethical issues in order to encourage further debate and consideration of these importance issues. The present paper will focus on the ethical values to be followed and implemented in the open distance education system
Keywords: ODLS, e-learning, Tri-Council Policy Statement, Ethical Practice and Student Support Services.
Deniz KAYA, Cenk KESAN & Dilek IZGIOL
The Effect Of Internet-Based Education On Student Success In Teaching Of 8th Grade Triangles Subject
In the study, it was researched the effect of internet-based application on student success. Internet-based application was used at the teaching of triangles subject which is included in 8th grade units of triangles and algebra. The study was carried out over the internet with a computer software program: Vitamin Program. The study was carried out with total 37 8th grade students in two separate classes in a study centre in 2011-2012 school years. It was carried out internet-based teaching material on the experiment group and also conventional teaching method and materials on the control group. In the research, “the achievement test consisting of triangles subject” was carried out as a data collection tool in pre-test and post-test both groups. As a result of the research, success grade of experiment group which was carried out internet-based application applied with Vitamin Program is higher than success grade of control group in which was used conventional teaching method. In consequence of the study, it was suggested that internet-based teaching programs, which call and attract students’ attention must be used in a more frequent way.
Keywords: Triangles, Internet-based Education, Student Success, Vitamin Program
Wellington SAMKANGE & Augustine Zano MURANDA
Interrogating The Teaching And Learning Modes In Open And Distance Learning (Odl) Within The Context Of Quality Education: A Case Study Of The Zimbabwe Open University; Department Of Education
There have been concerns about the teaching and learning modes in both conventional and Open and Distance Learning (ODL) institutions globally. Such concerns emanate from issues of quality and standards in education. In view of such concerns, the study examined the teaching and learning modes in Open and Distance Learning (ODL). These were examined in relation to how they contribute to quality and standards within the the context of ODL.
The study focused on the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU), an ODL university in Zimbabwe. It used the qualitative methodology and the case study design. A purposively selected sample of twenty students on the Bachelor of Education in Educational Management (BEDM) programme, another twenty on the Masters of Education in Educational Management (MEDM) programme and and thirty students on the teacher development programmes were selected from a population of one hundred and sixty two students in the Department of Education in Harare region. In total, the sample was made up of seventy students and fifteen tutors who were observed teaching. Data was collected through the use of interviews, open-ended questionnaires and analysis of documents. Data was collected from current students in the Faculty of Arts and Education in the Departments of Educational Studies and Teacher Development. Data was also collected through the evaluation instruments and other related documents used at ZOU.
Furthermore, students evaluated the different teaching and learning modes used in the university. These included reading material, modules, tutors and tutorials. The study concluded that whilst students expressed satisfaction in areas such as the work and efforts of their tutors and the relevance of the courses to their jobs and promotion prospects, they were concerns about the non-availability of learning materials in some cases, the coverage of some topics in some modules and the language of instruction used by the tutors. The cases observed indicated that the institution was lagging behind in modern technology. These are concerns that could compromise quality if not addressed.
Keywords: Teaching and learning modes; Quality education; Open and distance learning; Quality assurance.
B. Samrajya LAKSHMI & B. Venkateswara RAO
Quest For Teaching Experimental Skills
In Andhra Pradesh, India, chemical experimenting in under graduate college labs by students is neglected because most of the intermediate (10+1 and 10+2) students concentrate on writing competitive exams like EAMCET (Engineering and Medical Common Entrance Test), IIT JEE (Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Test), AIEEE (All India Engineering Entrance Examination), AFMS (Armed Forces Medical Services), AIMS (All India Institute of Medical Science). The students spend most of their time in preparing for competitive exams, practicing bits, and writing many model exams.
Even Parents, staff, and management are also motivated and allow the students towards preparation for competitive exams because of the increase in number of engineering seats and demand of medical seats. Ultimately, the quality and quantity of students who join the B.Sc. (Bachelor of Science) has been decreasing day by day. Even after joining the B.Sc., the students are motivated towards immediate white collared job oriented courses like M.C.A (Master of Computer Applications) and M.B.A (Master Business Administration) and spending their time for preparing for competitive exams for those courses. Only a few students are interested to join Post graduation in chemistry and try to learn experimental skills in chemistry laboratory. However, the motivated students towards undergraduate chemistry will be demotivated towards it due to lack of fundamentals in chemistry (in 10+2 level), which are essential for better job market. Ultimately, the students are in confusion and neglect learning the skills in doing experiments in chemistry lab.
The present paper focuses on the thorough quest of one such teacher who strives for his own professional development. He has developed his own method of guiding the students for their improvement of skills in doing experiments in lab. The teacher explored solutions to his problems or problems of students by sorting out the critical incidents from his own laboratory experiences, documented through regular journal writing. The teacher cum researcher guided the students to overcome the difficulties in
Ø Determination of melting point
Ø Determination of Boiling Point
Ø Test for Extra elements
Ø Ignition Test for Aliphatic/Aromatic/Carbohydrate/Amide and
Ø Test for Functional groups
Keywords: Quest, Professional development, Organic Practical class, Laboratory Experiences, Experimental Skills.
Saye Nihan ÇABUK ANAPER, Melike Taner ULUÇAY & Alper CABUK
Accreditation Of Online And Distance Learning Programs
The quality issue emerged as a topic of concern for the goods and product market has also become a key element in services like higher education.
With the rise of the mobility of students, academicians and graduates, the quality and the compatibility of education systems have recently been subject to much debate.
Moreover, the huge role of higher education in a society’s economy and prosperity has added new dimensions to the measures of quality in higher education. With the quality assurance as a separate instrument in university management and in government policy, accreditation processes referring to compatibility of a higher education institution or a program with national or international performance standards started as a new quality assurance mechanism in different geographies around the World.
On the other hand, the varying needs and living conditions, advancements in information technologies and internet, easy access and communication opportunities, and increased willingness to share information have given rise to a new form of education called distance learning.
Online geographical information systems (GIS) program of Anadolu University is one of the distance education programs awarding an associate degree in the field.
Using the GIS program as a case study, this paper analyses the eminent role of accreditation of online and distance learning programs on the transformation of quality measures in higher education.
This paper also presents the detailed learning outcomes of the program and its importance for accreditation
Keywords: uality in higher education, Accreditation in higher education, Online and distance learning, GIS
Mohd Aliff MOHD NAWI, Ezad Azraai JAMSARI & Adibah SULAIMAN
Development And Evaluation Of Ning Social Network For Teaching Training Online Surveillance
Supervision of teaching practice is an important aspect of training teachers in improving their teaching skills. Barriers such as distance and time factor are the constraints faced by the lecturers at the National University of Malaysia to communicate with the teacher trainees under their supervision. Therefore, this study aims to develop and evaluate a social-networking site Ning's platform for the supervision of lecturers to teach on-line training. This study used the case design where a total of nine teacher trainees involved in this study. It found that overall, acceptance of the use of the social-networking site Ning mean score at the highest level of 3.91. In addition, all student teachers have positive attitudes towards the use of the social-networking site Ning social-networking site and agree a suitable approach to the supervision of one of the online teaching practices. While the “blog” is the most active facility used by student teachers in which they do self-reflection. In conclusion, the social-networking site Ning has the potential to assist lecturers to carry out supervision on-line teaching practice.
Keywords: Ning, Social networking, Supervision, Teacher Trainee, Islamic education
Nima HEMMATI, Soghra OMRANI & Naser HEMMATI
A Comparison Of Internet-Based Learning And Traditional Classroom Lecture To Learn Cpr For Continuing Medical Education
The purpose of this study was to compare the satisfaction and effectiveness of Internet-based learning (IBL) and traditional classroom lecture (TCL) for continuing medical education (CME) programs by comparing final resuscitation exam results of physicians who received the newest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) curriculum guidelines training either by traditional or by an Internet-based CME. A randomized two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. Postgraduate general physician trainees of Iran medical schools were participated. Two methods were compared for teaching the newest curriculum guidelines of the American Heart Association: lecture method in which the teacher follows a Power point presentation with linear layout, and with interactive self-assessment and Scenario-based learning, feedback, multimedia with linear and nonlinear layout with the same power point presentation as lecture in terms of text and photography. The data on final CPR exam grades, collected both groups trained physicians, were obtained for a total of 80 physicians in 2011. An independent sample t-test analysis indicated that participants in the IBL format reported significantly higher mean ratings for this format (62.5 ±2.32) than TCL format (54.6±2.18) (p=.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in cognitive gains (p<0.05). well-designed IBL content can be effective or a supplement component to CME.
Keywords: Internet-based learning, Traditional classroom lecture, continuing Medical Education, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
Multitasking Or Continuous Partial Attention: A Critical Bottleneck For Digital Natives
With the beginning of the second half of the past century, advances in Information and Communication Technologies had unprecedented influence deeply felt in all social structures. The effects were so much widespread that the differences in technology use have created a huge gap between generations in terms of everyday life and lifestyle. As a result, two groups occurred; those growing with technology digital natives and digital immigrants who try to keep pace with technology. Today, the computer, internet and mobile technologies like e-book readers, mobile phones, android devices, smart phones and tablet computers have become all-day business and communication tools used by digital natives. However, these high-tech tools, with their speed and ease of use, revealed some important issues that deeply affect digital natives' way of life. Among these most important effects are Continuous Partial Attention and Multitasking. In this study, these two conditions faced by digital natives were compared, and some suggestions have been put forward for the digital native learners.
Keywords: Media revolution, Continuous Partial Attention, Multitasking, Digital natives, Immigrants.
Mohammad Imam FARISI
OER On The Asian Mega Universities: Developments, Motives, Openness, And Sustainability
The OER movement originated and integrated into ODE developments. Mega Universities (MUs) are among the most important of ODE providers worldwide should be to be the primary organizations for providing access to OER. So far, however, in-depth studies on OER developments in the Asian MUs were very limited. This study focuses on the developments, motives, openness, and sustainability of OER at the six MUs official websites in Asia. Data were collected for six months using the documentation techniques and analyzed using web content or textual analyze. Results of the study shown, that:
Ø OER developments on the Asian MUs’ were an ongoing process, multiyear program, and developed into three characteristics: special projects or initiatives; uploading the existing learning resources collections on the Website; and by taken out-links to the centers of OER websites worldwide. Contents of OER are very rich, diverse in categories, forms, and organized integrally into ‘One Stop Window’. The OER materials have developed by university as well as by joined with various parties of internal and external universities.
Ø OER developments are based on three motives: the altruistic motivation of sharing, ego-boost motivation, and combination of both.
Ø The OER openness for use or reuse by others can be classified into five categories: openness in the public domain; openness under provision by any license; openness under guarantee by government Laws, policies, missions or visions; openness under guarantee by universities policies, missions or visions; and openness because it was developed as a special initiative of the universities.
Ø Sustainability models that have been used by MUs to makes OER become viable, and stable for the long-term are institutional, governmental, workflow, user-centered, wiki, and social software models.
Keywords: OER, Mega Universities, Development, Motive, Openness, Sustainability
Selçuk KARAMAN, Melike AYDEMIR, Sevda KUÇUK & Gürkan YILDIRIM,
Virtual Classroom Participants’ Views For Effective Synchronous Education Process
Virtual classroom (VC) is the preferred application in distance education since it provides simultaneous interaction and a communication environment between the student and the instructor. The aim of this study is to determine the key components which make VC sessions effective in terms of environment and method. Determination of these components and their effects through experiences of VC is important to improve the design and management of VC sessions. In this case study, VC experiences at theology bachelor’s completion degree distance education program are examined. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 20 participants (8 instructors, 10 students, 2 technical staff) of this program, which had regular VC sessions. Data were analyzed by using content analysis. This study reveals that VC sessions should be well planned and includes interactive activities in addition to good technical support. The instructional techniques that are of importance for VCs are considered to be active participation of students, summarization of material, attraction of students' attention and high association with real life.
Keywords: Synchronous Learning, Virtual Classroom, Distance Education
Jenny WANG, Chun-Fu C. Lin, Wei-Chieh W. Yu, & Emily WU
Meaningful Engagement In Facebook Learning Environments: Merging Social And Academic Lives
This study compared the effectiveness of different learning environments between interactive Facebook instructional method and non-Facebook instructional method for undergraduate students. Two outcome dimensions were measured: student grades and learning engagement. A preprest-posttest control group experimental design was used. The experimental group (n= 134) received the interactive Facebook instructional method, and the control group students (n= 57) received the non-Facebook instructional method. Data pertaining to student Facebook use and activities were also collected. Independent samples t-tests were used to measure significant differences in grades and engagement between the Facebook and non-Facebook classroom contexts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to measure the relationships between interactive Facebook instructional method and grades. A linear regression was also performed to analyze the predictors of student grades. Content analyses of samples of Facebook communication exchanges were also conducted. The results revealed that experimental group had a significant positive effect on grades and engagement. This study concludes that Facebook use in instructional method assists students in achieving better grades, higher engagement, and greater satisfaction with the university learning experience. Thus, the authors provides experimental evidence that Facebook can be used as an educational communication and interaction tool to enable faculty to assume a more active and participatory role.
Keywords: Engagement Learning, Facebook, Learning Outcomes, Social Network, Web 2.0
Distance Educator: A Multiskill Personality
When we talk about a distance educator and a conventional educator the difference we found nd about both of them is that, a distance educator needs to play multiple roles as compared to a conventional educator. They require more skills and knowledge cater to the needs of the learner. In this article we will cover all the responsible areas of a distance educator & why we should consider them as a multiskill personality?
Onias MAFA & Enna Sukutai GUDHLANGA
Examination Management As A Way Of Achieving Quality Assurance In Odl Institutions: The Case Of Zimbabwe Open University
An examination is an important component of any institution that educates people. It is a form of assessment used to measure the students’ understanding of the concepts and principles they would have learnt. Zimbabwe Open University, an Open and Distance Learning institution has been setting its own examinations for the academic programmes offered. Through examinations, ZOU students are encouraged to take an active role in analysing and questioning the things they would have learnt. This paper discusses the examinations management at ZOU with a special focus on the setting, administering, marking right up to the publication of results. It will also discuss the challenges that ZOU is facing in conducting examinations. It will finally emerge with some valuable practical suggestions on how ZOU can improve on its examination management and thereby achieve quality assurance in all its programmes. The investigation adopted the qualitative methodology and a case study design to generate data to address the questions which guided the study.
The purposively sampled sample was drawn from ZOU’s National Centre, Bulawayo and Matabeleland North Regions. The sample consisted of manager -examinations, manager- quality control, chairpersons of departments from different faculties, programme leaders, programme coordinators, regional quality coordinators, regional administrators, and students who were in their second year of study. Face-to-face interviews were used to generate data from manager -examinations, manager- quality control, regional quality coordinators and regional administrators. Data from chairpersons of departments from different faculties, programme leaders, programme coordinators, second year students were generated through focus group discussions.
Major findings were the management of examinations at ZOU enhances quality assurance, cited activities which contributed to quality assurance included setting of examination items for the item banks, tight security in the transporting of examination items to and from the regions, residential marking, active invigilation.
Participants were aware of activities that compromised quality assurance such as uncommitted invigilators, incomplete examination, lack of clarity on instructions, lack of security and non-confidentiality of examination items, timetable alterations. Some of the challenges that were mentioned by participants were unrealistic deadlines set by academic registry regarding marking, delays in dispatching of Personal Identification
Numbers to newly admitted students, welfare of invigilators during invigilation, and the need for communication between invigilators and other relevant authorities if the need arise when the examination is in progress. Some of the recommendations arrived at were that faculties should hold periodic workshops on examination management, induction of new staff members who deal with examination management, adopting ICT in the dispatch of examinations to regional centres and networking of the National Centre and the regional centres to facilitate communication and generation of student Personal Identification Numbers.
Keywords: Zimbabwe Open University, an Open and Distance Learning
Hicran Hanım HALAC & Alper CABUK
Open Courseware In Design And Planning Education And Utilization Of Distance Education Opportunity: Anadolu University Experience
Depending on the evolving technological possibilities, distance and online education applications have gradually gained more significance in the education system. Regarding the issues, such as advancements in the server services, disc capacity, cloud computing opportunities resulting from the increase in the number of the broadband internet users, web design applications; and increase in the number of mobile device and social media users and the time spent on the internet, traditional reading and working habits as well as the preferred information resources of man have considerably changed. In accordance with these changes, it has become an inevitable necessity to improve the higher education courses and learning materials. Any higher education system, which fails to keep up with these requirements, will inevitably have difficulties in providing the students with the necessary knowledge and skills within an appropriate workload frame. Within this context, one of the fields to benefit from distance and online education opportunities is undoubtedly “architecture and design education”. Although the use of computer technologies is inevasible and highly intensive in this field, the speed of conformance with the rapid technological changes and the adoption of the advancements is considerably slow compared to others. However, it is still among the fields where the technological opportunities are utilized at most. Thereby, distance and online education technologies present an essential potential to help students achieve the required planning and architectural knowledge and skills. In this respect, this article evaluates the distance and online education opportunities for design and planning education through the experience of Anadolu University.
Keywords: Design and planning education, Open Courseware, Distance and online education, Architectural Education.
As Public Relationship Application Countinability Of Participated Art Projects Via Distance Education Method: A Case Of “Women’s Are Meeting With Literature Project”
Observations of artistic activities’ transformative influence in social sphere by social scientists have played an essential role in the rise of “participative art” works worldwide. Within the scope of the public relations practices performed by municipal administrations particularly in order to promote the cultural development of society, noteworthy examples of works to enable citizen’s active participation in artistic activities occur in Turkey as well. Within these practices, the project carried out by Antalya Municipality in 2009, namely “Women Meet Literature” has been designed with a view to help women who are living in disadvantageous districts build solution-driven behavior patterns instead of perceiving the difficulties in their social life particularly in their family life, as “irresolvable”. In the wake of the workshops carried out with the participation of Turkey’s famous authoresses and poetesses, it has been observed that the act of writing has a stimulating effect on women’s courage to diagnose problems.
This study evaluates, through the case of “Women Meets Literature” project as a public relations practice, the project realization process and outputs of the case regarding the use of “participative art” in mass education, within the context of ‘participative art’, ‘mass education’ and ‘public relations practices’; and it discusses the contributions of distant education to sustainability of project based public relations practices.
Keywords: Public relations, Participative Art, Distant Education, Women, Mass education
Zane L. BERGE
Barriers To Communication In Distance Education
To a large extent education can be thought of as a communication process among the participants. This article focuses on distance education, which has both the general communication processes that in-person education venues possess, and also communication specific to the technologies that mediate the teaching and learning taking place at a distance. There are various opportunities and barriers to effective communication. An exhaustive review of literature regarding communication barriers to distance education summarizes the technical, psychological, social, cultural, and contextual challenges leading to a significant conclusion: that as technology used for distance education improves so does both the opportunities to overcome many of the barriers to ineffective communication and the complexity of the barriers that are faced by the participants. The hierarchy of this structure is described.
Keywords: Distance education, Communication Barriers