The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education
From The Editor
Welcome to Volume 13, Number 4 of TOJDE
Welcome to the Volume 13 Number: 4 of TOJDE!
In this issue, one book review and 26 articles of 49 authors from 15 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are from, Bahrain, Brazil, Greece, India, Iran, Lithuania, Malaysia, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, USA and Zimbabwe.
Serkan ÇELIK , Hasan ATAK & Ahmet BAŞAL
Predictive Role Of Personality Traits On Internet Addiction
Aiming to develop a model seeking to investigate the direct effects of personality types on internet addiction, this study was set and tested on tertiary level students receiving education within two learning modes: face to face and distance education. The participants of the study, selected through maximum variety method within purposive sampling, included 210 students enrolled on face-to-face and distance education programs of computer programming department. In addition to a personal data form aiming to obtain information on demographic features of the participants, a personality inventory and an Internet addiction scale were utilized to gather data. As an analysis model concurrently exerting both the mediation and direct effects, path analysis with observed variables was utilized in the current study to test the developed model. The findings revealed that while the most powerful predictor variable of internet addiction was conscientiousness, openness to experience was found as the weakest independent variable predictor. Additionally the developed model was observed as valid for both face to face and distance education students.
Keywords: Internet Addiction, Distance Education, Personality
Jaemu LEE, Sanghoon PARK & Kwangho KIM
Web-Based Adaptive Testing System (Wats) For Classifying Students Academic Ability
Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) has been highlighted as a promising assessment method to fulfill two testing purposes: estimating student academic ability and classifying student academic level. In this paper, we introduced the Web-based Adaptive Testing System (WATS) developed to support a cost effective assessment for classifying students’ ability into different academic levels. Instead of using a traditional paper and pencil test, the WATS is expected to serve as an alternate method to promptly diagnosis and identify underachieving students through Web-based testing. The WATS can also help provide students with appropriate learning contents and necessary academic support in time. In this paper, theoretical background and structure of WATS, item construction process based upon item response theory, and user interfaces of WATS were discussed.
Keywords: omputer Based Testing, Assessment, Adaptive Testing, Web based Testing System.
Salyani OSMAN, Noraidah SAHARI & Nor Azan Mat ZIN
Development Of Interactive Multimedia Courseware (E-Craft) For Craft Education
The way of teaching and learning traditional crafts have always used traditional apprenticeship learning methods where the expert facilitates transfer of practice skill sets to novices. As a craft has been taught in conventional approach, the students and experts have been facing several problems especially when expert needs to teach a group of students.
An appropriate mapping of craft education and Information and Communication Technologies using Multimedia technology for instance, has the potential in transforming traditional craft learning into more flexible environment. This paper reports on a research project on development of an interactive multimedia courseware package for teaching and learning traditional craft called e-CRAFT.
The e-CRAFT is specially designed for songket weaving course taught to certificate and diploma students from Fakulti Seni Kraf Tenunan in their first year study at Institut Kraf Negara, Malaysia (National Craft Institute). The courseware was developed in a web-based environment and overall development process was based on the Dick and Carey's process model and conceptual Instructional Design framework. It is made up of eight learning modules: Introduction, Materials & Tools, Knowing Motifs, Learn How to Weave, Quizzes & Test, Online Discussion, Glossary and Help module. In order to test whether the courseware is suitable in terms of usability, pilot testing was done to a sample of 10 students.
The results from pilot test received positive feedback which signifies the courseware is considered acceptable for effectiveness study and help for further improve of the e-CRAFT courseware.
Keywords: Craft Education, Web-based Courseware, Traditional Craft
Spyros PAPADAKIS, Nikos DOVROS, Giorgos PASCHALIS & Eleni ROSSIOU
Integrating Lmss In The Educational Process: Greek Teachers’ Initial Perceptions About Lams
E-learning with the use of Learning Management Systems, has been increasingly adopted in Primary, Secondary and Higher Education with the expectation to increase students’ motivation and infuse activity-centred learning strategies with various educational benefits.
This study has investigated the initial perceptions of Greek teachers about the integration of LAMS, a Learning Activity Management System, in the educational praxis. Through a multifaceted research method, involving a small scale participatory action research, the research team attempted to investigate the preconditions required to integrate LAMS in the everyday lesson. Two tutorial workshops were organized with the participation of 46 educators from geographically diverse urban areas, from K-12 to Tertiary Education.
Results indicated that teachers have developed a positive attitude towards LAMS and the use of collaborative online tools during the educational process. Although teachers have certain objections on integrating LMSs, which stem mainly from the current status of the Greek educational system, they accept relative advantages of integrating online collaborative approaches over the traditional face-to-face approach. Well-organized and carefully implemented tutorial workshops can spark teachers’ interest and bring about change in the educational process. Small scale interventions such as these can prove to foster dialogue among teachers of various backgrounds and set the foundations to create online communities of practice for innovative teachers.
Keywords: LMS, LAMS, Distance learning, Blended learning.
Endrik D. ESTERHUIZEN, Seugnet BLIGNAUT, Suria M. ELLIS & Christo J. ELS
Odl Students’ Perceived Computer Literacy Competencies, Expectations Of Support Intention To Use And Perseverance
This paper reports on disadvantaged South African practising teachers’ perceptions on computer literacy competencies while studying to improve their teaching qualifications. During the process of developing a learning technology integration framework for the School of Continuing Teacher Education at North-West University, South Africa, an initial exploratory survey identified issues and themes for systemic inquiry, in order to provide substance to the integration framework.
The purposive sample related to a criterion-based selection of N=338 teacher-students attending supplementary computer literacy training sessions. Queues from the Technology Acceptance Model supplemented the questions intended to investigate enablers and barriers to learning technology adoption.
The pragmatic approach was towards discovering which possible interventions could be introduced to enable adoption of technology in interaction and learning. Descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling produce a suggested parsimonious model relating to self-confidence, trust and perseverance in acquiring computer literacy.
Keywords: Higher Education; Open Distance Education; Computer Literacy; Developing Students; Technophobia; Teacher Training; SEM.
Seyyed Behrooz HOSSEINI
Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Corrective Feedback And The Correct Use Of Prepositions: Is It Really Effective?
An area that has recently attracted increasing attention is providing feedback on learners’ writing accuracy through the Internet. However, research in this area has largely focused on synchronous communication, i.e., chatting, with fewer studies assessing asynchronous technologies, i.e., e-mailing. Therefore, this study investigates the effectiveness of asynchronous computer-mediated corrective feedback-explicit and implicit, on increasing the correct use of prepositions. Forty-five Iranian elementary EFL learners at the ILI in Tehran were randomly assigned to two experimental groups, receiving explicit and implicit corrective feedback respectively, and one control group receiving no corrective feedback. Each group included 15 participants. After the treatment, a post-test was administered to assess the probable increase in the correct use of prepositions for the experimental groups compared to the control group.
Analysis of the results through a one-way ANOVA revealed that the experimental group 1 who received explicit corrective feedback significantly outperformed the experimental group 2 and the control group. The experimental group 2 who received implicit corrective feedback showed no significant improvement over the experimental group 1 and the control group.
Although the findings support the current view on feedback through technology, due to the scarcity of research, more investigation is merited as there is much to gain regarding this burgeoning field.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication, asynchronous CMC, Synchronous CMC, The Internet, Corrective Feedback, e-Mail, Chat.
Richard Tafara NENGE, Zvinaiye CHIMBADZWA & Tichaona MAPOLISA
ICT Implementation Challengesand Strategies For ODL Institutions: The Zou's National Centre Academic Staff Experiences
This study highlighted some of the major challenges that Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) academic staff experiences in connection with Information Communication Technology (ICT) implementation. It employed a qualitative paradigm rooted in a case study research design focusing on ZOU Academic Staff at the selected Faculties. It purposively sampled 20 ZOU Academic Staff members comprising two Deans, six Chairpersons and 12 Programme Leaders. Seventeen managed to participate willingly by filling in the in-depth questionnaire.
The study cited lack of literature as one of its limitations. Data were gathered and analyzed thematically. The study found out lack of training and expertise in ICT by ZOU Academic staff of the studied Faculties topping among ICT implementation challenges. The study concluded that training and development of personnel is a fundamental concept that keeps staff abreast with evolving technological changes. The study recommended the need for ZOU to mount regular academic staff focused training workshops that equip them with functional knowledge on computers and computer software applications. It also recommended the need for ZOU to carry out Faculty wide research in the same area using either quantitative or triangulation methodologies.
Keywords: Challenges, Academic Staff, Zimbabwe Open University, Information, Technologies.
Ibrahim Umit YAPICI & Hasan AKBAYIN
High School Students’ Views On Blended Learning
In this study, it is aimed to determine the high school students’ views on blended learning. The study was carried out in biology course for the lesson unit of “Classification of Living Things and Biodiversity” with 47 9th grade students attending Nevzat Ayaz Anatolian High School in the second term of the academic year of 2009-2010. The lessons were taught in a way appropriate to the blended learning model both via the Internet and on face-to-face basis. As the online dimension of the blended learning model, Moodle, a Learning Management System (LMS), was used. The application lasted 10 weeks. The scale of learners’ views on blended learning was applied and interviews were held to determine the views. As a result of the analysis of the scale, it was seen that their views were “highly” positive. The interviews held with the students revealed that the blended learning model provided students with various opportunities such as getting prepared for the lessons, reviewing the lessons as many times as wanted, reaching the subject-related materials without being dependent on time and place, testing oneself and communicating with the teacher and other students out of the school. The interviews also revealed that there were various problems though such as lack of Internet connection at home and problems experienced while playing the videos.
Keywords: Blended learning; Biology; Moodle.
SIR, U. S. A. OSUJI
The Use Of E-Assessments In The Nigerian Higher Education System
The rapid development of the information and communication technologies has brought about the modernization of teaching and learning across the globe. Today, teaching and learning are made easy through the use of computer technologies and/or the electronic and other multi-media elements. It is widely accepted that electronic learning naturally leads to electronic assessments or examinations. e-ssessments and e-examinations are widely used all over the world in the Open and Distance Learning institutions and some conventional face to face institutions. We are thus, moving from the pen and paper assessments to a paperless e-platform and e-assessments, which are necessary constants in the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) system. e-assessments tend to eliminate the limitations and give answers to many questions emanating from the traditional assessments/examinations. Higher institutions in Nigeria are therefore advised to embrace it. The rest of the paper looks at e-assessment as a global change in assessment, benefits of e-assessment, challenges, requirements and responsibilities.
Keywords: e-Assessment,Maple T.A, Benefits, Challenges,Requirements, Responsibilities
To Learn From Teachers At School, Ideal Teacher Or E-Learning Applications From The Perspectives Of Gifted Students
The present study, aimed at revealing the views of elementary school gifted students about the roles and behaviors of their teachers in class as well as about the in-class roles and behaviors that they expect from an ideal teacher with respect to different variables. Another question in the study was directed to determine students’ views about learning academic subjects via e-learning applications instead of at teachers. The participants of the study were 46 gifted students identified with the diagnosis system of “Education program for the gifted” executed in the Department of Gifted Education at the Education Faculty of Anadolu University. The research data were collected via a five-point Likert-type scale developed and tested by the researcher for its validity and reliability. For the analysis of the research data, paired sample t-test, one of descriptive parametrical statistical techniques, was applied. The findings obtained in the study revealed that according to gifted students, the in-class behaviors demonstrated by the course teachers were mostly those related to their roles of guidance for students. The behaviors of the course teachers within the scope of this role were followed by those related to providing information and maintaining the discipline, respectively. The behaviors least demonstrated by the teachers were those related to the role of supporting the students and those related to being a model for them. According to the students, an ideal teacher should at most demonstrate behaviors in class regarding the role of guiding the students and those regarding the role of providing information. According to the gifted students, the roles and behaviors of their teachers in class are quite different from the behaviors expected from an ideal teacher. Students do not regard e-learning applications as an alternative to learning from teachers. Rather, they prefer learning from their teachers to technology-aided learning environments. According to students, compared to structure academic learning, technology is a better environment to make good use of their time, to satisfy their curiosity about certain subjects, to establish communication with others and to play games.
Keywords: Gifted Students, Teacher Roles, Teacher Qualification, E-Learning, Distance Education, Teacher Metaphors, Elementary Schools, Student’s Perceptions
Virtual Or Physical: In-Service And Pre-Service Teacher’s Beliefs And Preferences On Manipulatives
Although the use of physical manipulatives, which have been emphasized to use in preschool education program and primary and secondary mathematics curriculum, in classroom environments is old, it is very new to use virtual manipulatives in classroom environments. The selection, preparation, and the integration to learning environments of both types of manipulatives are the most basic duties of teachers. However, the experiences, of using the physical and virtual manipulatives in course environments, of teachers and pre-service teachers are influenced by beliefs about the nature, teaching and learning of mathematics. The aim of this study is to determine and compare the beliefs of teachers and pre-service teachers in different branches for the use of virtual and physical manipulatives in mathematics education. For this purpose, 148 teachers, in the provinces of Trabzon, Kars and Gümüşhane, and 228 pre-service teachers, in the Education Faculties of Karadeniz Technical University and Kafkas University, have been applied two types of scales and interviews have been conducted with 40 teachers and pre-service teachers selected from that sample. Frequencies, percentages and arithmetic averages have been used to analyze the data. As a result, the majority of teachers and pre-service teachers have been identified to carry positive beliefs for the use of virtual and physical manipulatives in mathematics education and they have expressed that they desire to use both types of manipulatives more in the future.
Keywords: Mathematics Education, Belief, Virtual And Physical Manipulatives, Teachers And Pre-Service Teachers.
Kyriaki EMMANOUILIDOU, Vassiliki DERRI, Panagiotis ANTONIOU, Pavlos KYRGIRIDIS & Pavlos KYRGIRIDIS
Comparison Between Synchronous And Asynchronous Instructional Delivery Method Of Training Programme On In-Service Physical Educators’ Knowledge
The purpose of the study was to compare the influences of a training programme’s instructional delivery method (synchronous and asynchronous) on Greek in-service physical educators’ cognitive understanding on student assessment. Forty nine participants were randomly divided into synchronous, asynchronous, and control group. The experimental groups participated in the same training programme with different online instructional method. The control group received no intervention. A 17-item questionnaire was completed before and after programme implementation by the entire sample. A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures on the last factor was used for data analysis. The methods x measures interaction effect were significant. Both experimental groups, unlike the control, presented a similar significant increase in their understanding. Conclusively, synchronous and asynchronous instructional approaches of a training programme enhance equally Greek physical educators’ cognitive understanding.
Keywords: Synchronous E-Learning, Asynchronous E-Learning, Teacher Training, Physical Education, Elementary Student Assessment.
Using Blogs To Improve Students’ Summary Writing Abilities
The research compared students’ summary writing ability before and after they were taught through blog, a new medium or tool for written communication and interaction in many different languages around the world. The research design is a kind of one group pretest posttest. Participants were 33 first-year students who studied EN 011 course (English in Action) in the first semester of the academic year 2012 at Bangkok University. They were divided into six groups. Five or six students in each group created a blog; www.blogger.com, and they worked together for fourteen weeks to produce six pieces of summary written work. Each member in the group worked through providing comments, editing and revising on the blog until the group got a final summary paper and submitted that to the teacher for grading. The instruments used in this study were (1) two summary writing tests (2) a questionnaire surveying students’ attitude toward learning through blogs, and (3) postings on blogs to reflect their learning experience.
The results revealed that after the students worked together on weblogs, their English summary writing mean score of the posttest was higher than that of the pretest, and they had positive attitudes towards using weblogs in learning. Regarding cooperative learning experiences through using weblogs, most students thought that it was interesting, a new experience to work with their friends on the weblogs.
Keywords: Summary Writing, Blogs, EFL Learning, Online Learning
Hamdy A. ABDELAZIZ
D4 S4: A Four Dimensions Instructional Strategy For Web-Based And Blended Learning
Web-based education is facing a paradigm shift under the rapid development of information and communication technology. The new paradigm of learning requires special techniques of course design, special instructional models, and special methods of evaluation. This paper investigates the effectiveness of an adaptive instructional strategy for teaching and learning through the Web and blended learning environments. The central theme of this strategy is that instructional strategies give instructors and students a conceptual as well as a practical mode of delivery from which to teach and learn. Considering and applying new instructional strategy can help instructors to understand the uses of pedagogical content knowledge, as well as to reflect the role of technological content knowledge that can be adapted and/or adopted in teaching in all educational levels and environments.
The main objective of this paper was to develop a holonomic instructional strategy for Web-based and blended learning. This strategy is guided by the non-linear and interactive features of learning environments. The strategy is consisted of four dimensions: designing, developing, delving and distributing. In this new instructional strategy, learning is holonomic and adaptive. Learning occurs in an open learning environment, in which instructors are designing a shared vision, developing a sharable e-learning task, delving students’ learning through scaffolding and salvaging students’ knowledge. The expected outcome of this instructional strategy is that each learner will develop a cognitive schema to be used to organize and construct knowledge and meaning in similar context of learning which may increase the generalizability, trustworthiness and transferability of learning. The results of applying this new strategy showed that this strategy is effective on developing both achievement and deep learning levels among a sample of graduate students.
Keywords: Web-based learning, Blended learning, Instructional models, Instructional strategies, Adaptive learning, Deep learning, holonomic learning.
Samir Kumar LENKA & Ravi KANT
A Study Of Attitude And Perception Of The Learners Towards Distance Education In Relation To Their Biographical Factors
Distance education may play an increasingly important role during this decade in helping address the growing shortage of teachers, educational administrators and other educational professionals experienced in both developing and developed countries. In this study, with the help of one self made tool and a sample of 150 graduate distance learners, it is revealed that gender plays no important role to develop positive attitude and perception. It means, both male and female learners have similar positive attitude towards distance education and biographical factors i.e. locality, stream, SES and caste plays a vital role to develop positive attitude towards distance education
Keywords: Distance Education, Attitude and Perception, Biographical Factors
Belgin BOZ YUKSEKDAG
Interaction In Distance Nursing Education
The purpose of this study is to determine psychiatry nurses’ attitudes toward the interactions in distance nursing education, and also scrunize their attitudes based on demographics and computer/Internet usage. The comparative relational scanning model is the method of this study. The research data were collected through “The Scale of Attitudes of Nurses towards Distance Nursing Education”, developed by the researcher. Reability coefficients for the whole scale and the two sub-dimensions determined by varimax rotation were calculated through Cronbach α Formula. The Chi-Square test was employed to test the construct validity of the scale could be determined. The research findings revealed that the scale was valid and reliable and the nurses’ attitudes towards interaction in distance nursing education in the sub-dimensions were high.
Keywords: Interaction, distance Nursing Education, Nurses’ Attitudes, Distance Education, Psychiatry Nurses.
Dhamdhere SANGEETA NAMDEV,
ICT And Web Technology Based Innovations In Education Sector
ICT made real magic and drastic changes in all service sectors along with higher education and library practices and services. The academic environment is changing from formal education to distance and online learning mode because of ICT. Web technology and mobile technology has made great impact on education sector. The role of Open Access, institutional repositories, opens archives and e-publishing trends indicates the shift towards new way of communication on an increasing scale in the students and researchers. E-learning is more popular day by day. The students are more prone towards the use of technology. Users of Web 2.0 tools (Students 2.0) are self learner, self searcher, fast communicators, self publishers, self motivated. There is rapid growth of students using internet and web tools in India. Their expectations from the teachers, libraries, and administrative staff of academic institutes has changed and increased. In developed countries use of Web 2.0, cloud computing technology and its use in educational, library websites are normally used to provide best services with blogs, RSS, instant messaging, social networking services, wikis, and social tagging applications.
Use of web technology in education sector has some advantages and disadvantages too. In short education and library services are now based on digital resources, customized, user based, and web based and internet based information services .The present paper highlights innovation in education sector and libraries and impact of web 2.0 on students, teaching learning process, educational policies. Future 3.0 generation will be discussed in detail.
Keywords: Use of ICT in education field, Web Technology, Web 2.0, Students 2.0, Education 2.0, impact of ICT on education, impact of ICT on Libraries, E-Learning, Distance education.
Pegah OMIDVAR & Bee Hoon TAN
Cultural Variations In Learning And Learning Styles
The need for cross-cultural understanding of the relationship between culture and learning style is becoming increasingly important because of the changing cultural mix of classrooms and society at large. The research done regarding the two variables is mostly quantitative. This review summarizes results of the existing research on cultural variations in learning styles. Limitations of the existing studies are discussed and some suggestion for future research is proposed.
Keywords: Culture, Cultural Variations, Learning, Learning Styles
Impact Of Self-Concept Of Disabled Learners On Inclusive Physical Education
This paper examines the conceptual foundations of self-concept, self-esteem and the self as they relate to disabled students in the context of physical education. Disable school children experience severe discriminations in society and within the school system, especially if the school is the mainstream type. With increasing emphasis on inclusiveness in school to different groups of excluded children, the need to thoroughly examine the psychological frame of mind of these children is now more important than ever before. Consequently, this paper sought to uncover the fundamental tenets of self-concept of disabled learners and highlight the key characteristics of disabled children. The paper concludes by with an analysis of the major impacts that disabled learners self-concept has on participation in physical education activities.
Keywords: Self-Concept, Self-Esteem, Disability, Inclusion, Physical Education
Mahnaz MOHAMADZADEH, Jabraeal FARZANEH, Mina MOUSAVi & Rouhallah MAGHABL
Challenges And Strategies For E-Learning Development In The University Of Payam Noor In Iran
Higher education in Iran is confronting with several challenges; Some of them are increasing demand for education and insufficiency of current programs to meet the growing needs, emerging information age and the necessity of achieving information literacy, speed up in knowledge production and the necessity of development of a lifelong and continuous training system, necessity of considering to user orientation and extending educational justice. It is assumes that a high performance e-learning system can overcome to the mentioned problems. E-learning is main component of educational systems in 21st century. It removes time and place restrictions and creates economical benefits, and makes available lifelong learning opportunity for all. The primary purpose of this study was to identify challenges of electronic learning development in Payam Noor University of Ardabil province of Iran to present feasible solutions for establishing a suitable e-learning system. Descriptive survey design for data collection was adopted in this study. The population of this study was consisted of 600 instructors and faculty members. A sample of 160 faculty member was selected by using random sampling method.
Results show that barriers such as incompatibility of contents and methods, skill unavailability, attitudinal hampering, cultural barriers, infrastructural obstacles, encouraging and credit barriers as well as barriers related to incorporating e- learning into traditional education systems were the main challenges of e-learning in the Payam Noor University. Also results revealed that factors such as educational effectiveness in e- learning, policy making, university's technical and social support of e- learning, financial support and expansion of income earning for instructors and faculty members, improving working conditions, foreign language skill and faculty members interest in professional development were the most important factors in developing e-learning in Payam Noor University of Iran.
Keywords: E-learning- Payam Noor university- Development.
Cross-Border Distance Education (Cbde)
It is imperative for countries to provide quality education that would empower their people to compete and benefit from the growing socio-cultural global exchanges of the 21st century. The Internet is expanding the global village, thereby, enhancing communication, collaboration and the cooperation of peoples with each other across the world. As a result, cross-border education is growing worldwide and creating greater access to education in developing countries including Nigeria. Therefore, the concerns of a potential online student among others should include the state of ICT infrastructure, student’s computer skills, financial implications, and socio-cultural issues in distance education among others. This article is a narrative of the lived experience of a Nigerian student who has undertaken cross-border distance education in a wired world-an age of the Internet.
Keywords: Cross-Border Distance Education, the Internet, ICT Infrastructure, Costs.
Re-Learning Higher Education In The Age Of Convergence: Example Of Lithuania
Since May of 1999, 46 European countries have been engaged in reconstructing their higher education systems to bring about a greater degree of “convergence,” i.e. a move toward common reference points and operating procedures to create a European Higher Education Area.
Education has always played an important role in the development of Lithuania, with long and strong traditions as a country with highly educated scientists and cutting-edge research in various fields. In April 2009, the Seimas passed a new Law on Science and Studies, which provides for a major reform of higher education. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the role universities play in the economy and impact they make in promoting innovation and raising international competitiveness. But until recently there has been a prescriptive view of university-business interactions with a narrow focus on technology transfer. Although technology transfer may be important, it is also necessary to focus on the more diverse and varied impacts of business-university knowledge exchange relations.
Thus, I discuss changes in higher education that were implemented in Lithuania during the period of 1992-2012, i. e. Student baskets, notorious optimization of university network in Lithuania, the development of Lithuanian science valleys, etc. In my survey I rely upon an IHEP (Institute for Higher Education Policy) expert Cliff Adelman’s idea that the Bologna Process is an analogue to the macroeconomic theory of convergence, the ways in which nations move from different stages of development to a more-or-less common platform of performance. Macroeconomic historians have demonstrated time-and-again: nations that learn from other nations grow; those that do not learn do not. Ultimately, I arrive at a conclusion that reforms are essential and indispensable but answer the purpose only when higher quality in education is achieved.
Keywords: Convergence, Research, International Competitiveness, Knowledge Exchange Relations, Student Basket, Science Valleys, The Lisbon Strategy, Bologna Process.
Irem ERDEM AYDIN
Attitudes Toward Online Communications In Open And Distance Learning
This article intended to reveal the results of a survey study in which the students’ attitudes toward online communication in open and distance learning were investigated. In the study, affects of the students’ gender and computer experience on their attitudes were also examined.
A total of 626 subjects participated in the study and ‘Online Communication Attitude Scale’, developed by Ledbetter, was adapted as the data collection instrument. Mean, standard deviation, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests were used to analyze the data gathered. The results of the study indicated that students have in general positive attitudes toward online communication in ODL. Also, it showed that there is a significant difference in ‘miscommunication’, ‘social connection’ and ‘ease’ dimensions of online communication between the males and the female students.
The female students see online environments as open to communication errors. On the other hand, the study supported the literature about the affect of the students’ computer experience and their attitudes toward online communication in ODL.
Keywords: Online Communication, Attitudes, Open And Distance Learning, Gender Differences, Computer Experience, The Internet Experience
Nilton Cesar LIMA, Antonio Sergio Torres PENEDO, Marcio Mattos Borges De OLIVEIRA, Sonia Valle Walter Borges De OLIVEIRA, Jamerson Viegas QUEIROZ & Natal-RN-BRASIL
The Systemic Vision Of The Educational Learning
As the sophistication of technology is increasing, also increased the demand for quality in education. The expectation for quality has promoted broad range of products and systems, including in education. These factors include the increased diversity in the student body, which requires greater emphasis that allows a simple and dynamic model in the provision of education. For this reason, a formalized methodology known as systems theory is often applied in the industry as a management instrument, or in other words, known as systems management. The management of educational systems would be adherent to ally in reducing failure rates and quality improvement. This is possible in complex learning systems scale. Accordingly, this article aims to discuss some implications of trying to use the systems management as modern teaching methodology.
Keywords: Educational Learning. School Management. Systemic Vision.
Lalit Lalitav MOHAKUD, Rajiba Lochan MOHAPATRA & Santosh Kumar BEHERA
Encouraging Higher Education Through Open And Distance Learning (Odl): Some Aspects
Higher Education system of a country enhances the human resources potential and gives the country the right niche in global scenario. Due to wide scattered and over whelming population and an increasing demand, it is not possible for country like India to provide higher education to all who really need through formal mode. Open and Distance Learning (ODL) is one of the best alternatives to satisfy the growing demand for education of a variety of learners. The present writing deals with the role of ODL in the promotion of higher education in India.
Keywords: ODL, higher education, access, equity, IGNOU
Providing Efficient Active Learning On E-Television: Case Of “Open Class”
This study was undertaken with an aim to understand whether the effective use of the blackboard, one of the teaching aids utilized by Anadolu University's distance learning program in the e-television Open Classroom, has a positive effect on focus and concentration. Gagné's Theory of Instruction was utilized during this research. Knowledge of the efficient use of the blackboard and the efficient viewing on the television screen is required.
The results of the research show that the frequency of use of blackboards in the Open Classroom is low. It has been determined that information that could be written on the board is instead spoken by the television teacher. The 3-8 seconds of silence required for thought while writing on the blackboard is to a large extent achieved. The information written on the blackboard was found to be partially legible. This shows that the blackboard is not being efficiently utilized during teaching. When it comes to whether off-topic writing on the board is the cause of a distraction, it was found that a distraction was caused even though the information on the board was not used. When the board was erased to continue with another subject, it was found that the board was generally not erased entirely. The legibility of the writing written over the partially erased board was found to be insufficient and therefore showed that the blackboard was not being used efficiently.
Keywords: Distance education, Television, E-Television, Blackboard, Teaching, Learning, Robert Gagné
Reviewed By Dr. Wolfram Laaser
REVIEW: Harmonizing Global Education-From Genghis Khan To Facebook Jon Baggaley
Jon Baggaley’s book is an exiting and profound piece of academic literature. It also includes personal anecdotes and flash backs about topics he came across during his long academic career as professor at Athabasca University, Concordia University and Memorial University of New Foundland. But Jon Baggeley is not only a gifted writer and researcher but also actor and therefore very much related to culture and arts. All this forms the ingredients of his book which “focusses on literature not usually associated with the field of Open and Flexible Learning, but offers a foundation for today´s open and distance-based approaches to global education”(Preface of his book).