13 (3), 2012
From The Editor
Welcome to Volume 13, Number 3 of TOJDE
Welcome to the Volume 13 Number: 3 of TOJDE!
In this issue, 2 Notes for Editor and 26 articles of 51 authors from 14 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are from, Algeria, Australia, Bengaldesh, Greece, India, Iran, Malaysia, Mariutius, Nigeria,
Oman, Spain, Turkey, USA and Zimbabwe.
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Transforming Teachers, Transforming Schools: Turning "Sages" Into "Guides On The Side"
Many teachers teach the way they were taught. If asked to explain why they lecture to their students, the response is often, "My teachers wrote on the board and I took notes. It worked for me." Brain research indicates that other techniques increase blood flow to parts of the brain associated with cognition. This presentation provides anecdotal evidence about the impact of this research when applied to a single classroom or in online classes. When a teacher becomes a "guide on the side," there is a change in the school's culture that can be measured. This presentation is extracted from a newly published book, Let's Lecture Less, edited by Steve McCrea (Visualandactive.com) and Mario Joel Llorente Leyva.
Keywords: Teach Engagement; Project-Based Learning; Ebooks; Transfer Responsibility Her Mindset; Instructor Training; Dennis Littky; Student.
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Challenges Encountered By A Distance Learning Organisation
Distance learning as the name indicates is a learning, learner gets from distant places. In this learning system, learner and educators are separated by space & time.
Lots of distance learning organizations are spreading to meet the increased demand of current & future needs of adult education. The rapid spread of these organizations doesn’t mean that these organizations are easy to open and run. There are various challenges faced by these organizations.
Keywords: ICT-Information And Communication Technology, SLM-Self Learning Material, SME- Subject Matter Expert, F2F- Face To Face.
Mahesh JOSHI & Alperhan BABACAN,
Developing A Framework For The Effective Use Of Blogs In Formative Assessment
The development of educational technologies has resulted in a fundamental shift in the educational paradigm with learning no longer equating to the assimilation of knowledge transmitted by textbooks and instructors but by personally building and communicating knowledge.
The aim of this paper is to analyse and discuss the importance of infusing blogs as a formative assessment tool in university education. After describing the theoretical aims, design, implementation and evaluation of blogging as a formative assessment tool; the paper supports the argument for the educational use and pedagogical importance of blogging. The paper also highlights potential problems and limitations of the blogging as an assessment tool and provides a conceptual framework for the effective implementation of blogs for enhancing student learning outcomes.
Keywords: Blogging; Assessment Tool; Infusing Blogs; Formative Assessment Tool; Effective Implementation Of Blogs.
Boutkhil GUEMIDE & Chellali BENACHAIBA
Exploiting Ict And E-Learning In Teacher’s Professional Development In Algeria: The Case Of English Secondary School Teachers
The real potential of ICT is the way it changes learners to become autonomous in their learning process. E-learning also plays a crucial role in today's life and in modern education. Its importance lies in the fact that people are finding that e-learning can make a remarkable change in teaching/ or learning: to how quickly they master a skill; how easy it is to study; and how much they enjoy learning. Besides, it can contribute to to policy-making in education: to raising standards; improving quality; removing barriers to learning and participation in learning, preparing for employment; upskilling in the workplace; and ultimately, ensuring that every learner achieves their full potential. E-learning can also be best exploited in teacher education and training. Since teacher development is critical, this paper explains why e-learning is a crucial factor in teacher development and outlines how both ICTs and E-learning can help English secondary school teachers’ professional development in Algeria through the creation of an effective e-learning web- site.
Keywords: ICT, e-Learning, Teacher Development.
Mehmet Barıs HORZUM & Ozlem CANAN GUNGOREN
A Model For Beliefs, Tool Acceptance Levels And Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge Of Science And Technology Preservice Teachers Towards Web Based Instruction
One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI). Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK) of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this study is to examine this relation. In accordance with this aim, the study group of the study consisted of 363 pre-service teachers. The data collected from pre-service teachers under the research were collected with scales of belief, tools acceptance and WPCK towards WBI. 3 scales were used for the data collection in the research. The data were analyzed with structural equation modeling in the research. As a result of the research, behavioral and contextual beliefs in WBI beliefs were medium level. Perceived usefulness, ease of use, perceived attitude and intention positively affect WBI tools acceptance levels of pre-service teachers. When the relation between beliefs, tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge of science and technology education pre-service teachers towards WBI is analyzed, it is seen that beliefs towards WBI affect acceptance levels of WBI tools and WBI tools acceptance levels affect web pedagogical content knowledge.
Keywords: Science And Technology Preservice Teacher, Web Based Instruction Belief, Web Based Instruction Tools Acceptence, Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge.
Suzan DUYGU ERIŞTI
A Multi-Cultural Interaction Through Video Conferencing In Primary Schools
This study investigated Turkish and Canadian primary school students’ ways of expressing their perception of cultural understanding through video conferencing and that of cultural interaction through video conferencing. The qualitative research data were collected in the form of interviews.
The results obtained were analyzed and interpreted based on the quantitative content analysis method. The research results revealed that the majority of the students explained their viewpoints through the effectiveness of the process. The students highlighted the importance of learning a different culture, using technology effective and recognizing new friends in the process. Most of the students indicated that videoconferencing encouraged them to learn and understand about different cultures, helped them develop cultural awareness, attracted their attention and increased their motivation.
Keywords: Video-Conferencing; Multi-Cultural Interaction, Multi-Cultural Understanding, Cultural Awareness
Mizanoor RAHMAN & Santosh PANDA
Teaching English Through Open Non-Formal Education (Onfe) In Bangladesh With An Effective Integration Of Ict To Support Learning
The program entitled “English in Action (EIA)”, 9 year period DFID funded project in Bangladesh, was launched in 2008, for the desire to bring a change in the learning of English language. EIA works to reach a total of 25 million primary and secondary students and adult learners through communicative language learning techniques and the use of ICT, textbooks and supplementary materials in an innovative way.
The project has been running, with the help of BBC World Service Trust and BBC Learning English, the program entitled “BBC Janala”, an initiative that is providing English language lessons to citizens via their mobile phones as part of the wider English in Action program in Bangladesh. Survey research found that women are particularly interested in learning by mobile (especially given its "any time, any place" nature). That means, it is absolutely being implemented as a non-formal education (NFE) under the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode what is known as Open Non-formal Education (ONFE). BBC Janala allows Bangladeshis to access short (2-3 minute) audio lessons through a simple voice call by calling a four digit short code.
The program has been a real challenge as it has the ability to address the need of students with an effective integration of ICT to support learning. This paper discusses how one increasingly ubiquitous ICT device -the mobile phone- has become increasingly relevant to learners in Bangladesh, in various ways and contexts.
Keywords: Open schooling, English through ODL, ICT in open education, DE in Bangladesh.
Serpil KOCDAR & Cengiz Hakan AYDIN
Accreditation Of Open And Distance Learning: A Framework For Turkey
The purpose of this study is to develop a framework for the accreditation of higher open and distance learning (ODL) programs in Turkey. The study was designed as a sequential monomethod multistrand mixed model including two strands which were both qualitative (QUAL→QUAL). In the first strand, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected through a three-round Delphi study with an expert panel consisting of 28 experts. In the second strand, qualitative data were collected via focus group interview. Based on a comprehensive literature review and the findings from the study, a framework was proposed including an initial accreditation process for new ODL programs and a re-accreditation process for ongoing programs. In addition, 35 criteria for new programs and 42 criteria for ongoing programs were developed to be used in the accreditation process.
Keywords: Accreditation in Open and Distance learning, Delphi Technique, Focus Group Interview
Critical Reading Of Research Articles As Oral Activator In The Language
This paper reports on an experience carried out with second course students of the School of Aeronautical Engineers at the Polytechnic University of Madrid in the subject class Modern Technical Language. In the previous years the problem in that class had been the scarce participation of the students in the oral practices. They seemed to be lead and exclusively represented by a few students when it came to oral participation. The students proposed tackling recent research articles in which opinions could be discussed. The reading of these articles has risen new elements that work as language activators in the language classroom: critical reading and thinking have developed participation in the oral activities and produced a noticeable influence on their scientific and humanist thinking and behavior.From this, we may extract the consequence that the experience is not only related to scientific knowledge, since it has made them better speakers or speaking-counterparts and more class-participating and collaborative, which implies that the human, scientific and linguistic factors progress at the same time through the critical experience. This way, the exposition of their critical ideas has developed both their humanism and scientific mind. These two facets which seem to belong to far away fields become a bond in our experience: the process is scientific since it tries to be a systematic study of the knowledge fleshed in written texts and it is also humanist because it fulfils the students need to grow up as persons, that is absorbing knowledge and processing it in order to produce a new personal approach to the world.
Keywords: Critics; Reading; Research Articles; Oral Production; Language Class.
Santosh Kumar BEHERA
An Investigation Into The Attitude Of College Teachers Towards E-¬ Learning In Purulia District Of West Bengal, India
Today we are living in an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) era. All over the world, there is a trend to use ICT in the teaching-learning process. The teacher and learner must gain access to technology for improving learning outcomes. ICT is a new paradigm of the teaching-learning process widely accepted as a necessary tool for attainment of developmental goals. Particularly higher education plays an important role for achieving MDGs.
In the process of education teacher plays vital role for promoting quality education. In order to development of teacher’s professional efficiency, gaining update knowledge and promoting quality education Electronic Learning is very much necessary in the present knowledge and information explosion age. E- Learning is widely accepted and it can be rich and as valuable as the classroom teaching. E-Learning is more useful in educational research.
In the circumstance, E-Learning (EL) plays an important role for creating awareness among the teachers. In the present study the investigator made an attempt to study the attitude of college teachers towards E-learning in Purulia district of West Bengal. One hundred teachers (both male and female) teaching in Arts and Science streams were taken as representative sample of the whole population. An attitude scale was used for collecting the data. The means of both groups were tested for significance of difference by using ‘t’ test. The differences in the groups were statistically significant and the attitude of College teachers was more favourable towards E-Learning.
Keywords: Attitude, Learning, Electronic and Electronic Learning.
Comparison Of Novice Programmers’ Performances: Blended Versus Face-To-Face
This study investigated the effect of blended learning on novices’ understandings of the introductory programming. A quasi-experimental design with participants of preservice computer and instructional technologies teachers, one control group (CG, N =64) and one experimental group (EG, N=61) who received the course 11 weeks. While face-to-face courses were taught face-to-face in classroom and in lab, blended courses were conducted in synchronous and asynchronous settings and also in lab sessions. The pretest, posttest and delayed tests were used to collect data. The participants in two groups were separated into three categories (poor, average and good) according to the pretest results.
The results of the study showed that blended and face-to-face courses have statistically similar effects on academic achievements among the three categories. However the delayed test results showed that, face-to-face courses were more effective on permanence than blended courses. Thus, considering the main goal of the introductory programming courses as enhancing students in the second category progress into the third, the organization of blended courses had to be revisited. Nevertheless, this study supported the idea that “Crucial challenges may exist on teaching some subjects via blended learning, which include intensive cognitive processes and some new approaches are needed to enhance permanence”.
Keywords: Blended Learning, Face-To-Face Learning, Introductory Programming, Teacher Training
Sabina YEASMIN & CRK MURTHY
Developing Conceptual Framework For Revising Self-Learning Materials (Slms) Of The Open School (Os) Of Bangladesh Open University (Bou) At A Digital Environment
Bangladesh Open University (BOU) runs school programs as part of its academic activities through open schooling since its inception. As of today, the Open School uses the first generation self-learning materials (SLMs) written, before an era, following an in-house style and template.
The concerned faculty member corrects, every year, texts before the reprint; but this is limited to spelling mistakes, factual errors and page make-ups only. The University has taken policy and steps to revise the texts as a whole which is still limited to the previous process. But; the current government is implementing the agenda of digital Bangladesh which definitely will influence the texts vis-à-vis template, learner’s instructions, gender-sensitiveness, context and content. In addition, education theory has been sifted from instructivism to constructivism which is being experimented and implemented by the Ministerial project entitled Teaching Quality Improvement (TQI) partnering with the BOU School of Education with new texts. Time changes, new things are being adopted. Open School also requires revising its texts in relation to the government’s current agenda of implementing the digital Bangladesh. This study collects data from tutors, distance educators, writers and reviewers and finally develops a framework for revising the OS SLMs at a digital environment.
Keywords: BOU, Digital, SLMs, ODL, Environment.
Stephan Z. BUGI
Challenges Of Attending
This study set out to find out what challenges the E-leaner faces in the Nigerian environment. Survey research design was used to obtain the opinion of 200 randomly selected E-learners in Kaduna metropolis. Their responses revealed that the most prominent challenges they face are, Inadequate Power supply, Internet connectivity problems, Efficacy of service providers, Affordability of computer hardware, Software and other accessories, Depth of knowledge and skills of internet operation, Cost of accessing internet and production of hard copy. Of all these problems, power supply and its inadequacy ranked highest while depth internet knowledge and skills ranked last. Recommendations were made on how to solve these challenges.
Keywords: E-Learning, E-Education, E-Banking, E-Lecturing
Irfan YURDABAKAN & Cicek UZUNKAVAK
Primary School Students’ Attitudes Towards Computer Based Testing And Assessment In Turkey
This study investigated the attitudes of primary school students towards computer based testing and assessment in terms of different variables. The sample for this research is primary school students attending a computer based testing and assessment application via CITO-ÖİS. The “Scale on Attitudes towards Computer Based Testing and Assessment” to collect data and the results obtained were compared in terms of school type, gender, and grade level.
The results of this study revealed that significant differences exist between attitudes of students from different schools. Such a difference does not exist between attitudes of students when their genders, grade levels, and participation periods to computer based assessment are taken into account.
Keywords: Primary Education Student, Computer Based Testing and Assessment
Lucy Santos GREEN, Fethi A. INAN & Bree DENTON
Examination Of Factors Impacting Student Satisfaction With A New Learning Management System
The purpose of this study was to determine factors that influenced student satisfaction with a new learning management system and to identify which of these factors were most important. The data was collected using an an online survey tool that was administered to students enrolled in courses designed and taught by faculty who participated in a pilot group testing a new learning management system (LMS). The findings support previous research in this area, indicating that usability of the LMS and availability of technical assistance is strongly correlated with student satisfaction. Study findings will be used to improve LMS training and institution-wide technology support.
Keywords: Learning Management System, Usability, Student Satisfaction, Online Learning, Course Design.
Nundoo-Ghoorah SUNITI & Joyejob TARA
The Pan African E-Network Project: A New Learning Culture
This paper sets out to explore the paradigm shift in learning culture brought about by the advent of online learning in the mostly print-based ODL system at the Mauritius College of the Air (MCA). It delves into the perceptions of learners and MCA staff involved in a range of undergraduate to Master’s programmes forming part of the Pan African e- Network Project that wires 23 African countries with top-ranking Indian universities through synchronous and interactive state of the art technology. Learners across five of the disciplines offered through tele-learning and a team of MCA staff participating in programme delivery were surveyed through questionnaires and interviews to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. For most of the respondents this new learning ethos has induced an acculturation process requiring radical reconceptualisation of prior notions about teaching/learning. MCA staff, too, have had to learn conducive behavior patterns to consolidate existing support services. Survival in this new learning environment where the tutor is a remote on-screen entity, where e-books replace printed material, where connectivity can be a daily struggle, demands another mindset, another set of values enabling learning and fine-tuned ICT skills. Socialisation with tutors and fellow learners is possible through links in Facebook and Twitter. However, learners still tend to feel somewhat isolated. It is proposed that an e-platform be set up to link up learners as a mutually supportive learning community engaged in the construction of knowledge.
Keywords: New Learning Culture, Tele-Learning, Values Enabling Learning
Hacer OZYURT, Ozcan OZYURT & Adnan BAKI
Architecture And Design Process Of The Individualized Assesment System Integrable To Distance Education Softwares
Assessment is one of the methods used for evaluation of the learning outputs. Nowadays, use of adaptive assessment systems estimating ability level and abilities of the students is becoming widespread instead of traditional assessment systems. Adaptive assessment system evaluates students not only according to their marks that they take in test exams but also according to their ability levels.
In this study, we dealt with theoretical background of the adaptive assessment systems. Study covers the structure, characteristics and architecture of the computerized adaptive test systems in detail. It dwells on the Item Response theory which is used for improving computerized adaptive test systems and the models with which this theory is used. Besides, processing steps which are required to realize a computerized adaptive test system and algorithms used for the validation of the test systems are introduced in detail.
Briefly, study introduces the structure and the improvement processes of the computerized adaptive testing systems which can be integrated to distance education software.
It is possible to say that integration of these systems into distant education software allows individualized learning and individualized assessment studies to be carried out successively in distant education software as well.
Keywords: Individualized Adaptive Assessment, Assessment Modules in Distance Education, Adaptive Testing System, Individualized Learning.
Evi NIKOLAKI & Maria I. KOUTSOUBA
Support And Promotion Of Self-Regulated Learning Through The Educational Material At The Hellenic Open University
In distance education both the physical separation between learner and instructor, and the use of technology create an educational environment that is characterized by learning autonomy and the learner’s active involvement. Because of these, self-regulated learning constitutes an inseparable concept of distance education. This study explores the support and promotion of self-regulated learning in the educational environment of the Hellenic Open University. In particular, this paper examines how the educational material, as it is described in its institutional level of function, supports specific self-regulating strategies of learning in the curriculum provided by the Hellenic Open University. For this purpose, the study is based on literature review of distance education and self-regulated learning. Thus, the cognitive strategies of elobaration and organization, the metacognitive strategies of goal-setting, self-monitoring and self-evaluation, the resourse management strategies of seeking help, seeking information and time management, as well as, the motivation are all included in the self-regulated aspects that are examined.
The results of the study indicate that the self-regulated learning is considerably supported and promoted by the printed educational material at the Hellenic Open Univesrity due to its interactive pedagogigal structure. However, it is pointed out that it is possible to maximize the support provided through the improvement of the
Keywords: Self-Regulated Learning, Distance Education, Hellenic Open University, Support, Printed Educational Material.
Sukmaya LAMA & Mridusmita KASHYAP
Empowering The Human Resources And The Role Of Distance Learning
As the world is invaded by technological inventions and wonders, life becoming more fast and crazy, yet there can be no doubt that the critical factor for the development of a nation or a state is its human resource. The productivity of a nation is influenced by the number of its skilled population. When we look into the problem of underdevelopment from human resource perspective we are bound to take a look at the educational scenario. In India, the higher education scenario has been very sickly, due to the pro profit policies, lack of infrastructure, entry of private players, etc. The growth of distance education phenomenon in India has no doubt brought a ray of hope. The present paper aims to look into the role of distance education in Assam and the potential it carries in building a huge wealth of human resources.
Keywords: Distance Education, Human Resource Development, Globalization, Higher Education
Bhagwan SHREE RAM & M. SELVARAJ
Impact Of Computer Based Online Entrepreneurship Distance Education In India
The success of Indian enterprises and professionals in the computer and information technology (CIT) domain during the twenty year has been spectacular. Entrepreneurs, bureaucrats and technocrats are now advancing views about how India can ride CIT bandwagon and leapfrog into a knowledge-based economy in the area of entrepreneurship distance education on-line. Isolated instances of remotely located villagers sending and receiving email messages, effective application of mobile communications and surfing the Internet are being promoted as examples of how the nation can achieve this transformation, while vanquishing socio-economic challenges such as illiteracy, high growth of population, poverty, and the digital divide along the way. Likewise, even while a small fraction of the urban population in India has access to computers and the Internet, e-governance is being projected as the way of the future. There is no dearth of fascinating stories about CIT enabled changes, yet there is little discussion about whether such changes are effective and sustainable in the absence of the basic infrastructure that is accessible to the citizens of more advanced economies. When used appropriately, different CITs are said to help expand access to entrepreneurship distance education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise technical and managerial educational quality by, among others, helping make teaching and learning into an engaging, active process connected to real life. This research paper investigates on the impact of computer based online entrepreneurship distance education in India.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship distance education, Computer & information technology.
Satya Sundar SETHY
Cognitive Skills: A Modest Way of Learning through Technology
Learning is an ever-present phenomenon. It takes place irrespective of time and place. It engages learners in their interested topic/content. Learning absorbs many skills, such as; reading skills, writing skills, technological skills, emotional skills, behavioral skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Out of all these, cognitive skills play significant role for apprehending a concept and comprehending a discussion. In the context of distance education (DE), learning never restrains to print medium only, it has extended to the various technological media with abundant possibilities for multiple variations of online and web instructions. This article discusses how cognitive skills assist learners in their learning through technology instructions. Further, it elucidates the technological impacts in the distance learning scenario. Consequently, it argues that the intervention of suitable and advanced technology helps learners to develop their cognitive skills and assists in their learning activities.
Keywords: Cognitive skills, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), Information Society, World Wide Web (www), e-learning.
Assessment In Education: A Case For Quality And Standards Within The Context Of Open And Distance Education: A Case Study Of One Zimbabwean University
A study was carried out to assess the assessment procedures used at one Open and Distance Learning (ODL) institution in Zimbabwe. The study focused on the views and perceptions of current and former students of the university. The study also analyzed some documents on assessment procedures at the university. The study used the qualitative methodology and data was qualitatively analyzed. The focus was on fifty current and former students in the Bachelor of Education in Educational Management (BEDM) and Master of Education in Educational Management (MEDM) programmes. Results indicated that both current and former students were generally satisfied with the assessment methods used in their programmes.
These included assignments, examinations and research projects/dissertations. It was noted that examinations had the highest weighting in both programmes. However, the study also noted that there were some practices that compromised quality if not carefully handled. These included the supervision of research projects and dissertations by only one supervisor per student. There were fears of bias in that regard. The study came up with a number of recommendations.
These included the need to reconcile and align regulations in Tutorial Letters with General Information and Regulations currently in use. Other recommendations included the need to review the study period without compromising the quality of education for BEDM, and the need to deal with issues of plagiarism of assignments. It should also be mandatory for Masters’ students to attend a viva voce to defend their dissertations. Finally, ODL demands innovative assessment methods which should be clearly distinct from conventional modes of assessment.
Keywords: Quality; Assessment; Standards; Open and Distance Learning.
Hisham DZAKIRIA, Mohd Sobri DON & Hamzah Dato’ ABDUL RAHMAN
Blended Learning (Bl) As Pedagogical Alternative To Teach Business Communication Course: Case Study Of Uum Executive Diploma Program
Globally, blended learning (BL) technologies have been increasingly applied in a variety of fields, both public and private sectors. In recent years, universities, public and private businesses and organizations are among those employing blended learning methods and technologies in training and re-training of professionals in the workforce.
In Malaysia, the increasing use of blended learning to enhance learning and enriching of soft skills among professionals and individuals in the work place is evident. The advancement of technology is an onset to many new avenues and tool for learning and teaching, and it is the coalescing of these various technologies with particular pedagogy or andragogy has helped to popularize BL. However, when an institution makes the critical choice of delivery methods, it is pertinent that the university needs to consider various success factors. One in particular is student-centered approach that entails the need to understand the students as the beneficiary of learning, and the support system they need to help them learn. This qualitative study reports in detail the experience of a small group of students undertaking Executive Diplomas at Executive Development Centre (EDC), Universiti Utara Malaysia as they progress through their Executive program. This paper looks at learning experiences as described by the learners- it is their story, their experience, and their perspective.
This study suggests that BL offered a comfortable middle ground, and has lots of potential in higher education in Malaysia. It is a pedagogical alternative that could play a significant role not only for teaching Business Communication, but has the potential to promote lifelong learning initiatives in Malaysia in a much meaningful and inviting way.
Although this study shows that BL contributed a significant and meaningful learning particularly for adult learners, it needs more definitive studies. Such information can be used to guide policy makers and educators as they plan national, regional, state, and local trainings and higher education programs for working professionals in Malaysia.
Keywords: Blended Learning; Learners’ Perspectives; Pedagogy; Re-Engineering Ways To Learn Learn And Teach; Business Communication.
Yasin OZARSLAN, Jale BALABAN-SALI & Ugur DEMIRAY
TOJDE: Electronic Publishing and a Review of Ten Years’ Experience in Turkey
This review examines The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE) over a ten years period from 2000-2010. The study provides an opportunity to examine publishing activities such as number of published articles, authors, research topics and methods, and analyses of TOJDE’s website such as time users stay on site and user profiles. After a content analysis, the articles are reviewed according to the selected criteria. These data were categorized according to emerging themes. Most parts of the data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and presented with tables and figures. The results can be used to review current distance education research trends and to explore potential research directions.
Keywords: Distance Education, Electronic Publishing, E-Journals, TOJDE, Anadolu University, Turkey.
Soghra OMRANI, Hashem FARDANESH, Nima HEMMATI & Naser HEMMATI
Exploring An Appropriate Instructional Design Model For Continuing Medical Education
Instruction, even when designed and based on sound instructional principles, oftentimes does not stimulate learners’ motivation to learn. The result may be that learners may not be motivated to pursue lifelong learning and use the knowledge and skills learned to deliver patient care.
The purpose of this study was to identify an appropriate integrated instructional design model for Continuing Medical Education using electronic learning method and compare it with traditional method. In this quasi-experimental study 60 General physicians and assistants according to the recall of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in Iran and by available sampling method in two 30- staff groups were participated. One group learned through traditional learning method and the other group by e-learning method and by Macromedia flash CS5 software that was based on the integration of instructional and motivational design models; consisting of slides and case studies focusing on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical management of Acute Respiratory Failure. The data were collected by pretest, posttest, and physicians’ motivation questionnaires. There was no significant difference between pretest scores of the two groups (11.37±1.42 VS. 11.73±0.69, P>0.05) but there was significant difference between posttest learning scores (15.2±1.29 VS. 17.53±0.94, p<0.05) and motivation of physicians (126.10±3.97 VS. 160.63±22.41, p<0.05) in both groups. The physicians’ learning and motivation were different in these two instructional methods; therefore, it is recommended that instructional and motivational design be used in future electronic continuing medical education programs.
Keywords: Instructional Design Models, Motivational Design Models, Learning & Motivation, Traditional Continuing Medical Education and Electronic Continuing Medical Education.
Hassan SOLEIMANI & Monir KHALILIYAN
Professional Development Between Iranian Distance Education Pnu Efl University Teachers And Traditional Non-Pnu Efl University Teachers
Professional Development is a critical necessity in today’s educational environment. The present research was based on the idea that teachers are professionals and they need professional development consisting of various processes of ongoing growth. We examined university teachers’ attitude to professional development in a type of distance learning educational system in Iran and examined their attitudes with their counterparts teaching in on-campus educational systems. To this end, 70 Payame Noor EFL instructors and 70 non-Payame Noor EFL instructors from other public universities in Tehran, Iran were selected to conduct the research. A five-scale Likert questionnaire was designed and evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in order to determine to what extent PNU EFL instructors are involved in professional development and whether there is any significant difference between the level of professional development between them and non-PNU EFL instructors. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18.0 using both parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. The outcomes of this study identified that although PNU EFL teachers believed in increasing their professional development level, this belief wasn’t very prevalent and a significant difference occurred between the extent of professional development between them and non-PNU EFL instructors.
Therefore, PNU EFL teachers need to develop a greater awareness of teaching in distance learning university systems while maintaining a high level of motivation to teach English in order to keep up with the changes of English language teaching in the world.
Keywords: PNU, Professional Development, Distance Learning.
Ahmed Yousif ABDELRAHEEM
Interactions Quality In Moodle As Perceived By Learners And Its Relation With Some Variables
The aim of this study was to identify learners’ perceptions of the quality of interaction in Moodle and investigate the effects of gender, grade point average (GPA), individualized learning experiences and their experiences in using Moodle factors in perceiving the quality of interaction. A questionnaire was used to collect data after being validated. It was distributed to 57 undergraduate students.
Results show that students perceived the quality of interaction positively and that there were no significant differences in the means for the four variables dealt with in this study which means that the wide diffusion of computers into educational fields and into the society at large in the last few years enabled students to develop more positive perceptions of information technology applications independent from their basic individual differences such as gender, GPA, computer experience, and individualized learning experience. In terms of ranking of interaction types learners show that their interaction with themselves comes in first, then with the instructors and finally with content. The study recommends that higher education institutions should continue using Moodle and encourage faculty members to adopt it in their teaching because of its distinctive features.
Keywords: MOODLE, E Learning, Learners’ Perception
Shashi SINGH, Ajay SINGH & Kiran SINGH
Education Systems And Academic Satisfaction: A Study On Rural And Urban Students Of Traditional Vs Open Education System In India
A satisfaction and dissatisfaction level within an individual influences the motivation level and his/her performance throughout the life. When an individual is satisfied with his/her work, he/she gets pleasure and feels motivated. Obtaining satisfaction from their education system is very important for students as this will lead to better learning possibilities. This paper aims to compare the level of academic satisfaction among the students of Traditional Education System and Open Education System. This paper also investigates academic satisfaction of urban and rural based students and comparing them over traditional (Urban: 110; Rural: 90), and open (Urban: 80; Rural: 71) education system. Statistical tests demonstrate that there is significant difference in the level of academic satisfaction among the students of Open Education System (OES) and Traditional Education System (TES).
Keywords: Academic Satisfaction, Traditional Education System, Open Education System, Higher Education System, Rural based students, and Urban based students.