The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education
Welcome to Volume 12, Number 4 of TOJDE
TOJDE appears on your screen now as Volume 12, Number: 4. In this issue it publishes 5 notes for Editor, 10 articles, 2 book reviews. And this time, 33 authors from 10 different countries are placed. These published articles are from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, UAE and USA.
Sabina YEASMIN & CRK MURTHY
Developing Conceptual Framework For Revising Self-Learning Materials (Slms) Of The Open School (Os) Of Bangladesh Open University (Bou) At A Digital Environment
Bangladesh Open University (BOU) runs school programs as part of its academic activities through open schooling since its inception. As of today, the Open School uses the first generation self-learning materials (SLMs) written, before an era, following an in-house style and template. The concerned faculty member corrects, every year, texts before the reprint; but this is limited to spelling mistakes, factual errors and page make-ups only. The University has taken policy and steps to revise the texts as a whole which is still limited to the previous process. But; the current government is implementing the agenda of digital Bangladesh which definitely will influence the texts vis-à-vis template, learner’s instructions, gender-sensitiveness, context and content. In addition, education theory has been shifted from instructivism to constructivism which is being experimented and implemented by the Ministerial project entitled Teaching Quality Improvement (TQI) partnering with the BOU School of Education with new texts. Time changes, new things are being adopted. Open School also requires revising its texts in relation to the government’s current agenda of implementing the digital Bangladesh. This study collects data from tutors, distance educators, writers and reviewers and finally develops a framework for revising the OS SLMs at a digital environment.
Keywords: Digital Environment; Teaching Quality Improvement (Tqi); Self-Learning Material (Slms); Gender-Sensitiveness; Digital Bangladesh
Kevin YEE & Jace HARGIS
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Using Google+ For Instructionusing Google+ For Instruction
Introduced in July, 2011 in a beta test of invited users only, the new social media service Google+ (or G+) quickly spread by word of mouth, and Google leader Larry Page (2011) blogged that within sixteen days it had 10 million users. By August, it had 25 million users (Cashmore, 2011). Even with slower growth ahead (still with no marketing budget), the service looks likely to crest 100 million users perhaps as early as ten months, a feat that took Facebook three years. Other social networks, most notably Facebook and Twitter, have been used increasingly as instructional tools, since they are platforms with which students are already familiar (Maloney, 2007; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007). Selwyn (2009) found that students often eschew official channels for communication in favor of less formal community-based formats such as Facebook, implying a growing need for instructional communication tools that will be used willingly by students. The question is whether Google+ can be used like Twitter or Facebook to augment instruction, or even, perhaps, to improve upon those predecessors for academic purposes.
Ziad D. BAGHDADI
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Learning Community In Online Education
Establishing learning communities early in online education helps bridge distances and differences between physical and virtual worlds of teaching and learning. This article sheds light on the importance of learning communities, and gives readers advices for creating communities that connect, engage, and inspire. Several tools for assessment of learning are provided to appraise online learning communities’ benefits to learners at all levels.
Keywords: Online Education; Learning Community; Learning Assessment; Social Learning
Ozcan OZYURT & Hacer OZYURT
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Investigating The Effect Of Asynchronous Discussions On Students’ Learning And Understanding Of Mathematics Subject
Recently, learning activities have gone beyond conventional environments and started to be performed via computer supported instruments. One of these instruments is asynchronous discussion forums (ADFs) used as computer-supported collaborative learning means. Learners practice various learning activities in ADFs and produce knowledge construction. In the present study, document analysis was employed and all Turkish originated ADFs relating mathematics teaching were scanned and put subjected to content analysis. Besides, a survey was implemented on 86 high school and undergraduate students. Both qualitative and quantitative data were obtained through this survey. These data were put subjected to qualitative and quantitative data analysis. Attitudes of students towards computer-supported collaborative learning and asynchronous discussion forums as mathematics learning instrument were tried to be revealed via this study. Also, behaviors of the learners and their views relating the learning activities in these environments were evaluated by means of this study. Results of the study demonstrated that asynchronous discussion forums are widely and efficiently used as computer-supported collaborative learning instrument in terms of mathematics learning.
Keywords: Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environments, Asynchronous Discussion Forums, Asynchronous Dialogues, Online Learning Communities, Mathematics Learning
Adebiyi MARION O. & Akinboni OLUWAFUNMILAYO A.
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Design And Development Of An Intelligent Instructive System: (Scholastic Tutor (St*)
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) is an act of impacting knowledge while computer teaches or acts as the tutors which is a supplement to human teachers. The ability to teach each student based on their individual abilities a major advantage posed by ITS and that is why it is being embraced in this work. This work describes the design of an Intelligent Tutoring System that was tagged Scholastic tutor (St*), which has the individual learning and collaborative problem-solving modules. The individual tutoring module was designed to provide appropriate lessons to individuals based on his/her background knowledge level, interest, and learning style and assimilation rate prior to using the tutoring system.
A software agent is used to monitor and process these parameters, arrange the learning topic, and exercises, for each individual. The collaborative problem-based tutoring module was designed to present tutorial problems and provides facilities to assist learners with some useful information and advice for problem solving. This is because the present lecturing methodology which is the conventional teaching methodology provides an interactive classroom setting that promotes the open exchange of ideas and allows for the lecturer to communicate directly with the students but has a great disadvantage of not teaching all the students according to their own learning rate and pace.
The intelligent tutor solves this problem by providing individualised learning for each student where they can learn according to their own pace and learning abilities it will provide remedy and advice when learners encounter difficulties during learning session.
The classical model of ITS architecture has four main modules; domain model, student model, tutoring model and the user interface model.
Keywords: Intelligent Tutoring System; Domain Knowledge Base; Student Model; Teaching Modules.
Manas RANJAN PANIGRAHI
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Perception Of Teachers’ Towards Extensive Utilization Of Information And Communication Technology
The study aims to study the perception of Sr. Sec. School Teachers’ towards extensive utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The Objectives of the study were:
Ø to study the perception of Sr. Sec. School Teachers towards utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT);
Ø to compare the perception of Sr. Sec. School Teachers towards utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in relation to gender;
Ø to compare the perception of Sr. Sec. School Teachers of different age groups towards utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT);
Ø to compare the perception of urban and rural Sr. Sec. School Teachers towards utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT);
Ø to compare the perception of Sr. Sec. School Teachers to different level of qualification towards utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT); (vi) to suggest guidance for effective utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Sr. Sec. Schools.
It was decided to select the sample from Sr. Sec. School teachers of Faridabad District of Haryana. In the present study 100 Sr. Sec. school teachers of Faridabad district of Haryana were selected through simple random sampling technique. Tools: Questionnaire for Teachers’ Perception towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This questionnaire was developed by investigator and finalized with its face validity. As findings can be declare that:
Ø There is no significant difference between the urban Sr. Sec. School teachers’ perception and their counter part i.e. rural Sr. Sec. School teachers towards utilization of ICT.
Ø There is no significant difference between the urban male and rural male Sr. Sec. School teachers perception did not differ significant on utilization of ICT.
Ø There is no significant difference between urban and rural female Sr. Sec. School teachers perception towards utilization of ICT. It reflected that urban and rural female teachers were not differs in view on utilization of ICT.
Keywords: Perception; Utilization, Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Online Interactive Forums As A Learning Tool Among The Mediastudents-An Analysis
New media is giving a new avatar to the education. Especially the second generation of web is drastically altered the education and teaching-learning patterns. Online forum is one of the tiny kids of new media and act as a vibrant tool for the learners. A forum allows many people to chime in about their experiences, information, technical knowhow, etc. It is an online communication between multiple users through text, voice, video and more. Throughout the world billions of forums are exist. This research was carried out to study the role and usage of online forum among the media students during the year 2010. The specific objectives of the study were to know the awareness; analyze the process and usage pattern; to find out the effectiveness and other dimensions of the online forums among the media students. Content analysis, survey and in-depth interview methods were used to find out facts. Forum’s contents like visual appearance, interaction, navigations, interface, etc. were analyzed. Survey was conducted among the media students.
In-depth interview was done among the experts. The research has found the following important facts: Online forums are acting better platform for the media students. The users frequently visited the forum and follow the thread. Most of the students post their doubts, queries on the particular topic and got many reply answers from other members like peers, experts, etc. They also exchange their views and clear doubts. It increases their capacity, subject knowledge, etc. Online forum is a cost effective method and a better tool for education.
Keywords: Online Interactive Forums, Interactivity, E-Learning, Media Students.
Mehmet KOKOC, Ayşenur OZLU , Atilla CIMER & Hasan KARAL
Teachers' Views On The Potential Use Of Online In-Service Education And Training Activities
This study examined teacher’s views on the potential use of online in-service education and training (INSET) activities. The study used a qualitative approach. A total of 13 in-service teachers from primary school, vocational school, science and art center, high school in Trabzon (on the Black Sea coast of Turkey) participated in the study. To determine opinions of participants about the potential use of online INSET activities, a online conference was held to determine teachers’ views. The participants who had experienced traditional and face to face INSET courses discussed their INSET experiences and thoughts about online INSET activities. These views were transcribed and then analyzed using content analysis. The main conclusions are: with online INSET activities, especially time and place dependency can be overcome, and accommodation and transportation issues can be resolved. Teachers feel that online INSET activities can promote effective use of resources.
Keywords: Distance learning, Online professional development, In-Service education and training, Professional development of teachers.
Ilknur ISTIFCI & Zeki KAYA
Collaborative Learning In Teaching A Second Language Through The Internet
We can call the education offered by using the Internet environment as “teaching through the Internet”. Such a teaching contributes to interaction, which is not sufficient in traditional classrooms most of the time. It gives the geographically separated students the opportunity of exchanging ideas and information, collaborative learning, discovering alternatives in learning and developing their own learning styles. In addition, this type of teaching allows learners to see subjects from different perspectives. Groups having special interests can share their own experiences even if they are too far from each other. When we look at the aims of this type of learning that is mostly used in higher education, it is seen that learners are encouraged to learn through distance education. Teaching through distance education can also be done on campus environments. Learners can participate in the courses and discussions whenever and wherever they want except from the pre-scheduled meetings. The Internet-based interactive environments offer the interaction which supports the learners in learning. Being independent of time and place, learners can work with each other, and interact and collaborate with their tutors and classmates. Collaboration brings solidarity with it. The aim of learning through collaboration is to obtain information and use this information to solve a problem. In general, collaborative learning creates a positive social environment and facilitates comprehension. Collaborative learning is based on the idea that learners working in groups towards a common goal can learn better than the students who can work on their own. The aim is to make learners to want each other’s success, to motivate each other, and to teach each other in order to achieve the learning objectives. Collaborative learning requires solidarity and reciprocal loyalty. Solidarity and reciprocal loyalty implies the active participation and contribution of each group member to the success of the group. This paper mentions how teaching through distance education happens, interaction in teaching through the Internet, collaborative learning, and how collaborative learning occurs in teaching a second language through the Internet.
Keywords: Teaching Through The Internet, Learning Through The Internet, Second Language, Collaborative Learning
Nadia RASHID & Muhammad RASHID
Issues And Problems In Distance Education
Distance education and its relationship to emerging computer technologies have together offered many promises to the field of education. In practice however, the combination often false short of what it attempts to accomplish some of the short comings are due to problems with the technology; others have more to do with administration, instructional methods, or students. This article provides decision maker with some trends that affect distance education and thus enable them to plan accordingly. The issues and problems are organized into categories as they pertain to students and enrollment, faculty members, academics, technology, the economy, and distance education. All such issues and problems were identified during an extensive review of current literature in the field.
Weblogs For English Language Learning: Students’ Perceptions
The digital explosion of information on the Internet has resulted in a need for a new and up-to-date way for Digital Natives to learn English. Educators have reported numerous benefits of using weblogs in English language learning. This article presents a small scale study on the use of weblogs for English language learning at tertiary level in Malaysia. Twenty six students kept weblogs for a duration of a semester.
This study investigated how students perceived the use of weblogs for English language learning. A questionnaire which was made up of both close-ended and open-ended questions was administered at the end of the study. A mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to analyse the students’ responses to the questionnaire. The study found that students were aware of their audience when they blogged and that they geared their writing towards their audience. In addition, they also interacted with others through the use of the comment feature on their weblogs.
Furthermore, the majority of the students enjoyed blogging and found weblogs useful for English language learning. This study found that weblogs are promising interactive tools for English language learning.
Keywords: Weblogs, English Language, Language Learning, Perceptions, Questionnaire
Shashi SINGH & Ajay SINGH
Academic Motivation Among Urban & Rural Students: A Study On Traditional Vs Open Education System In India
Higher education today is being viewed as a tool to achieve prosperity and high living standards. It is thus looked upon as a service to the society and a powerful weapon to change the society for its betterment. Motivation plays a crucial role in learning. Motivation energizes the behavior of the individual. It also directs the behavior towards specific goals. It helps in acquisition of knowledge, develops social qualities, increases initiation of persistence in activities, leads to improved performance and develops a sense of discipline in the individual. This paper aims to compare Open Education System and Traditional Education System with respect to Academic Motivation of students towards the two types of education systems.
This paper also tries to compare the academic motivation of rural and urban based students. It has been found in this paper that there is significant different in Academic Motivation among students of the two types of education systems. The significant difference in academic motivation has also been found in urban and rural based students, compared between the two systems. The paper has also forwarded some suggestions which may be considered by the policy makers and administrators of OES to help increase the academic motivation of students of OES.
Keywords: Academic Motivation, Traditional Education System, Open Education System, Higher Education System, Rural based students, and Urban based students
Trends Towards Distance Education Of Nursing Education In Turkey
The contemporary world, developments, changes, transformations, globalization, information and communication technologies developments, diversification of the educational environment and life-long education to become compulsory in education, learning-teaching process efficiency and effectiveness in their discussion raises, while the educational technology, the concept was put forward. With the concept of educational technology and communication technologies bigi be used effectively in the field of education has become compulsory. Next to this case, the individual's formal education at any time and anywhere access to educational programs that allow participation distance education has led to the need to.
In today’s world rapidly changing, evolving and increasingly complex area of a state health care services, nursing education from the issuing institution, advanced human and professional members of the advanced characteristics and has adopted the lifelong development of nurses are required to have graduated. Resources in this direction was examined, the distance education of nurses after graduation various vocational courses, certificate programs until completion and graduate degree (master and PhD) education in maintaining the successful results to indicate.
Therefore, distance education, nursing education to university level upgrade accelerated nursing education experienced in the quality-quantity to the solution of the problem, the continuity of nursing education and contribute to the professional will provide a large group of educational opportunities will be taken into consideration must be considered and appropriate studies, arrangements should be made.
Keywords: Distance Education, Nursing Education, Education, Nursing
Sufiana Khatoon MALIK & Fauzia KHURSHED
Nature Of Teacher-Students’ Interaction In Electronic Learning And Traditional Courses Of Higher Education- A Review
Present paper explores differential teacher-student interaction in electronic learning (el) and in face to face traditional learning (tl) courses at higher education. After thorough study literature available and getting information from university teachers teaching el and tl courses about the nature of teacher-students interaction in both modes it was found that teacher-students interaction is significantly different in el and tl higher education courses. There are fewer opportunities for developing students’ moral judgment, critical thinking, communication and interpersonal skills in teacher-students interaction in el courses at higher education level.
Courses of tl do provide opportunities to students for developing their developing moral judgment, critical thinking, communication and interpersonal skills through face to face interaction with the teacher in direct communication and group discussions on past and current issues along with learning achievement. Arrangement for conducting local educational conference for some e. courses may arrange and participation in such conferences for e. learners may be made mandatory for qualifying a particular degree. El course may be redesigned and practical activities may be incorporate for developing in students’ moral judgment, critical thinking, communication and interpersonal skills.
Keywords: Electronic Learning; Traditional Learning; Courses, Moral Judgment; Critical Thinking; Communication And Interpersonal Skills; Students, Higher Education
Okonkwo, Charity AKUADI
Adapting On Demand Examination System In National Open University Of Nigeria End Of Semester Examination
Teaching–learning process is incomplete without effective and meaningful assessment of students learning outcomes. This applies to both conventional modes of education as well as to open and distance learning modes. So far, conduct of examinations at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), has been cumbersome and be-decked with ‘hydra headed’ problems, such as: dearth of skilled academics, finances, prompt marking of scripts and collation/processing of acceptable results leading to release of incomplete or meaningless results. Hence the need for re-engineering the examination process at the NOUN.
This paper discusses the On Demand Examination System (ODES), an Information Communication and Technology (ICT) based innovation which enables the assessment of students, as at and on their own readiness and demand. But, opined that NOUN can make better use of ODES by convenient adaptation and use of the ODES software functionalities and processes.
The ODES can be used to handle the challenging examination processes such as generating items that could be administered to students as a group at the End of Semester Examination.
The results of the examination can then be timely processedd and released following the laid down procedures already entrenched by the use of the software to overcome most of the burden experienced so far. Since, the institution, the students and even the staff are not technologically ready for On Demand Examination for now.
Relationships Between Open Education Students’ Economic Profiles And Their Use Of Internet In Education
The study aims to identify the economic profiles of Open Education Faculty students and to determine the relationship between their economic profiles and the following of online courses using Internet. In the study survey model was used. The population of the study was composed of 4652 Anadolu University Open Education Faculty students who live in Bolu. Sample of the study consisted of 361 students randomly selected from research population. Data were obtained by surveys. Some of the research findings are as follows: the income levels of parents for both unemployed and single and employed students are in the range of 0-1300 TL. Since almost all the mothers are housewives, they do not have separate incomes. Fathers for both unemployed and single and employed students are commonly workers, retired individuals, self employed indibviduals and public officials. Meaningful relationships were observed between the economic profiles of employed students which include opportunities such as having access to a computer at the workplace or owning one at home and following the classes through Internet.
Keywords: Economic Profile, Open Education Student, e-learning
Ilknur ISTIFCI, Tamar LOMIDAZDE & Ugur DEMIRAY
An Effective Role of E-Learning Technology For English Language Teaching By Using Meta Communication Actors
Meta communication plays a key role in foreign language learning and teaching. Broadly speaking, meta communication is communication about communication. Meta communication is something that goes beyond communication and all language learners and teachers should be familiar with its existence. It should be stressed that meta communication which accompanies any message is very powerful. In face to face writing lessons, the student can make emphasis on any point by utilizing larger fonts, capital letters, or bold fonts in his essay. However, in virtual learning environments, students can make use of emoticons like :-) “happy”, :-( “sad”, :-/ “perplexed”, O.o “confused” to communicate about communication. Further, they can deploy some acronyms like (BTW= By the way, ASAP= as soon as possible, TM= tomorrow) to easily convey their messages. It should be emphasized that E-learning applications (virtual worlds, second life, ICTs) are very beneficial in foreign language learning and teaching since they create a platform for students and teachers to interact in a context with no boundaries of time and distance.
In Transformational Generative Grammar, foreign language teachers describe syntactic structures in English by using grammatical symbols with meta communicational elements. For instance, every English Foreign Language-EFL or English Language Teaching-ELT teachers or students is familiar with the symbols and related meanings like (S= sentence, subject, V= verb, O= object, N= noun, NP= noun phrase, VP= verb phrase, etc.). On the other side, when teaching English pronunciation to Turkish EFL learners, foreign language teachers utilize phonetic symbols like /è, æ, å, ğ, w, ŋ/ to write transcriptions of English words. These phonetic symbols have meta communicational elements in their composition because they communicate about communication. At this juncture, foreign language teachers should learn frequently used emoticons, keyboard symbols, acronyms, grammatical and phonetic symbols and they should teach them to their students to enable them to establish successful communication with other people.
Globalization is consolidated by the extraordinary invasion of higher education by new technologies, especially the Internet. Major changes in the social and economical conditions in Europe and worldwide force new needs and trends upon the technology. The main challenge for “the knowledge society of the future” is to ensure that each member of the society has the opportunity of continuous professional development, frequent retraining and obtaining new competences, mastering new information technologies (IT), lifelong learning (LLL), and so on. Within the education sector, a number of continuous efforts are taking place to stimulate the use of ICT at all levels of education.
E-Learning has introduced new approaches of instructional delivery where the roles of teacher and student have significantly changed. The integration of information and communication technologies into the education field is in constant progression and generates empirical approaches for educational environment design. Some research projects in distance learning are introduced in the world.
Keywords: Meta Communication, e-Learning, English Language Teaching
Lawrence A. Tomei
REVIEW: Designing Instruction For The Traditional, Adult, And Distance Learner: A New Engine For Technology-Based Teaching
Adult students demand a wider variety of instructional strategies that encompass real-world, interactive, cooperative, and discovery learning experiences.
Designing Instruction for the Traditional, Adult, and Distance Learner: A New Engine for Technology-Based Teaching explores how technology impacts the process of devising instructional plans as well as learning itself in adult students. Containing research from leading international experts, this publication proposes realistic and accurate archetypes to assist educators in incorporating state-of-the-art technologies into online instruction.
Reviewed By Gulsun KURUBACAK & Belgin BOZ
REVIEW: Distance Nurse Education (Uzaktan Hemsirelik Egitimi)
Distance Nurse Education is the first book in the Turkish literature. The main purpose of this book is to introduce and discuss the dimensions, components and characteristics of Distance Nurse Education. The unique approach of this publication brings together 1) Distance Education, 2) Nurse Education, and 3) ALINE (Active Learning in Nursing Education) Model (Fay, Selz, and Johnson, 2005) together at the same time. This book focuses on the learning activities, learner-centered approach, interactions, nursing competency oriented skills and feedback of distance nurse education and its applications. Besides, this book considers on how planning, designing, delivering and managing distance resources to bring about the successful completion of the goals and objectives of distance nurse education; and also discusses the design and its models from a progressive and transformative viewpoint in the area. Thus, the publication attempts to build a better understanding on how distance educators, designers, tutors and learners in nurse education can talk about the methodical approaches to planning and guiding processes to design distance nurse education from start to finish. This is also important to scrutinize the distance nurse education model how to bring a global and multicultural partnership of faculty, administrators, professionals, teachers, community activists and researchers in distance education as well as nurse education.