12 (2), 2011
Kevin YEE & Jace HARGI
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Google Moderator And Other Clicker Alternatives
The use of Audience Response Systems, commonly called “clickers,” has grown in recent years as instructors have discovered the dual benefits of interaction and accountability when teaching large classes. Caldwell (2007) has shown that “these systems are especially valuable as a means of introducing and monitoring peer learning methods”. MacArthur and Jones (2008) have found that students generally have a positive attitude towards clickers, as well as research indicates measureable increases in learning through the use of collaborative response systems.
Leili MOSALANEJAD, Sakine SHAHSAVARI & Mehdi DASTPAK
NOTE FOR EDITOR: The Effect Of Virtual Versus Traditional Learning In Achieving Competency-Based Skills
By rapid developing of the network technology, the internet-based learning methods are substituting the traditional classrooms making them expand to the virtual network learning environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of virtual systems on competency-based skills of first-year nursing students.
Materials and methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 86 freshman nursing students were recruited. Nursing Fundamentals and Skills (including theoretical and practical credits) was decided as the teaching course. The theory and practical contents were taught in one group by conventional method (face to face teaching, demonstration on moulage) and for another by virtual simulation and interactive multimedia. The two groups were the same for the content being taught, the instructor and the final evaluation. Paired t-test and independent sample t-test was used for statistical analysis.
Results: In theoretical exam, the mean score in virtual teaching group was higher than traditional group (P<0.001); however, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the result of objective structured clinical examination.
Conclusions: Using virtual systems is beneficial in enhancing student learning. Both traditional and virtual methods can be used in teaching skills in nursing students; however, it seems that combination of the two can facilitate knowledge transfer.
Keywords: Competency-Based Education; Computer Simulations; Nursing.
Ahmad Zamzuri MOHAMAD ALI
NOTE FOR EDITOR: A Framework For Choosing Appropriate Open Source Learning Management System
Fast evolving of e-learning technology has inspired teachers to adopt Learning Management System (LMS) as a platform for distance learning activities. LMS is a system used to plan, create, implements and assesses certain learning objective and majority of LMSes are web-based. Dozens of LMS product existence, either commercial or open source has provide wide choices for teachers in selecting the best LMS that suits their need. Since commercial LMSes are costly and not many teachers are willing to spend to have it, open source LMSes has become the credible substitutes to these commercial LMSes. However, based on the observation, whenever open source LMS is mentioned MOODLE will appear in most of the teachers mind.
Implication of this, teachers often find themselves altering their needs to suit the LMS, not because it is the right thing to do, but because it is the only choice preferred by them. Selecting the appropriate LMS should starts with identifying the learning objectives and strategies in order to find the suitable open source LMS that will suit initial and subsequent requirements.
Therefore, this paper intends to propose a framework or guideline in selecting appropriate open source products. The framework was developed based on experience, research and literature review done. This paper will also introduce some potential open source LMSes and its features that might be helpful in identifying the potential open source LMS that suits our learning objectives requirement. The features are identified by exploring the respective LMS’s test site.
Keywords: Distance Learning, Learning Management System, open source
Zarabian F , Rastegar Pour H, Sarmady M. R, Zandi B & Farajollahi M
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Web Based E-Learning Program Dictation And Its Impact On Academic Progress Of The Third Grade Students Of Primary School
The purpose of this research is to study the effect of web based E-learning program instruction on academic progress of third grade students of primary school in dictation .This study is performed in the form of quasi-experiment. Statistical society included 62 third grade girl students of Mahdavi elementary school of region one in Tehran city education. Sampling in this study is done using random sampling method. Samples divided to two equal control and experimental groups. The experimental group was instructed dictation in three months using web based e-Learning program designed by the researcher and approved by the 16 relevant specialists in the ministry of education and universities. Control group was instructed using Traditional classroom method.
Analysis of obtained data using average and statistical independent t test of group results showed that there is a significant relationship between the use of e-learning program of dictation and academic progress of third grade students of primary school in dictation and its related elements including visual, auditory, movement skills. Similarly, there is a significant difference between academic progress of students who learned dictation using web based program and students who learned dictation using traditional method. In addition, there are significant differences between prerequisite capabilities in dictation including visual, auditory and movement skills in the experimental and control group post test. According to score differences in post test there are significant differences between experimental and control group dictation.
Keywords: Web Based E-Learning Program, Dictation, Academic Progress, Third Grade Students Of Primary School.
Teaching Law To Online Law Students At Rmit University
This paper discusses the online Juris Doctor Program (JD Program) at RMIT University. The first part of the paper provides a brief overview of the JD Program, the graduate capabilities of the Program and key principles associated with the teaching of law to online postgraduate students. In line with the literature in the area of online teaching and learning, it is argued that online education needs to facilitate deep learning and needs to be based on principles relating to student engagement and active participation.
The second part of the paper showcases some of the courses that are taught on an online basis in the JD Program. A blended approach is adapted to the teaching of the advocacy as well as the Negotiation and Dispute Resolution courses. The Contracts Law course adopts a conversational framework to engage online law students. In discussing the online teaching and assessment practices in this course, the paper demonstrates how the teaching and assessment practices in these courses enhance deep learning and graduate skills and attributes essential for law students through premising the activities on principles relating to active learning and deep learning.
Keywords: RMIT University, Law Education, Online
Muhammad ATHAR HUSSAIN, Azhar MEHMOOD & Munazza SULTANA
An Inquiry Into Benefits Of Reflective Practice In Open And Distance Learning
Innovations in learning with conscious thinking result in conceptual and effective learning. New strategies and techniques of learning aim at bringing about change in behavior that might help in solving problems of the individual at local and global level. This paper inquires into benefits of Reflective Practice in Open and Distance Learning in Pakistan. A questionnaire was administered among 40 students doing masters in Education, autumn 2009, at Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad.
Collected data were analyzed by calculating percentage and Mean scores of each item. An interview was conducted to validate the quantitative data. Findings showed that Reflective Practice helped learner in solving their learning problems and learners were able to cope with problems with their conscious effort. The respondents were agreed that consultation with friends and discussion with senior colleagues benefited them in solving problems involved in their learning. The respondents acceded that counseling for selection of subjects and institution, their past experiences and self-reports were useful in teaching-learning process and solving their learning problems. The respondents were of the opinion that reflective practice helps in solving learning problems and in bringing improvement in their behavior.
The findings also indicated that lack of counseling, time and resources caused problems in becoming reflective and committed person. Keeping the findings in view, it is recommended that reflective practice might be promoted among students with the help of counselors, teachers, senior students, books and journals. Extensive counseling be provided to students at postgraduate level and curricula should be made innovative.
Keywords: Reflective Practice, Counseling, Behavioral change, Distance Education.
Z. Gonul BALKIR, Umit ALNIACIK & Eylem APAYDIN
Fuzzy Logic In Legal Education
The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations.
The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law.
In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables.
Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal education, more quality and just legal interpretations can be achieved by synchronously dealing with non-contradicting different perspectives of legal realities.
Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Legal Education, Principles Of Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy Logic, Accepting Approximate Causality Has Logic, Is The Expansion Of Classic Set Outlook. Use Of Rules And Principles Of Fuzzy Logic As A Model Of Approximate Causality In Grading Of Multi-Realities May Help In Understanding And Application Of Legal Reality On A Fair And Equal Level As Well As Legal Education And Training.
Using Wikis As A Support And Assessment Tool In Collaborative Digital Game-Based Learning Environments
In computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments, there are many researches done on collaborative learning activities; however, in game-based learning environments, more research and literature on collaborative learning activities are required. Actually, both game-based learning environments and wikis enable us to use new chances for learning, especially in collaborative learning activities.
Therefore, in this paper, related literature on wikis and how game & instructional designers can leverage from wikis in game-based learning settings for enhancing students’ collaborative learning activities are examined. Based on the reviewed literature, two main suggestions are given in this paper with their underlying reasons. First, using wikis as a support tool for enhancing collaboration in digital game-based learning (DGBL) environments, and second using wikis as an assessment tool in DGBL are suggested
Keywords: Wikis; Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning; Games; Digital Game-Based Learning; Collaboration; Assessment.
Nabi Bux JUMANI, Fazalur RAHMAN, Saeedul Hasan CHISHTI & Samina MALIK
Teachers Training Through Distance Mode In Allama Iqbal Open University (Aiou) Pakistan: A Case Study
Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is the first Open University in Asia and established in 1974 on the model of UKOU. AIOU uses different media for the delivery of instruction. It has a well established Institute of Educational Technology which has radio and TV production facilities and advance level of work in computer technology. AOU offers diversified courses and programs ranging from literacy to PhD level in its four faculties. The Faculty of Education established in 1984 is the largest faculties of the university with 47% enrolment of the university and contributor of 53% to the total annual university exchequer.
At present 30 programs and 135 courses in its eight department/Institutes being run by the faculty. The Faculty offers variety of programs in education and training of teachers and educational professionals. These academic programs range from primary teachers training to M.S/M.Phil and Ph.D. levels in various areas of specializations by its following departments: Secondary Teacher Education, Distance Non Formal and Continuing Education, Educational Planning, Policy studies and leadership, Early Childhood Education and Elementary Education, Special Education and Science Education. The faculty has also chalked out B.Ed (Honors) 4 year degree programme in various specializations. The mode of delivery is absolutely a distance learning mode and various components are devised as teaching methodology which is based on; Study centers and information technology, Radio and TV programs, tutorials, assignments/formative evaluation, workshops/practical, face to face teaching, internship and final examination. The university employs non-formal method of correspondence, radio and television broadcasts, special textbooks and reading materials prepared on self-learning basis, part-time teachers (tutors) engaged nearest to the student's residences. And a system of study centers for applied training is spread throughout Pakistan.
There is an effective use of various mediums of communication in AIOU for dissemination of education, including especially designed printed text, radio and television broadcasts and lately inducted instructional CDs.
The radio and television programs produced in AIOU support and complement the distance-teaching-based courses of the University. Radio and television programs are transmitted on the national television and radio broadcasting networks. One hour daily television programs on PTV channels and half an hour radio programs through PBC transmission. Non-broadcast audio-visual material is also used for small group instruction and individual study. Hence this case study discusses the practices of delivery at AIOU.
Ayda SABUNCUOGLU AYBAR & Ebru GOKALILER
More Effective Way To Advertise The Distance Education Programmes: Mobile Marketing Approach
Nowadays organizations strive to find the ways to communicate with their target audiences by using varied advertising mediums because of the developments on the information communication technologies and the globalization. In this context, like the other institutions, the distance education institutions has to execute communication activities by using different advertising mediums to create a positive position in their consumers minds. In this sense, the increase on the ownership of mobile phones and the new specialties of mobile phone technologies like accessing to the internet made mobile marketing efforts important on the advertising investments of distance education institutions. Especially with the mobile marketing, distance education institutions can create personalized informative and promotion messages for their target audiences. Mobile marketing approach has lots of advantages for the institutions and the most important advantages that helps the institutions are; the formats of the approach are forming according to the newest technological developments and it gives chance to create messages for specific target audiences. But mobile marketing has also disadvantages like; the target audience’s mobile phones can be incompatible with the messages and the target audience can ignore these messages. However much the approach has some disadvantages, the distance education institutions- which are based on the technological developments also like the mobile marketing approach- has to invest on mobile marketing according to send personalized and effective advertising messages about their programs’ contents, benefits etc.
Keywords: Mobile Advertising, Mobile Marketing; Information Technology; Distance Education. TEACHING LAW TO ONLINE LAW STUDENTS AT RMIT UNIVERSITY
Cost-Effective, Equitable And Flexible Higher Education Through Open And Distance Learning In Bangladesh
This paper examines how this mega-university offers increasing access to cost-effective, equitable and flexible higher education by analyzing data from primary and secondary sources, identifies challenges impacting the continued growth of enrollment in distance education, and outlines opportunities for increasing access to higher education through scaling of distance initiatives. For pedagogic delivery, BOU uses both the conventional face-to-face tutorial system based on print module and electronic learning technologies such as CD, audiovisual cassettes, and radio and TV broadcasts. It revealed that BOU education is flexible, cost-effective, and insensitive to gender and geography and of standard comparable to that of the conventional universities. The reasons behind the success and cost-effectiveness of BOU programs were;
Ø BOU has access to any government and non-government infrastructures and resources without any cost or with nominal costs and can engage specialists from any institution for tutoring with a small honorarium;
Ø it broadcasts program free of cost through government-owned radio and TV channels;
Ø the demand for higher education is very high due to seat limitations only 4-5% of students get the chance to enroll in public universities after their HSC; and
Ø the degree/diploma/certificate of BOU is accepted by all as equivalent to those of conventional public universities.
Survey of opinions from students of different programs identified the problems in the current system and proposed alternatives to mitigate them by applying some innovative interactive and flexible learning technologies including mobile phone. Considering the success of BOU and to accommodate the huge demand of higher education, conventional universities should also open their doors for ICT-mediated cost-effective and flexing learning to make the vision of knowledge-based ‘digital Bangladesh’ a reality by the year 2021.
Keywords: Mega-University; Flexible Learning; Mobile Learning; E-Learning; Cost-Effectiveness; Digital Bangladesh
Afzaal ALI, Muhammad I. RAMAY & Mudasar SHAHZAD
Key Factors For Determining Student Satisfaction In Distance Learning Courses: A Study Of Allama Iqbal Open University (Aiou) Islamabad, Pakistan
In this paper, the primary objective of the research team was to find out the relationship between student satisfaction and the following variables of the distance learning environment: instructors' performance, course evaluation and student-instructor interaction. The sample consisted of 245 students of Allama Iqbal Open University of Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to address the most recent problem of AIOU students relevant to their distance learning. The problem was that most of the people in Pakistan perceived distance learning as poorer quality. Therefore, the researchers conducted this study to find out whether it's only people perception or there is any thing in reality about the poorer outcome of the distance learning students as compare to traditional students. By using correlation, regression and descriptive analysis, it was found that just like the traditional education, in distance learning education at AIOU, enough interaction take place between students and their instructors, courses are up to date and well designed, instructors are devoted, motivated and equipped with the required skill and knowledge. Moreover, the faculty at AIOU is delivering distance learning courses that meet the students' needs in regard to students-instructor interaction, instructor performance and course evaluation.
Keywords: Distance Learning, Course Evaluation, Instructor Performance, AIOU, Islamabad.
Student Retention In An Era Of Globalization: A Case Study Of Ignou Regional Centre, Mumbai
Student Retention is a function of a number of factors, the most important among them being-the academic response mechanism of an institution, effectiveness in handling administrative queries, counseling at learner support centres, effectiveness in handling practical session and so on. The current paper is an attempt to study the effectiveness of student support services in an era of globalization in distance education institutions, with special reference to IGNOU Regional Centre, Mumbai. It is strongly felt that the results of this study will have a strong bearing on the way support services at conducted at Distance Education institutions. Mathematical complexity has been purposively avoided to make the contents of this paper intelligible to a wider audience.
Keywords: Student Support Services; Globalization of education; Student Retention
A New Tv Practice In Distance Education In Turkey
Anadolu University, which has been developing constantly since it was established, has determined a new road map considering the mission and vision developed in the search conference for the purpose of AOS “2020 Future design” (17-19 April 2010). In accordance with the outcomes of this study, the following question was one of the questions addressed to the participants in this conference for their answers, “how should an ideal education channel be in AOS?” as TV channels are considered as most basic components of such systems.
This paper attempts to reveal possible answers to that question and also to come up with answers to what stages there should be in such process considering the “strategic plan”, which is one of the outcomes of this search conference.
Keywords: Distance Education, Turkey, Anadolu University, Educational TV
Maya MARIA, Aminudin ZUHAIRI, Kurnia Endah RIANA & Ginta GINTING
Students' Behaviour In Decision Making Process To Attend Distance Learning Programs At Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia
The purpose of the research was to analyse students’ behaviour in choosing a distance learning program at Universitas Terbuka (UT), Indonesia, using the theory of planned behaviour model developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975). The respondents of the research were 102 students from 3 Regional Offices of Jakarta, Malang and Kupang, representing different area and size.
The structural equation model was used to test models and hypotheses in the study. The findings of the study show significant influence of subjective norm on the students’ intentional behaviour to choose distance learning programs. Another important finding of this research is that behavioural norms significantly influence the students’ decision making behaviour in choosing distance learning programs.
Findings of this study improve understanding of how distance students make decision in choosing distance learning programs and provide information to distance education institutions on how to best meet the needs and improve services to distance students. It also helps distance education institutions encourage the development of learning communities that can enhance social marketing of distance education programs.
Ivanović MIRJANA, Putnik ZORAN, Šišarica ANJA & Budimac ZORAN
The It Gender Gap: Experience, Motivation And Differences In Undergraduate Studies Of Computer Science
This paper reports on progress and conclusions of two-year research of gender issues in studying computer science at Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad. Using statistics on data gathered by a survey, the work presented here focused on identifying, understanding, and correlating both female and male students’ performance, professional motivation, ambition, confidence level and attitudes towards differences, learning quality and nature of the field. Results show agreement with theoretical predictions and significant improvement over previous efforts; providing profound implications for future studies of gender-sensitive IT education in the region and beyond.
Keywords: Gender, Computer science, Job/Study satisfaction, Stereotyping
Hasan KARAL, Ayca CEBI & Yigit Emrah TURGUT
Synchronic Distance Education From The Perspective Of A Handicapped Person
Nowadays knowledge and communication technologies are developing rapidly and changing people’s lives. With the help of the developing technologies, people can access knowledge independent of time and place and distance education technologies offer handicapped students a range of opportunities in order that they may access a better level of education. By defining perceptions related to the distance education of a physically handicapped student engaged in a program of synchrony distance education at Karadeniz Technical University to throw a fresh light on this topic. Due to the nature research problem, phenomenology, one of qualitative research patterns, was used in this study which has a qualitative character. In this study, because it was intended to present a handicapped person’s thoughts related to distance education, semi-structured interview, one of qualitative data collection techniques was thought to be the most appropriate data collection instrument. The sampling of the research included the handicapped student receiving courses by synchrony distance education in Karadeniz Technical University, two friends of the student following the same course and the assistant in the course environment. The interviews were recorded with a video camera, a transcript of each of the interviews was prepared and the data was analyzed scientifically. In the light of the research findings, it was decided that the synchrony distance education environment helped handicapped person feel more secure and relaxed and for his handicap not to be noticed by others. In addition, without the lecturers’ feeling of compassion, it presented handicapped student with an opportunity to prove himself. Also, because the courses classes? were recorded in this environment, students could review the content of the class in their own time and this process could be repeated, thus the students could learn at their own speed.
Keywords: Handicapped Students, Synchronic Distance Education
Mehmet Sinan BOZOK
The Effects Of Distance Education Materials On The Traditional Accounting Cours
In this study, under the assumption of the distance education materials used in a traditional accounting course as supporting tools, the effect on the student success is investigated. Results show us positive effect on the student success according to the grades. It is not only beneficial to the students but also to the instructors.
Keywords: Distance Education, Blended/Hybrid Education, Face-to-Face Education, Accounting.
Reviewed By Eren KESIM
REVIEW: THE ECONOMICS OF E-LEARNING [Online monograph]
The Economics of E-learning demonstrates a theoretical framework defined by participants of the eLene-EE (Economics of E-learning) project. The project is funded by the European Commission and aimed to produce and increase knowledge regarding the incentives to create virtual campuses. In addition, the project focused on ICT based teaching methods so that effective procedures are followed by partner universities contributing to the project, which are from Sweden, France, Spain, Italy and Poland. The project involves integrated research and development work packages each focusing on critical issues related to the economics of e-learning such as costs and benefits of e-learning, student performance of e-learning, indicators of e-learning and e-learning with references to digital divides.