11 (4), 2010
Welcome to Volume 11, Number 4 of TOJDE
TOJDE is appeared on your screen now as Volume 11, Number: 4. In this issue it is published 4 notes for Editor, 12 articles, 2 book and one conference reviews. And this time, 27 authors from 10 different countries are placed. These published articles are from Bangldesh, Greece, India, Israel, Malaysia, Nigeria, Portugal, Singapore, Turkey and USA.
Kevin YEE & Jace HARGIS
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Prezi: A Different Way to Present
For many years now, Microsoft PowerPoint has been so dominant in the field of presentation software that its name has become all but synonymous with the generic concept. Professors often assume students have access to PowerPoint to create their own student presentations (or, at a minimum, to display and print the instructors’ slides for use as notes or handouts, particularly since Microsoft offers a free viewer for download for anyone who lacks the full software). Even Macintosh users can reliably be assumed to have the ability to create and view PPT files, even though native Mac applications like Keynote promise enhanced design possibilities.
Zahra SHAHSAVAR, Bee Hoon TAN & S. Vahid ARYADOUST
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Investigating The Factor Structure Of The Blog Attitude Scale
Due to the wide application of advanced technology in education, many attitude scales have been developed to evaluate learners’ attitudes toward educational tools. However, with the rapid development of emerging technologies, using blogs as one of the Web 2.0 tools is still in its infancy and few blog attitude scales have been developed yet. In view of this need, a lot of researchers like to design a new scale based on their conceptual and theoretical framework of their own study rather than using available scales. The present study reports the design and development of a blog attitude scale (BAS). The researchers developed a pool of items to capture the complexity of the blog attitude trait, selected 29 items in the content analysis, and assigned the scale comprising 29 items to 216 undergraduate students to explore the underlying structure of the BAS. In exploratory factor analysis, three factors were discovered: blog anxiety, blog desirability, and blog self-efficacy; 14 items were excluded. The extracted items were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis which lent further support to the BAS underpinning structure.
Keywords: Attitude Measurement; Blog Anxiety; Blog Attitude; Blog Desirability; Blog Self-Efficacy
Sraboni MANDAL, Dr. SANJAY & Rajnish SHRIVASTAVA
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Implementation Of An Online Teacher Assessment/Appraisal In Technical Education Institution: A Case Study
Presence of a teacher appraisal system plays a major role in deciding the level of professionalism of an educational institution. In addition to this it also plays a major role in improvement in quality of education imparted by the teacher. Recently assessment of the teaching fraternity has become indispensable measure and thus it is necessary to explore a new assessment techniques and proper implementation of the same in an institution. The paper discusses a case study of implementation of teacher appraisal system which initially non existed. In the first phase it was implemented using printed data forms and subsequently in the whole system was converted to online system, at NIT, Jamshedpur, India .The implementation of online system had reduced the man-hours required in manual processing of all data significantly, and also reduced chances of erroneous results in the process making the system robust.
Keywords: Faculty, Appraisal Criterion, Online, Webapps, Appraisal Methodology
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Open Education Students’ Perspectives On Using Virtual Museums Application In Teaching History Subjects
The study was made to determine whether the attitudes of the open education faculty students, will be changed or not by virtual museum application. The pre-test and post-test model of the experimental design was used in the research. A group of 20 was formed as an experimental group. The pre-test was given to the group before the study and the post test was given to the group at the end of the study. Furthermore t-test analysis was made on the data’s to obtain whether the attitude scores of the open education faculty students, will be changed or not according to their computer knowledge. In qualitative section, the students were asked open-ended questions and their answers were given in frequency table. The data’s were analyzed in two phases. In the first phase, the analysis of the pre test and post test was made. T test, arithmetic mean () and standard deviation (Ss) were used to analyse the data’s. Statistical procedures were made in SPSS 11.0 programmes. The significance of the data’s was tested at the 0,05 significance level. A significant difference was determined in the students’ opinions concerning the post test data’s prepared to measure the attitudes towards the history lesson after the application. As a result, the students had a favourable opinion on the virtual museum application in history lessons by observing variable documents and sources.
Keywords: Distance Education Students, Virtual Museum, History Subjects
Anat OSTER-LEVINZ & Aviva KLIEGER
Indicator For Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (Tpack) Evaluation Of Online Tasks
In the Information Communication Technology era teachers will have to wisely use the online environment in order to realize a new pedagogy. The penetration of the internet and collaborative online instruments to teaching and learning affect the quality of teaching. We have developed a digital indicator evaluate the quality of the online tasks in terms of content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, technological knowledge and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). The score for the task is obtained immediately, with emphasis of its weaknesses and strengths. The indicator was used to examine 53 online tasks that were created by teachers from 2001 to 2007. We found that teachers can use this indicator for evaluating the quality of the tasks that were developed as well as to test the improvement that took place in their tasks over time.
Keywords: Digital Indicator, Online Tasks, TPACK, Evaluation, Technology Knowledge, IT Skills, Professional Development
The Use Of Facebook For Online Discussions Among Distance Learners
With the advent of Web 2.0 tools, educators are looking to these new technological tools to examine its potential in enhancing teaching and learning. While its runaway success as a social networking tool is now renowned, the use of Facebook for educational purposes may be considered still at its infancy stage. This paper describes the use of Facebook as a platform for academic discussions among distance learners. It offers a glimpse into how mobile learning via SMS together with Facebook was used to support and enhance the blended learning approach at Open University Malaysia for three courses: Learning Skills for Open and Distance Learners, Company Law and Renal Nursing. Data on user interactions collected were from the “Page Insights” tools available to Page administrators for the whole duration of a course semester. Facebook interactions examined include total number of fans, total interactions, interactions per post, post quality and unique page views. Findings indicate that Facebook does have the potential to draw distance learners to engage in meaningful academic conversations but the quantity and quality of posts very much depends on the timing as well as the topics of discussion.
Keywords: Facebook, Social Networking, Online Discussions, Distance Learners, Mobile Learning
Sutapa BOSE & Parveen SHARMA
Choice Of Instructional Media Of B.Ed. Students Of Ignou From Two Indian Metropolises
Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) of India uses multiple media and modes for reaching out to its distant learners. For most of the programmes offered to these learners, print is the master medium and other media supplement it. Instructions for the Bachelor in Education (B.Ed.), one of the popular programmes of IGNOU, are also delivered similarly. A survey was undertaken to determine the extent of utilization of instructions provided through various media by the students of B.Ed of two Indian metropolises –Delhi and Kolkata, having high penetration of advanced communication technologies. As the students of B.Ed. happen to be teachers who are supposed to be using ICT for teaching in their schools, the survey aimed to determine whether they were also using ICT for learning. The survey was carried out with a questionnaire with closed and open ended questions. It was found that only print medium was used for learning while the other media of the multimedia package remained mostly unused. The reason for this trend was found to be mainly the perception that the print medium is sufficient for assessment purposes. Suggestions have been made that to utilize the multiple media instructional system, interesting programmes that can hook learners be developed for delivery by electronic media and that gradually ICT may be integrated into the programmes from the present supplementary mode so that complacence in using it is reduced among learners.
Keywords: Distance Education; Instructions; Multiple Media; B.Ed. Programme; Media Utilization
A. Q. M. Bazlur RASHID & M. Rokibur RAHMAN
Strategic Intervention Of ODL In Bangladesh
Education has been considered as a priority sector and a great challenge to the Bangladesh Government, with a view to transforming human potential into a productive workforce. The conventional face to face education system is not enough to cope with the need of an ever increasing population, rapid changes in human knowledge and the global context being changed. Education through open and distance learning (ODL) has been recognized as an important alternative in the country. Bangladesh Open University (BOU), established in 1992, has been mandated to improve the quality, relevance and efficiency of the education system with a view to eradicating illiteracy, developing human resources and alleviating poverty in the country.
This article outlines the services provided by BOU, and explains how BOU utilizes its infrastructure and support services to deliver formal and non-formal programmes in basic and applied sciences, agriculture, technology, health, environment, education, language, teaching education, literature, population and gender issues to create awareness and promote knowledge. The impact of the programmes are reviewed and evaluated, based on feedback studies with target groups, and with particular reference to ODL in agriculture and rural development.
Katerina G. SERAPHIM
Enticers And Barriers To E-Learning Based Distance Corporate Training: The Case Of A Greek Bank
The purpose of this study is to investigate what influences employees’ acceptance and resistance to a corporate e-learning initiative provided by one of the leading Banks in Greece. The results of the research provide insight into the barriers and enticers in relation to e-learning and identify areas for improvement, with a view to developing and implementing efficient corporate e-learning initiatives. A combination of quantitative and qualitative research was conducted in order to examine the factors affecting learner’s interest in, and resistance to e-learning along four axes: a) technology, b) time c) interaction/support, d) reward/recognition. Distractions to study and continuous interruptions were identified as the most serious barrier faced by the trainees, as e-learning material is available only on the Bank’s intra-net, ie only at the work place and during working hours. Linking the completion of an e-learning course to a particular job description or to an opportunity for employee promotion, as well as the integration of the e-learning courses into a comprehensive training system leading to a certified business title, were identified, among others, as particularly encouraging factors.
Keywords: E-Learning; Corporate Training;Banks, Motivation.
Mrs Charity Akuadi OKONKWO
Sustainable Assessment And Evaluation Strategies For Open And Distance Learning
This paper first presents an overview of the concepts of assessment and evaluation in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) environment. The large numbers of students and numerous courses make assessment and evaluation very difficult and administrative nightmare at Distance Learning (DL) institutions. These challenges informed exploring issues relating to assessment and evaluation like the development and use of question bank and deployment of technology in assessment with emphasis on strategies for sustainability. Assessment in ODL, unlike in the Conventional system where students have a range of opportunities to demonstrate their learning periodically, depends on formal assessment tasks only. Thus, for validity to be high in ODL assessment, assessment must provide the appropriate situation possible for measuring the specific abilities being measured. Reliability is maximized when the assessment items are many; the items are not too easy or too difficult for the candidates; and the marking consistent. Evaluation depends on Tutor Marked Assignments (TMAs) and End of Semester Examination (ESE) in ODL system. Large question/item bank (with reliable and valid questions) from which items are picked to constitute test are needed. Attempts are made to provide argument for the use of computer as a viable option for sustainable assessment based on its sustainable features especially for ODL institutions with a large number of students’ population. It is hoped that these strategies if adopted have the potentials to eliminate some of the challenges that ODL institutions are currently facing in assessment. It will also strengthen quality assurance mechanism in ODL institutions.
Keywords: Assessment; Evaluation; Question Bank; Technology; Strategies; Sustainability.
Sheema SAEED & Maria Alfredo MOREIRA
Learning From First Time Elearning Experiences For Continuous Professional Development Of School Leaders In The Maldives: A Case Study
In Maldives, educational policy makers are beginning to explore the value of ICT and web tools as a medium of continuous professional development for school leaders and teachers. This paper reports on insights and responses of a group of five school leaders who participated in a web based distance education course. For most of them, this was their first experience in distance education as well as eLearning within a formal University context. By giving voice to the participants, we explore and identify strategies for successful first time eLearning experiences for school leaders. These include student preparedness for academic studies as well as for eLearning, language proficiency, cultural and social dynamics of knowledge construction as well as personal attributes which lead to successful learning.
Keywords: First Time Elearning Experiences; Professional Development Of School Leaders
An Assessment Of The Computer Literacy Level Of Open And Distance Learning Students In Lagos State, Nigeria
Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while two institutions run the single mode distance education. The groundswell of interest is how computers can best be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the ODL system of education in the country. This led to the assessment of the computer literacy level of the distance learning students who are the beneficiaries of the ODL system in Lagos state. A sample of 858 ODL students from University of Lagos, National Teachers Institute (NTI) and National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) were used for the study. A self- developed questionnaire, made up of 15 items was administered to the respondents. The data collected were used to answer four research questions and test one hypothesis. It was found that 54.20% are computer literate; there exists gender differences in the computer literacy with 23.78% female and 30.42% male. There are also age differences. Some of the problems include lack of access to computers, inadequate electricity supply, slow broadband and high cost of internet access. The research hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the observed and the expected computer literacy level of the ODL students in Lagos state was rejected. Based on the results some conclusions and recommendations were made.
Keywords: Computer, Literacy, Assessment, Open And Distance Learning, Students.
Pradeep Kumar MISRA
Internet For Educational Television: An Opportunity Or Threat
Among several uses, educational use of television is a prominent one. The public broadcasters of many countries routinely provide locally-relevant and useful educational television programs. In other side, there has been phenomenal growth in Internet use worldwide. The researchers are of the view that Internet has challenged the supremacy of television as an important medium to disseminate information to the learners. In this background, present paper attempts to answer the question, is Internet an opportunity or threat for educational television? To get the answer of this question, researcher presents an example of Germany where both television and Internet has been widely used for educational purposes.
The outcome of this study depicts that instead of threats, Internet offers more opportunities for educational television. This analysis also leads the researcher to propose promotional strategies to use Internet for creating more opportunities for educational television in global perspectives.
Keywords: Internet, Educational Television, Internet for Educational Television, Educational Television Promotional Strategies
Felix Kayode OLAKULEHIN,
Open Flexible Lifelong Learning As A Catalyst For Sustainable Development In Sub-Saharan Africa
Educational provision in developing sub-Saharan Africa states has been severely hindered by the hydra-headed problems of access, cost and quality. Amidst these challenges is the pledge of regional and national education policymakers and development planners to ensure that there is maximum access equitable and qualitative education for all (EFA) in Africa. There is also a burning need for improved literacy levels and functional education, in order to overcome the development deficits that are currently facing the region. The pledge of education for all resonates the agreement which representatives of several nations of the world signed at the Jomtien summit on Education for All and the subsequent evaluation meetings. Following this pledge, several developing, sub-Sahara African nations have evolved initiatives for instituting sustainable Open Flexible Learning (ODL) systems in order to meet up with the seemingly intractable EFA objectives.
This paper examined the potential impact of these OFL initiatives on the achievement of the EFA objectives which is seen as the basis of development planning, administration and implementation in Africa. It identified the various challenges confronting effective implementation of ODL on the continent, amidst the need to expand access to educational opportunities.
An attempt was made to situate the OFL system at the centre of the strategies for achieving these EFA objectives in the region and finally, a proposal for sustainable policy initiatives for implementing OFL systems for the attainment of education for all in Africa is made.
Keywords: Open And Distance, Development, Life-Long Learning, Flexible Learning, Education For All, Innovation
Participation In Online Forums: Some Insights Of Malaysian Distance Learner
The use of technology is particularly significant in today’s distance learning scenario. It has maximized the opportunities for interaction between discussion groups separated by time and space. This article reports the responses to a survey carried out with distance learners at a selected institution of higher learning. The learners responded to a questionnaire on their participation in online forums. It also looks at the postings or entries in the learner management system by these learners for the completion of a course. The findings suggest that both learners and instructors need to play their respective roles effectively in the cyber space to promote online interaction which is crucial to the learning.
Keywords: Learner Management System, Online Forums, Distance Language Learning
Barba Aldis PATTON & Teresa LESAGE
Are You A Dream Come True Or A Nightmare? Desired Characteristics In The Face To Face And Online Instructor
All instructors would all like to be a “Dream Come True” but unfortunately many come across to their students as a ‘nightmare’. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics in effective and successful online and/or face-to-face instructors. Characteristics as perceived by pre-service teachers in each setting were investigated in the survey. Results reveled that students in both types of learning environments desire and appear to need communication (or contact) with the instructor in order to be considered effective and successful in their studies. However, students held face-to-face instructors to higher standards on their knowledge than the online instructors. Survey information was divided into five categories and provided very different information. Although this was a limited study, it provided valuable information that instructors cannot view teaching both online and face to face classes as one-fits all type approach
Keywords: Online Education, Face To Face Education, Instructor Characteristics, Teacher Education
Reviewed By Alev ATES
REVIEW: Learning And Instructional Technologies For The 21st Century
As an edited book, “Learning and Instructional Technologies for the 21st century” provides us a sense of integrated puzzle or a big picture which consists of valuable contributions and forward looking ideas in many chapters regarding instructional technology design, development, application, tools, models and views for the 21st century.
A. Q. M. Bazlur RASHID
REVIEW: An International Symposium On The New Vista Education System Of Open, Distance And E-Learning
International Symposium on Open, Distance and E-Learning held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel at Bali, Indonesia by hosted by ICT Centre for Education, Ministry of National Education of the Republic Indonesia was a unique forum for scientific expositions on the progress of development and implementation on the fast-growing ICT global network, especially in the field of open, distance and e-learning. It was an excellent engagement of distinguished researchers, academicians, practitioners and policy makers from across the globe for the exchange of views and for sharing and acknowledging the contributions towards solving multinational problems with mutual synergy and collaboration.
Reviewed By Ozden SAHIN-IZMIRLI
REVIEW: Educational Technology In Practice Research And Practical Case Studies From The Field
The book starts with an explanation of the reason why the terms found in the book are sometimes used in place of each other. The editors stated that when technological tools are used to establish an effective and productive study process in education, the concept of learning technology is used instead of educational technology. The editors of the book considers the field as complex and vague in terms of the fact that the meanings of the concepts are close to each other in the field of educational technology and that the field provides an opportunity for inter-disciplinary studies. However, according to the editors, this vagueness and complexity shows the superiority of the field. This superiority is explained with the fact that the field of educational technology requires upper-level skills of problem solving and critical thinking and that it presents a multi-dimensional and inter-disciplinary study field.