11 (2), 2010
Welcome to Volume 11, Number 2 of TOJDE
TOJDE is appeared on your screen now again after 3 months as Volume 11, Number: 2. This is the second issue of the year 2010. In this issue it is published four Notes for Editor, fourteen articles and four book reviews. And this time, 37 authors from 8 different countries are placed. These published articles are from Greece, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, USA and Turkey.
Kevin YEE & Jace HARGIS
NOTE FOR EDITOR: YouTube and Video Quizzes
It is fruitful to consider Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom & Krathwohl, 1956) when employing video or any media in the classroom to maximize the intentionality of teaching and learning. The use of video for demonstration or modeling corresponds well to Blooms levels of Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application; while case studies offer a chance to demonstrate Analysis and Synthesis, and perhaps even Evaluation, when comparing a video to information from a text book or other content.
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Piloting A Vocational E-Course At A Uk College: Developing Strategies To Support Non-Native English Speaking Learners To Complete The Essay-Type Questions Of Their Assignments
This paper presents a study of practice that was conducted during the piloting of a vocational (health care) e-course at the Distance Learning department of a College of Further and Higher Education in England. The purpose of the study was to establish a course of action aiming to support non-native English speaking learners to successfully complete the essay-type questions of the e-course assignments. The exploratory nature of the study means that in effect the study comprises of two distinct, yet interrelated parts, with the first one looking into how two (2) non-native English speaking learners (participants) used different e-course resources to help them compose their answers. Based on the findings, the second part examines the role of writing frameworks (in the form of email communication between the tutor and the participants) in helping the latter to compose answers that met the assessment criteria in terms of a) content (subject) accuracy, b) length and c) originality. Discussion of the findings includes implications for providing additional English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) support to distance learners, suggestions for further improvements to the e-course and recommendations for further research.
Keywords: Vocational Distance Education; Vocational e-learning; Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC); English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) writing skills; English for Specific Purposes (ESP), English for Academic Purposes (EAP).
Abbas ZARE-EE & Abbas SHEKAREY
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Comparative Study Of The Use Of Ict In English Teaching-Learning Processes
The use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in cultural, political, social, economic, and academic activities has recently attracted the attention of many researchers and it should now be an important component of the comparative study of education. The present study was conducted to compare the amount and quality of ICT use in English teaching-learning processes among the faculty members of Medical and Non-medical Universities in Kashan, Iran and to explore the dimensions in which the two groups can benefit from one another and from ICT training in this respect. Out of a total of 255 full-time university teachers teaching at medical and no-medical universities in the region, 193 were chosen to participate in the study using a simple random sampling technique and the Morgan & Kritjki table for sample selection.
A researcher-made 5-point Likert scale questionnaire containing 50 items was used to collect the necessary data on the amount of access and use ICT in the two environments. The Chronbach Alfa reliability for this instrument was shown to be 0.8. To answer the research questions, t-test and the analysis of variance were used and the differences in ICT use for learning and teaching were analyzed.
The results of the analyses showed that there was a significant difference in the amount of ICT use among the faculty members of medical and non-medical universities. For reason considered in length, teachers at medical universities used ICT significantly less than the other group. Results also indicated that there was a significant difference between the two types of universities with regard to the availability of computers and the amount of ICT training and use. No significant effects on the use of ICT in education were observed for age, teaching experience, and university degree. University teachers with different fields of study showed significant differences only in non-medical universities. Based on the findings of the study suggestions are made for the improvement of teaching and learning activities through the use of ICT.
Keywords: Information Communication Technology (ICT), Teaching-Learning Processes, ELT, Higher Education
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Educating The People As A Digital Photographer And Camera Operator Via Open Education System Studies From Turkey: Anadolu University Open Education Faculty Case
Today, Photography and visual arts are very important in our modern life. Especially for the mass communication, the visual images and visual arts have very big importance. In modern societies, people must have knowledge about the visual things, such as photographs, cartoons, drawings, typography, etc. Briefly, the people need education on visual literacy.
In today’s world, most of the people in the world have a digital camera for photography or video image. But it is not possible to give people, visual literacy education in classic school system. But the camera users need a teaching medium for using their cameras effectively. So they are trying to use internet opportunities, some internet websites and pages as an information source. But as the well known problem, not all the websites give the correct learning or know-how on internet. There are a lot of mistakes and false information. Because of the reasons given above, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty is starting a new education system to educate people as a digital photographer and camera person in 2009. This program has very importance as a case study. The language of photography and digital technology is in English. Of course, not all the camera users understand English language. So, owing to this program, most of the camera users and especially people who is working as an operator in studios will learn a lot of things on photography, digital technology and camera systems. On the other hand, these people will learn about composition, visual image's history etc. Because of these reasons, this program is very important especially for developing countries. This paper will try to discuss this subject.
Keywords: Distance Education; Open Education; Educational Technology; Education; Turkey; E-Learning; Anadolu University.
Kyriaki EMMANOUILIDOU, Panagiotis ANTONIOU & Vassiliki DERRI
Physical Educators’ Perspectives On Instructional Methodology Of Synchronous Distance Professional Development
Teachers’ continuing professional development, that is an essential part of their professional career, is the subject of constant demand of them and of each educational reform interest. The rapid growth of technology and the choices of teaching and learning that it provides give possibilities for synchronous and asynchronous methods of distance continuing training which get over the problems traditional face to face methods create. A synchronous e-learning software provide virtual environment of teaching in which the possibility for enhance interactive and collaborative learning is given.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the perspectives of physical educators for the synchronous online teaching method process. The participants were 15 in-service teachers of elementary physical education who took part in a training program which was conducted with the synchronous Centra software. The results show the participants’ satisfaction from the particular instructive method and their conviction that it allows the active presence and the collaborative learning, without influences by the lack of physical presence in the same space of instructor and learners.
Keywords: Synchronous Online Professional Development, Physical Education
Fahad N. AL-FAHAD
The Learners' Satisfaction Toward Online E-Learning Implemented In The College Of Applied Studies And Community Service, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia: Can E-Learning Replace The Conventional System Of Education?
The growth of distance education course offerings is an indication of its importance to students. The purpose of this study is to investigate learners' satisfaction toward online e-learning implemented in the College of Applied Studies and Community Service, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In the meantime, also, this study was conducted to assess whether substitution of conventional learning with e-learning can improve the educational standard and knowledge of people especially in this information world. The target group consists of 201 university students (female) from the College of Applied Studies and Community Service. The results of the statistical analysis demonstrate that students’ satisfaction has been very positive toward e-learning as a teaching assisted tool, and provides more benefits than conventional learning.
Keywords: E-learning; Distance Learning; Learners' Satisfaction; Saudi Arabia
Ozgur M. COLAKOGLU & Omur AKDEMIR
Motivational Measure Of The Instruction Compared: Instruction Based On The Arcs Motivation Theory V.S. Traditional Instruction In Blended Courses
The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different experiences for learners in terms of motivation than instruction developed following the standard instructional design procedure for blended courses.
This study was conducted to compare the students’ motivational evaluation of blended course modules developed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory and students’ motivational evaluation of blended course modules developed following the standard instructional design procedure. Randomly assigned fifty junior undergraduate students studying at the department of Turkish Language and Literature participated in the study. Motivation Measure for the Blended Course Instruction (MMBCI) instrument was used to collect data for the study after the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Results of the study indicated that designing instruction in blended courses based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides more motivational benefits for students and consequently contributes student learning.
Keywords: Blended Learning; ARCS Motivation Theory; Instructional Design
Erdogan KARTAL & Levent UZUN
The Internet, Language Learning, And International Dialogue: Constructing Online Foreign Language Learning Websites
In the present study we call attention to the close connection between languages and globalization, and we also emphasize the importance of the Internet and online websites in foreign language teaching and learning as unavoidable elements of computer assisted language learning (CALL). We prepared a checklist by which we investigated 28 foreign language teaching websites (4 from each of seven languages including English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish and Turkish). The participants were 14 third-year university students who were enrolled in the French Language teaching department, but had a basic knowledge of the related languages that was sufficient to read and write. All the students had taken CALL classes at university level, and had previous experience of website evaluation and assessment. As a result of the analyses of the language teaching websites, we observed that they were lacking physically, contextually and pedagogically. Consequently, we built a model foreign language website frame considering the feedback that we received from the subjects. We believe that our website evaluation checklist and model website frame might greatly serve the CALL field.
Keywords: Call, Website Design, Internet, Globalization, Social Interactions, Evaluation Check List,
Not Too Distant: A Survey Of Strategies For Teacher Support In Distance Education Programs
Distance learning can be a “very lonely” experience (Brown & Early, cited by Prescott & Robinson, 1993). This isolation exacerbates all of the many issues that can occur when learners are separated from their instructor and other learners via distance. Difficulties understanding content, computer problems, uncertainty about how to employ a strategy, and disappointment when a new pedagogical approach fails are all magnified when teachers confront these issues alone. High rates of attrition in distance-based teacher training courses are in large measure due to these feelings of isolation and “anonymity” (Potashnik & Capper, 1998; Hope, 2006). Indeed, without “support, contact and confidence,” distance learning is not considered by learners to be “valuable” (Brown & Early, 1990; Prescott & Robinson, 1993, p. 306).
This paper presents a recent historical and global overview of the types of supports provided to distance education programs across the globe. Because of the diversity of distance-education programs, the paper includes a range of such modalities (print-based instruction, radio, television, and online learning).
Keywords: Supports For Distance Learners; Follow-Up Support; Online Professional Development; Distance Learning; Help For Online Learners.
The Impact Of Web Based Resource Material On Learning Outcome In Open Distance Higher Education
One of the most powerful educational option in open and distance education is web-based learning. A blended (hybrid) course combines traditional face to face and web-based learning approaches in an educational environment that is nonspecific as to time and place. The study reported here investigated the impact of web based resource material practices on MPhil, Teacher Education course of Allama Iqbal Open University A sample of 68 students was selected.
Thirty-eight students comprised the control group, whereas another group of 30 students was named as experimental group. The study package of control group included self instruction material comprising of two study guides (six credit hours course), recommended book, four assignments, and assignment submission schedule. Experimental group received the same package plus CD having web based articles related to each unit of study guide, and a list of web sites for further reading. After the submission of assignments a one week workshop was held. Participation in workshop was assessed by the oral presentation of student on the topic assigned to him/her before the commencement of workshop. The final examination was held at the end of semester. The marks obtained by both groups were compared by t-test. The scores of experimental group were higher on all assessment components. The study concluded that integration of IT in teaching-learning increased the understanding of subject related knowledge.
Keywords: Information Technology, Web-based Distance Learning, Higher Education, Pedagogies
Serap SAMSA, Halil İbrahim AKYÜZ , Hafize KESER & Gülcan NUMANOĞLU
The Effects Of Scenario Based Blended Learning Environment On Attitudes Of Preservice Technologies Teachers Toward Teaching Profession
The purpose of this study was to define the effects of experiences that have been acquired at the Teacher Experience Course and skills acquired at the Blended Learning Environment on attitudes of preservice technologies teachers toward teaching profession. In the study, a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. The study group is consisting of 37 students who were registered for Teacher Experience Course of Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Faculty of Educational Science, Ankara University. In order to collect data a 5 point likert scale with 34 items, which is developed by Üstüner (2006), was used. The scale was used both at the beginning and at the end of the semester. At the beginning of the semester students who would go to the public schools institutions once a week were randomly assigned to one of the five schools. The study took 10 weeks. Beginning from 4th week, students were given scenarios once a week, totally 8 scenarios. The main aim of these scenarios was to assist students in order to improve their standpoints according to the problems that they encountered in the school. Scenarios and solutions were discussed at the face to face courses, semiweekly. The period of Teaching Practice and generated solutions according to presented problems were assessed with students at the last week of the study. Descriptive statistics and t-test statistical technique were used to analysis of data.
The result of the study indicated that there is a significant difference in favour of average points of posttest.
Keywords: Scenario Based Learning, Blended Learning/Online Learning, Attitudes Toward Teaching Profession.
Rugayah HASHIM, Hashim AHMAD & Che Zainab ABDULLAH
Assessing The Attitudes Of Distance Learners Toward The Use Of ICT In Education
The objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of distance education students toward the use of ICT in learning and teaching. The sample and units of analysis were 500 adult students undertaking distance education studies at the Institute of Education Development (InED), UiTM. The variables studied were computer anxiety, confidence, liking and, usefulness.
The response rate was 56.8%. The findings showed that even in this K-economy, there are still some students who are uncomfortable with using ICT, that is, the students do not favor the use of ICT through InED’s learning management system. The findings are important to gauge the students’ performance as well as to modify and strengthen InED’s policy for using ICT and other technologies to impart knowledge and education.
Keywords: Distance Education, ICT Usage, E-Learning, Computer Attitude, Computer Anxiety
Technology Supported Learning Platform: Moodle Integrated Academic Course
It is substantially accepted that constructivism proposes knowledge as “not a fixed object”; constructed by an individual through her own experiences. As a learning theory, constructivism in education emphasizes collaborative learning, such as authentic challenging projects involving in students, teachers and experts in the learning community. Its goal is to create learning communities that are more closely related to the collaborative practice of the real world as strongly reflected in social constructivist idea. The technologies used in the filed of education will support learning through collaborative practices, using learners’ experiences for “meaning making”. The challenge now is to extend the educational networks so that it offers access to learning resources, online storage and tools for communication and management not just within the limitation of school and time. Through learning platforms, such as Moodle, teachers and administrators may bring hardware, software and supporting services together to enable more effective conditions among teachers and students.
In this study, Moodle was used to support the 4th grade pre-service language teachers’ (student teachers) one of the academic courses, named as “Field Experience”. The student teachers were expected to prepare graduation theses in the field of English language teaching. Moodle was integrated as a technological learning aid and used as online support throughout a semester course. So, we will discuss how Moodle was integrated as a learning platform, while discussing, the use of Moodle as a “course supporter” process, steps and the sample activities will be presented as well.
Keywords: Moodle, Social/Constructivism, Learning Platform, Technology Supported Language Learning
Amalia SAPRIATI & Aminudin ZUHAIRI
Using Computer-Based Testing As Alternative Assessment Method Of Student Learning In Distance Education
This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT), Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following:
Ø students’ inability to sit for the scheduled test,
Ø conflicting test schedules, and
Ø students’ flexibility to take examination to improve their grades.
In 2004, UT initiated a pilot project in the development of system and program for computer-based testing method. Then in 2005 and 2006 tryouts in the use of computer-based testing methods were conducted in 7 Regional Offices that were considered as having sufficient supporting recourses. The results of the tryouts revealed that students were enthusiastic in taking computer-based tests and they expected that the test method would be provided by UT as alternative to the traditional paper and pencil test method. UT then implemented computer-based testing method in 6 and 12 Regional Offices in 2007 and 2008 respectively.
The computer-based testing was administered in the city of the designated Regional Office and was supervised by the Regional Office staff. The development of the computer-based testing was initiated with conducting tests using computers in networked configuration. The system has been continually improved, and it currently uses devices linked to the internet or the World Wide Web. The construction of the test involves the generation and selection of the test items from the item bank collection of the UT Examination Center. Thus the combination of the selected items compromises the test specification.
Currently UT has offered 250 courses involving the use of computer-based testing. Students expect that more courses are offered with computer-based testing in Regional Offices within easy access by students.
Keywords: Distance Education, Online Assessment; Computer-Based Testing; Testing Methods, Test Delivery; Examination
Re-Service Teachers’ Views On Web-Based Classroom Management
With the invention of World Wide Web in 1992, delivery of distance education via internet and emergency of web-based classrooms have rapidly gained acceptance as an alternative and supplement to traditional face to face classroom instruction (Alavi, Yoo & Vogel, 1997; Rahm & Reed, 1997), which represents a paradigm shift challenging all traditionally accepted assumptions concerning dynamics of classroom management. Classroom is highly complicated environment with its features of multi-dimensionality, simultaneity, immediacy, unpredictability, publicness and history. And web based classroom is more complicated than traditional classroom because the web technology is added. Students’ views are considered by many researchers as one of the critical and valid source data in evaluating the teaching effectiveness and learning settings. The purpose of this study is to find out views of pre-service teachers about web based classroom management. With qualitative research method, particularly descriptive technique 20 pre-service teachers’ views were evaluated.
Research findings revealed that students defined web-based classroom management with extra workloads of the students thus effectiveness is associated with students’ roles. Guiding/mentoring on technical issues, on the field knowledge, classroom interaction were defined by the students as the essential leadership roles of teachers. Concerning interaction while student to course content/material interaction was perceived as satisfactory, level of student to student interaction was reported as low. Web-based instruction itself and being free form time and place emerged as motivating factors.
Besides, discipline is identified within the responsibility of students and accessing information without time/place limitation was perceived as advantageous side of web based classroom.
Keywords: Web-Based Classroom Management, Pre-Service Teachers, Students’ Perceptions, Roles Of Instructors
Rough Way For Academics: Distance Education
This study aims to compare the academics’ perceptions about face to face and distance education, beside finding out the contributions of distance education to them, difficulties they experience in synchronous and asynchronous distance education environments and suggestions for possible solutions of the existing problems.
The sample consists of 52 instructors providing distance education courses actively at 7 universities in Turkey, in 2009-2010 academic year. As data collection tool, a survey called “Lecturer Opinion About Distance Learning and Face to Face Education Comparison” is utilized. In the analysis of the data, content analysis, frequency distribution, independent and paired samples T tests and pearson correlation were used.
Keywords: Distance Learning, Instructor, Education, Distance Education
Leili MOSALANEJAD & Ahmad ALIPOR
A Blended Education Program Based On Critical Thinking And Its Effect On Personality Type And Attribution Style Of The Students
Blended learning is a mixture of the various learning strategies and delivery methods that will optimize the learning experience of the user. This research evaluated psychological effect of blended learning on student.This research is a quasi-experimental study. 41students participated in two groups and they registered in the course of psychological diseases in the first semester of 2008–2009. Then, they were randomly divided into groups of traditional and blended methods. Data were gathered through Attribution Measurement Test and Neo Personality Test (Neo FFI).Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the patterns of data distribution. Analytic statistics such as paired-t test and student t-test were utilized to compare the differences of between the mean scores in pre and post tests. Then analysis of variance (Manova Test) and chi square tests applied to evaluate the effects of research variables on each other. The mean score of academic achievement in the blended education group (Mean=15.67, SD=1.65, T=3.06, p=0,004), was higher than that of the traditional education (Mean=13.88, SD=2.06). In surveying the interaction between attribution style, type of teaching, and scores of academic achievement, it was revealed that there was a significant relationship between global–local favorable condition (P=/04, F=10/52). Evaluating the interaction between type of teaching , student’s final scores and personality type based on MANOVA TEST revealed that, there was a significant relationship between all personality factors(openness, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness), except neuroticism criterion. The use of this educational method with standard designing strategies is recommended for teaching medical sciences.
Keywords: Attribution Style; Personality Aspect; Blended Learning; Academic Achievement.
Hasan KARAL, Ekrem BAHÇEKAPILI & Adil YILDIZ
A Simultaneous Mobile E-Learning Environment And Application
The purpose of the present study was to design a mobile learning environment that enables the use of a teleconference application used in simultaneous e-learning with mobile devices and to evaluate this mobile learning environment based on students’ views. With the mobile learning environment developed in the study, the students are able to follow a teleconference application realized by using appropriate mobile devices.
The study was carried out with 8 post-graduate students enrolled in Karadeniz Technical University (KTU), Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies (CEIT), Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science. The students utilized this teleconference application using mobile devices supporting internet access and Adobe Flash technology. Of the 8 students, 4 accessed the system using EDGE technology and 4 used wireless internet technology. At the end of the application, the audio and display were delayed by 4-5 seconds with EDGE technology, and were delayed by 7-8 seconds with wireless internet technology. Based on the students’ views, it was concluded that the environment had some deficiencies in terms of quality, especially in terms of the screen resolution. Despite this, the students reported that this environment could provide more flexibility in terms of space and time when compared to other simultaneous distance education applications.
Although the environment enables interaction, in particular, the problem of resolution caused by screen size is a disadvantage for the system. When this mobile learning application is compared to conventional education environments, it was found that mobile learning does have a role in helping the students overcome the problems of participating in learning activities caused by time and space constraints.
Keywords: Mobile Devices, Distance Learning, Teleconference, Synchronous E-Learning, M-Learning
Reviewed By Dr. Tamer KUTLUCA
REVIEW: Multimedia Educational Resource For Learning And Online Teaching (Merlot) (Website Review)
Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching (MERLOT)
MERLOT is one of the most famous learning object repositories that contain thousands of learning materials in various formats which can be accessed and used for faculty, staff and students on the Web, freely. With a continually growing collection of online learning materials, peer reviews and assignments, MERLOT helps faculty enhance instruction. MERLOT is also a community of people who strive to enrich teaching and learning experiences. This home page statement from the MERLOT project not only points us to such teaching materials, it also provides peer reviews that help us evaluate them. MERLOT was created by the California State University-Center for Distributed Learning in 1997.
Reviewed By Dr. Adile Askim KURT
REVIEW: Cases On Distance Delivery And Learning Outcomes Emerging Trends And Programs
This book was edited by Deb Gearhart, director eCampus at Troy University, and published by Information Science Reference in 2009. The book, which 25 authors contributed to, includes three sections as Cases on Best Practices in Distance Delivery and Learning Outcomes, Cases on Distance Learning Programs, International Cases, and 15 chapters.
Reviewed By Ozlem OZAN
REVIEW: Architectures For Distributed And Complex M-Learning Systems: Applying Intelligent Technologies.
Today mobile technologies have become an integral part of the learning activities. With mobile technologies “Any time, anywhere, any device” promise of e-learning is going to become actually applicable and mobile technologies are going to provide opportunities to be “always on” and connected for twenty-first century learners and to get information on demand with “just enough, just in time, and just for me” approach (Yamamoto, Ozan, & Demiray, 2010). Mobile technology includes both hardware and networking applications; hence both of them are necessary for the existence of m-Learning. Today one of the big challenges of mobile learning is technical issues. This book provides case studies and solution about technical applications of mobile learning.
Reviewed By Yasin OZARSLAN
REVIEW: Distance And Blended Learning In Asia
Open and distance learning (ODL) is one of the most important trends in education in Asia as well as all around the world. This book reviews ODL/ICT developments in schools, colleges, universities, open schooling, workplace training, professional development and non-formal adult and community education. It examines ODL and ICT experiences, successes and failures of Asian education and training.This is one of the comprehensive books on distance education applications in Asia. It is written by Colin Latchem and Insung Jung. Colin Latchem is an Australian-based consultant in open and distance learning. Insung Jung is Professor of Education, Media & Society at the International Christian University in Tokyo. The book's broader audience is anyone who is interested in ODL. If you are looking for on developments in ODL in Asia, this book is primarily for you. The book is consisted of 266 pages (+xiv) covering 12 chapters with a conclusion part in each chapter.