The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education
Welcome to Volume 10, Number 4 of TOJDE
TOJDE is appeared on your screen now as Volume 10, Number: 4. This is the last issue of the year 2009 and 10th anniversary of TOJDE. In this issue it is published 3 notes for Editor, 13 articles, 4 book reviews. And this time, 33 authors from 13 different countries are placed. These published articles are from Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Iran, KKTC, Lesotho, Lithuania, Malaysia, Pakistan, Romania, United Kingdom, USA and Turkey.
Kevin YEE & Jace HARGIS
NOTE FOR EDITOR: iPhones and Smartphones
Long utilized in European and Asian countries, fast “next generation” cell phone networks and mobile data streams have only recently begun to make deep inroads in the United States, and companies are scrambling to write content, tools, and new applets (“apps”) for these users. The iPhone has become a juggernaut in the United States, with 13 million units sold in 2008 (a 245% increase over 2007) and a further 45 million units expected in 2009 (Elmer-DeWitt, 2009). While iPhone still lags Nokia and RIM internationally, the overall trend toward mobile computing becomes firmer by the day, and it behooves educators to become familiar with the cell phone tools that are relevant for teaching in tomorrow’s--and increasingly “today’s”--classroom.
A. M. RIAD, Hamdy K. EL-MINIR & Haitham A. EL-GHAREEB
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Evaluation Of Utilizing Service Oriented Architecture As A Suitable Solution To Align University Management Information Systems And Learning Management Systems
To help universities achieve their goals, it is important to align managerial functionalities side by side with educational aspects. Universities consume University Management Information Systems (UMIS) to handle managerial aspects as they do with Learning Management Systems (LMS) to achieve learning objectives. UMIS advances LMS by decades and has reached stable and mature consistency level. LMS is the newly acquired solution in Universities; compared to UMIS, and so adopting LMSs in universities can be achieved via three different deployment approaches. First approach believes in LMS ability to replace UMIS and performing its functionalities. Second approach presents the idea of extending UMIS to include LMS functionalities. Third approach arises from the shortages of the two proposed approaches and present integration between both as the appropriate deployment approach. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a design pattern that can be used as a suitable architectural solution to align UMIS and LMS. SOA can be utilized in universities to overcome some of information systems’ challenges like the integration between UMIS and LMS.
This paper presents the current situation at Mansoura University; Egypt, presents integration as the most suitable solution, and evaluates three different implementation techniques: Dynamic Query, Stored Procedure, and Web services. Evaluation concludes that though SOA enhanced many different aspects of both UMIS and LMS; and consequently university overall. It is not recommended to adopt SOA via Web services as the building unit of the system, but as the interdisciplinary interface between systems.
Keywords: University Management Information System, Learning Management System, e-Learning, Service Oriented Architecture
M. RAJESH & S.. P. NAIR
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Indian School Teachers’ Perspective On Globalisation Of Education A Case Study Of Atomic Energy Education Society School Teachers
Globalisation has become an enduring reality of our times and more so in the field of education. Teachers are the harbingers of change in the global economy and school teachers have a major role in shaping the attitude of the society towards all social and economic phenomena including that of globalisation. At the Regional Centre of IGNOU situated at Cochin, Kerala an unique training programme was conducted for a year to train school teachers of the Atomic Energy Education Society (AEES) one of the elite educational organisations of the country in ICT applications. This opportunity was utilised by the researchers to conduct a study that holds multiple portends for policy makers to channel the direction of the forces affecting the globalisation of education.
Keywords: Globalisation of Education, Teachers and GLobalisation of Higher education
A.Q.M. Bazlur RASHID, Hazel JOHNSON & Norman CLARK
Odel Can Address The Reality-Problems Of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation In Bangladesh
The use of computer and the long-ranged, portable electronic device with the telephone and the cell phone networks are widely used now a day. Under the circumstances, for better and progressive existence in the competitive global context it should be concentrated on its special attention to the ICT-based ODEL as a pragmatic focal issue with a view to transforming the ever increasing vast population potential into more productive force, so as to solve the higher agricultural education problems and ultimately towards greater awareness and appreciation leading to sustainable agricultural development and alleviating poverty in the country.The study evidences that there is an ample paradigm shift towards ODEL system in providing accessible postgraduate agricultural education in Bangladesh. On the basis of study on ODEL ongoing programmes at different Universities the following policy and practices have been recognised to be recommended to the concerned BAU authority.
Ø The course materials for the students must be bespoke, having been developed for the ODEL mode, and are not simply a course that provides material on the web. It ensures that the students enjoy the same high quality teaching environment and exposure to innovation as the students on campus-based courses.
Ø Development of adequate students’ supports and facilities along with valid accreditation of their degrees.
Ø Development of highly skilled special academic as well as administrative expertise for the ODEL-based postgraduate in agricultural education programme.
Ø For high technology and innovation as well as need-based action researches, global partnership development programme should be initiated.
Thus BAU can go even beyond the boundary of the country with its high quality ODEL, especially Asian countries and the South Asian neighbourhood in particular but requires a strong need for an international intervention in planting the ‘ODEL seed’ into the conventional system in Bangladesh.
Keywords: ODEL; Post graduation; Agriculture; Bangladesh.
H. Manthoto LEPHOTO & V. Mantina MOHASI
Collaboration Of Stakeholders As An Expanded Learner Support System For A Distance Learner: The Case Of Institute Of Extra Mural Studies
Learner support for the distance learner is one of the critical elements for effective learning. This support that is so essential is usually expected to come from the educational institution where the learner is registered. However, there is circle of support around the learner that includes among others the family, the community, and the work environment. These may in one way or another become a significant support for the distance learner. This study explored through some of the stakeholders within this circle ways in which all could collaborate in order to improve and strengthen learner support. The results affirm the importance of an extended circle of stakeholders and the need for both the educational institution and the different stakeholders to collaborate in order to promote learner support needed for distance learning.
Keywords: Learner Support, Collaboration, Opens and Distance Learning, Institute of Extra Mural Studies, Lesotho.
Alper CABUK, Hakan SENEL, Halil POLAT & Saye Nihan ÇABUK
Open Courseware Oppurtunities For Architecture Education: Anadolu University Anapod Experience
Today, in every field of our lives, an efficient information access and mobility has become a prerequisite for the sustainability of all systems. Considering this fact, Internet technology is the fastest and the most proper media to access the required information worldwide, from our daily questions to scientific researches. Within this rapid development, many Internet compatible applications have been specialized to ease information access and sharing. Hence, internet inevitably becomes the top asset for obtaining the inputs, sharing the information and marketing goods and services. Increasing demand for web based education services is also one of the reflections of this rapid development. Internet based education models integrated with computer technologies provide the best and most efficient conclusions for mass education. To meet the mentioned demands and needs, Anadolu University, has been providing higher education opportunities through distance education since 1982. The University, with over 1.2 million distant students, is one of the leading universities in Turkey and the world. ANAPOD application is a new education model within University’s distance education process, which is highly applicable for many disciplines. In this paper, ANAPOD experiences for the architecture education will be discussed.
Keywords: Open Courseware, Architecture Education, DistanceEducation, Turkey
Murat HISMANOGLU & Sibel HISMANOGLU
Providing Feedback On Student Work In Distance Education In Turkey: Practices And Recommendations
In distance education, providing feedback on student work has a key role in facilitating learning and teacher- student dialogue. This article examines the distance learning context and providing feedback in this great but challenging system. It draws on the experiences of 200 distance learners enrolled in different programs in the Open Education Faculty at Anadolu University in Turkey.
Its purpose is to find out whether distance students are provided any feedback by their faculty, whether they think that feedback provision is beneficial in distance learning process, and lastly whether they would like their faculty to provide them with some feedback. The survey is based on a questionnaire including three questions to which distance learners can respond briefly as yes or no and, if desired, they can expand their ideas with their own sentences.
The results of the study suggest that distance learners are , on the whole, provided no feedback. Of 200 DL, 180 % of them regard feedback provision as a beneficial part of their distance learning process and want to have some feedback mechanisms in their faculty, yet 20% of the learners think just the opposite by saying that it is not something beneficial and they do not need it.
In the conclusion part, considering the high proportion in demand of feedback provision, certain feedback mechanisms will be introduced to make the distance learning process more appealing, encouraging, and fruitful for distance learners.
Keywords: Distance Education, Feedback,Feedback in Distance Education, Feedback Mechanisms
Challenges Of Developing Online Learning
Online learning has now become an accepted and popular method of education for large numbers of universities in Iran, and now many higher education institutions are offering online courses to their students. The present study was carried out with the aim of investigating challenges to developing online learning in higher education. The study was based on survey research method and a questionnaire was developed to gather the data. The study population was postgraduate students (M.Sc. and Ph.D.) of different faculties in Tehran University who were selected by applying purposive sampling technique. The sample size for students was 152 persons. Data were analyzed by using SPSS/WIN software and descriptive and inferential methods were used for the data analysis. The results of the research indicated that three major factors explained 74.4% of variances of challenges to developing online learning. These factors were cultural/educational, technical, and financial challenges.
Keywords: Online Learning, Student, Higher Education, Challenge.
Siti Hamin STAPA & Maureen Shyamala RAJAMONEY
Support From A Distance: Perceptions Of Malaysıan Students On Computer Mediated Collaborative Learning
The aim of this paper is to report findings from an on-going research using Computer-supported Collaborative Learning in an ESL classroom in Malaysia. Collaboration is the act of working together to produce a piece of work. Collaborative learning deals with instructional methods that seek to promote learning through collaborative efforts among students working on a given task. Class based CL fits well with the philosophy of teaching: working together, building together, learning together, changing together and improving together. Computer-supported CL (CSCL) has an impact on the development of deep thinking about ideas as students are engaged in writing rather than talking. By doing so, they have more time to think about the responses; able to engage in developing arguments; have time to follow up references and read literature, etc. Selected students from Malaysia were asked to work collaboratively (through e-mail) with students from the USA. At the end of the collaborative activities they were expected to complete written projects. The students were interviewed on their perceptions on this innovative way of learning. The findings indicate that the students have responded positively towards computer supported collaborative learning.
Keywords: Collaborative learning, Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, ESL Classroom, Class Based CL
Leila SAFA & Seyed Mahmood HOSSEINI
Studying The Attitudes Of Agricultural Faculty Members Towards Distance Education
This descriptive survey research was undertaken to study the attitudes of agricultural faculty members towards distance education. The statistical population of the study consisted of all the faculty members of agricultural colleges of Shiraz and Ferdowsi Mashhad universities (N=180). According to Krejcie & Morgan table, a sample of 123 persons was selected using the stratified random sampling method (colleges as strata). Data collected using a mailed questionnaire that was validated by a panel of experts and the reliability index was established by Cronbach alpha's coefficient. The results revealed that more than half of the agricultural faculty members had moderate familiarity with distance education. Also, the results indicated that agricultural faculty members had a positive attitude towards distance education. Finally, agricultural faculty members ranked time as the primary barrier to using instructional technology in distance education.
Keywords: Agricultural Faculty Members; Attitudes; Distance Education
Ciprian CEOBANU, Roxana CRIU & Laura ASANDULUI
A Theoretical Framework For Quality Indicators In Elearning
Advances in information and communication technologies, especially in Multimedia, Networking and Software Engineering allow the appearance of a new generation of computer-based training systems. Despite its obvious advantages in terms of reduced costs, simplified training programs and flexibility, e-learning was not always the miracle solution. Conceived as a powerful educational tool, e-learning was destined to change the face of learning but unfortunately, this change wasn’t exactly the intended one. The constant interest in researching and testing the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), eLearning and multimedia in the learning process led to educational imperatives about the indicators that can reveal the level of quality for teaching and management of the course. Modern eLearning solutions now recognize the importance of learning as a social process and offer possibilities for collaboration with other learners, for interaction with the learning content and for guidance from teachers, trainers and tutors. Our aim is to analyze the importance of using ICT in a “learning society”.
The present paper focuses on the strong potential that ICT provides, in order to develop the learning possibilities among students. The great challenge is to draw up a quality indicators framework which can represent an instrument for teachers on how to organize their online course – including ways of developing the teaching methods.
Keywords: e-Learning Critique, e-Learning Indicators, e-Learning Quality
Binnur GENC ILTER
Effect Of Technology On Motivation In EFL Classrooms
In language classrooms, being in unnatural conversational situations, students need motivation more than other learning milieus. Teachers try to capture the attention of students through various methods and techniques. Many researchers in EFL teaching profession have stated that good motivation has appositive effect on foreign language learning. The purpose of this study is to explore how technology could be used to increase students’ motivation in EFL classrooms.
For this purpose; a questionnaire was administered to a group of students at Akdeniz University Preparatory Classes in 2007-2008 academic year. As a result it was found out that technology was a dynamic and challenging motivating factor in EFL classrooms and there may be some suggestions focusing on the achievement of learning objectives.
Keywords: Motivation, EFL Activities, Use of Technology in EFL Classes.
Reviewed By TOJDE
REVIEW: Economics of Distance and Online Learning Theory, Practice and Research
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the organizational models of distance and online learning from an international perspective and from the point of view of economic planning, costing and management decision-making.
The book points to directions for the further research and development in this area, and will promote further understanding and critical reflection on the part of administrators, practitioners and researchers of distance education.The experiences and perspectives in distance education in the US are balanced with those in other areas of the world.
Reviewed By Ozlem OZAN
REVIEW: Bridging The Knowledge Divide Educational Technology For Development
The concept of a knowledge divide is used to describe the gap in living conditions between those who can find, manage and process information or knowledge, and those who are impaired in this, for one reason or another. In the 21st century, the emergence of the knowledge society becomes pervasive hence the information and ICT systems that support knowledge are very important.
Reviewed By Alev ATES
REVIEW: The Handbook Of Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs
Blended learning or blended e-learning sounds like a confusing term at first since it is relatively a new term for today’s instructors. However, Moore reports that it can be traced as far back as the 1920s which was called “supervised correspondence study”. For clarification of the term “blended learning” and informing the instructors about its common practices worldwide, the book provides readers a comprehensive resource about blended learning. It aims to raise awareness of adopting BL from institutional perspectives of many chapter authors from Australia, Korea, Malaysia, the UK, Canada and South Africa who are distinguished people mostly in instructional technology era. With this book, I guess the editors aim at both showing the big picture at macro level and present micro level examples which provide details of blended learning applications among their strengths and weaknesses. As introduced in the book, one of the editors Curtis J. Bonk, a former corporate controller and CPA, is now professor of educational psychology as well as instructional systems technology at Indiana University; the other editor Charles R. Graham is an assistant professor of instructional psychology and technology at Brigham Young University with a focus on technology-mediated teaching and learning.
Reviewed By Natalija LEPKOVA
REVIEW: The Challenges For Marketing Distance Education In Online Environment An Integrated Approach
istance education, or distance learning, is a field of education that focuses on the pedagogy and andragogy, technology, and instructional systems design that aim to deliver education to students who are not physically "on site". According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, “is a process to create and provide access to learning when the source of information and the learners are separated by time and distance, or both.” In other words, distance learning is the process of creating an educational experience of equal qualitative value for the learner to best suit their needs outside the classroom. Rather than attending courses in person, teachers and students may communicate at times of their own choosing by exchanging printed or electronic media, or through technology that allows them to communicate in real time and through other online ways.
Nedim GURSES & Cosgul YUKSEL
Environmental Education Via Television: Eskisehir Camlıca District Case
We define an environmentally aware individual as: someone who has knowledge about the ecological principles and relations, who cares about environmental problems and events, who knows the meaning and significance of the social, political and economic aspects of environmental problems, and who can organize their close environment to solve these problems. However, we encountered a target society that was only partially aware of the environmental problems and events. The individuals of this society had very little knowledge regarding ecological principles and their social, political and economic aspects and relationships. A study was conducted on women aged 15 and above who live in the Camlica district of central Eskisehir. These women were unemployed and uneducated housewives. As these women were not aware of environmental problems, they were distant to any solutions. This is the basic cause of their inability to organize their neighborhood.
As a result of the aforementioned study, it can be inferred that education is an inevitable necessity to carry the targeted society to the position of environmentally aware individuals. Television is considered to be a good educational tool regarding education in environmental matters, especially when targeted towards a group with a high ratio of television watching habits as opposed to reading habits. With these considerations, the properties of an environmental education program must be determined. To summarize, an environmental education television program which appeals to the target society in a sequence from simple to complex, general to specific is capable of captivating the interest of the target society for a duration long enough to achieve its objectives. This program must be presented clearly and understandably by an aurally and visually appealing and effective host for the audience to be able to comprehend the program.
Keywords: Environmental awareness, distance Education, Environmental Education,Environmental Education via TV.
Aysel BAHCE & Nazmi TASLACI
Learners’ Perception Of Blended Writing Class: Blog And Face-To-Face
The purpose of this research was to investigate student perception of blended writing classes. It was conducted with intermediate level EFL learners in the preparatory school at Anadolu University. Data consisted of student reflections. The first reflection aimed at finding out learners’ perception of fall term writing lessons, and, the instant and final reflections aimed at finding out learner perception of blended writing lessons. Although learners’ perception of writing lessons was negative in the first reflections, they changed into positive in the latter ones. The findings indicated that blended writing class had changed students’ perception of writing lessons positively. Therefore, this kind of classes may help students develop a positive attitude towards writing by providing meaningful writing opportunities.
Keywords: Blended Writing Class, Meaningful Writing, Blog,Blogging, Authentic Writing
Nabi Bux JUMANI
Study On Role Of Radio For Rural Education In Pakistan
Radio is a mean not only for information and entertainment but also for education. Radio is being used for educational purposes all over the world. In Pakistan it is also a medium of communication. Pakistan broadcasting corporation has started broadcasting educational programs of Allama Iqbal Open University. There is no denying the fact that educational broadcasting in Pakistan is being run successfully.
The rural population of the country is getting benefit from the educational programmes of the radio.The main aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of educational radio and its various strategies being applied for rural education. The study was delimited the radio listeners, radio producers/comperes and social workers/opinion leaders. The masters list of listeners was obtained from Radio Station, Hyderabad. The second sample was radio producers/comperes whereas the third sample was social workers/opinion leaders. The tool used in this study was questionnaires.
It was found that the majority of the listeners possessed radio sets and was getting benefit from the educational programmes of radio. The programmes were informative and motivating. The strategies of radio for rural education were appreciable because these infused mobility, widened horizon of rural people and focused attention on the goals and problems of rural people.
It could be used to enhance literacy (through distance and non-formal education).the producers/comperes were found keenly interested in their job. It was revealed that priority was given to education and rural development programmes of radio. Programmes needed detail and summary at the end. Furthermore language was not easy. Mobile radio station was needed for rural educational programme to cater to the needs of far flung areas. School broadcast (distance and non-formal teaching) was the need of the day. Social workers/opinion leaders opined that there was need of developing self reliance. Radio provides guidance to rural people in solving the problems of rural development. They felt the need of starting school broadcasting .radio was being utilized for apprising villagers with their problem. There was need of maintaining more educational programmes.
Rural programmes were to be in mother tongue.It was recommended that for educational purposes Radio Pakistan and AIOU may produce programmes which have their strong links/roots in the surroundings of the rural people.
Radio schools like Interactive Radio instruction (IRI) may be used for effective teaching learning process in rural areas. Time of educational programmes should be enhanced. Programmes like radio rural forum may be started as well as open broadcasting should be adopted for rural development programme.
Keywords: Radio, Rural Education, Distance Non Formal and Continuing Education
Investigating The Opinions Of Mone Staff About Inset Programs Via Distance Education
The aim of this study is to investigate the opinions of the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) staff about in-service training (INSET) programs via distance education. The subjects of this study were the staff (n=15) of the Inservice Training Department of MoNE in 2008. During the study, the qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews held with the (MoNE) staff by the researcher. The results of the interviews revealed the importance of needs assessment, the relationship between INSET program course content and participants’ school curriculum, support mechanism in INSET programs via distance education, the application of what is learned and providing various opportunities to them that lead to their active involvement to the application of these programs, the characteristics of learning environments for these programs, INSET instructors’ teaching competencies and skills to fulfill various roles in online learning environments, of measuring and evaluating the performance of teachers during INSET programs via distance education and of the effectiveness of INSET programs via distance education.
Keywords: In-service Training (INSET) Programs, Distance Education, INSET Programs via Distance Education