The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education
Welcome to Volume 10, Number 3 of TOJDE
TOJDE is appeared on your screen now. This is the third issue ue of the year 2009 and 10th anniversary of TOJDE as Volume 10, Number: 3. In this issue it is published three notes for Editor, 15 articles, 3 book reviews. And this time, 30 authors from 10 different countries are placed in TOJDE. These published articles are from Australia, Bangladesh, Greece, India, Indonesia, Norway, Nigeria, Pakistan, Turkey and USA
C. S. H. N. Murthy
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Use of Convergent Mobile Technologies For Sustainable Economic Transformation in the Lives of Small Farmers In Rural India
The continuous rise in the number of suicides among Indian rural based farmers is not solely due to lack of funds or failure of crops or huge amount of interests on debts. Many a time the farmers are in daze triggered by the panic and fear both of which are due to lack of information backed by appropriate technologies. Lack of information about the appropriate crop patterns the farmers should choose depending on the market demands and remunerative prices, availability of water, supply of seeds for sowing, proper knowledge of the use of manures and ways to avoid over use of pesticides--did contribute to the ever increasing number of suicides in the regions of Vidharbha and Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The Government machinery comprising Agricultural extension officers, backed by the Agricultural programs on Radio and TV could hardly meet the information required for these farmers affected with the compounding problems. Use of convergent mobile technologies with the internet and e-mail facilities is the need of the hour. The latest data drawn from the IMRB survey (The I-Cube 2007) indicated that internet usage in India has grown by more than 11 times over the last seven years.
The internet expansion is seen moving down from the metros to towns with population less than half a million with the number of users up by 69 times since 2007. In the last two years, 2005 and 2006, on an average 4.5 million new mobile subscribers were added every month.
Convergent mobile technologies with wide range of mobiles and packages being available now hold the promise of offering basic literacy and numeracy skills accessible to the small farmers in India, besides a lot of information concerning the availability of loans at lower interest through banks and self-help groups, crop patterns, remunerative prices for the produce, export norms for the crops, e-marketing and e-commerce, etc, The paper outlines a visualization of such an optimistic design of use of convergent mobile technologies.
Keywords: Convergent Mobile Technologies, Basic Literacy Skills And Numeracy Skills, Self Help Groups, Crop Patterns, E-Marketing, E-Commerce, Climatic Factors, Remunerative Prices.
A. K. M. Iftekhar KHALID
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Changes of Learners’ Socio-Economic Context After Completing A Professional Education from Bangladesh Open University
Creating same opportunity in term of social and economic context for the learners of distance education as the students from conventional education is a challenging task since professional education through distance method is a new genre in Bangladesh. This genre of professional education starts successfully with the establishment of the Bangladesh Open University (BOU) in 1992. The university creates immense opportunities to study anytime and anywhere. This paper explains what social and economic changes happened to the students who completed a professional programme like B.Ag.Ed, MBA, CEMBA and CEMPA at the Bangladesh Open University. As BOU is the first and pioneer organization, which provides education in distance mode, a study has been necessary for BOU to know what contribution it provides to the nation in social and economic aspects.
This paper should be able to elevate the morale of the organizations like BOU in involving more effort for expanding the organization and also to understand how successful these organization in imparting the knowledge and skill and how effectively the students are able to use those knowledge and skill in their professional life which in turn affects the learners’ income and social esteem. The university has been established with aims to raise the standard of education and to give the people educational opportunities by democratizing education and to create a class of competent people by raising the standard of education of the people generally. The paper also shows how the professional programmes of BOU supports to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in Bangladesh.
Keywords: Distance learning; Contribution; Morale; Esteem; Standard; Opportunities.
Muhammad Nadeem ANWAR
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Self-Efficacy Of Formally and Non-Formally Trained Public Sector Teachers
The main objective of the study was to compare the formally and non-formally trained in-service public sector teachers’ Self-efficacy. Five hypotheses were developed describing no difference in the self-efficacy of formally and non-formally trained teachers to influence decision making, influence school resources, instructional self-efficacy, disciplinary self-efficacy and create positive school climate.
Teacher Efficacy Instrument (TSES) developed by Bandura (2001) consisting of thirty 9-point items was used in the study. 342 formally trained and 255 non-formally trained respondents’ questionnaires were received out of 1500 mailed.
The analysis of data revealed that the formally trained public sector teachers are high in their self-efficacy on all the five categories: to influence decision making, to influence school resources, instructional self-efficacy, disciplinary self-efficacy and self-efficacy to create positive school climate.
Keywords: Self-Efficacy, Non-Formally Trained; in-Service Public Sector Teachers
Avgoustos A. TSINAKOS & Thanasis BALAFOUTIS
A Comparative Survey On Mind Mapping Tools
Mind Mapping is an important technique that improves the way you takes notes, and enhances your creative problem solving. By using Mind Maps, you can quickly identify and understand the structure of a subject and the way that pieces of information fit together, as well as recording the raw facts contained in normal notes. It can also be used as complementary tools for knowledge construction and sharing. Their suitability as a pedagogical tool for education, e-learning and training, increases their importance. Also, in a world of information overload and businesses struggling to keep up with the place of change, knowledge workers need effective tools to organize, analyze, brainstorm and collaborate on ideas.
In resent years, a wide variety of mind mapping software tools have been developed. An often question that comes up, due to this plethora of software tools, is “which is the best mind mapping software?” Anyone who gives you an immediate answer either knows you and your mind mapping activities very well or their answer in not worth a lot. The “best” depends so much on how you use mind maps.
In this paper we are trying to investigate different user profiles and to identify various axes for comparison among mind mapping tools that are suitable for a specific user profile, describe each axis and then analyze each tool.
Keywords: Mind Mapping Tools, Brainstorming, E-Learning, Survey.
The Turkish Journal On Online Education: A Content Analysis
As the “Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education” approaches its tenth year, it seemed appropriate to assess to what extent its original goals had been achieved by conducting a content analysis of the Notes for Editors and articles in the issues of appearing between January 2000 and October 2008. The analysis involved determining the articles’ countries of origin, sectors represented, and focus and frequency of the topics covered. It was found that the majority of articles were from Asian countries, with Turkey providing the greatest number of contributions. There were also many papers from the Middle East, Africa, South America, USA, Eastern and Western Europe, and Australia. These articles covered a very wide range of topics and while the quality varied, there has been a appreciable improvement in the research and reporting since the journal’s inception. Some of the papers, presenting non-Western perspectives, are particularly illuminating. The earlier articles tended to be descriptive or theoretical, but the more recent papers have been quantitative-experimental and qualitative-descriptive studies into distance education and e-learning needs, policies, procedures, practices and outcomes. Overall, the papers reveal a greater concern for teaching and learning than the technology per se. Some conclusions were drawn on the achievements of TOJDE and some possible future directions for the journal.
Keywords: Scholarly Pupbilhing, Scholarly Journal, Open Access, Tojde, Anadolu University, Turkey, Distance Education.
Bamidele A. OJO
E-Learning And The Global Divide: The Challenges Facing Distance Education In Africa
This paper examines the question of distance education and its pivotal role in promoting social change and development in Africa. It also discussed within the context of the global digital divide and the ongoing need for collaborative effort at global education, the limitation imposed by the socio-economic and political environment on the continent.
The paper in its findings conclude that the crisis within African societies constitutes a serious challenge to the implementation of and the effectiveness of distance education in Africa and therefore contributes to the widening of the digital divide rather than reducing it.
Keywords: E-learning, Distance Education, Africa, Global Divide
Technology And Teaching In Post-Modern Environments Or Rhetoric Negotiations of Education
The article focuses on the situation as we engage with emerging post-modern environments marked by a continued strong belief in technology as the key governing force in society, and by teaching being sacrificed on the altar of “progress”. “Teaching” has been turned into “learning”. Furthermore, new learning strategies are quite often, in some way or other, interweaved with the use of new technology. However, the instrumental perspectives of the industrial society have been to a large extent prolonged. Accordingly, the underlying assumption of this article is that developments concerning technology and education during recent decades can most adequately be understood as a rhetorically based negotiation between two basic, antagonistic positions. The first position is grounded in perspectives of “the industrial society”, the other one in notions of “the learning society”.
When new technological devices, based on traditional perspectives, are combined with learning strategies of the future, we might regard this as an adoption of ideas of the learning society or as a construction of rhetoric structural couplings. Viewing recent changes in this manner provides new perspectives on important questions concerning the relationship between technology and education. It also constitutes a framework for the quite necessary process of reconsidering and clarifying the concepts of technology, teaching and learning. The tendencies described in the article are presented as overall trends within education, but the use of new technology to a large extent seems to be connected to new and more flexible educational methods and elements of distance education.
Keywords: Technology And Teaching; ICT And Learning; New Language Of Learning; The Learning Society; Interactive Technology; Learning Management Systems; Rhetoric Constructions
Creativity And Innovation In Learning: The Changing Roles Of Ict
The notions of information, communication and technology constitute the underlying structure of the term ICT. While these elements have instigated change, the use of them has also incited change in a way that the notions of Innovation, Collaboration and Transformation have become keys to the application of ICTs. Similar to this new ICT triangle, the knowledge triangle addresses the issue of innovation as well. The knowledge triangle, consisting of education, research and innovation, is crucial to support personal and organizational development. The critical issue is that innovation intersects with both the new ICT triangle and the knowledge triangle. Any discussion regarding the relationship between the new ICT and knowledge would cover a very broad scope, including the relationships between education and society, and the interaction between knowledge and innovation. Under such circumstances, where such vast areas must be covered simultaneously; creativity, innovation and education will most likely be in the agenda of European education for a long time. As social changes take place towards a digital society, pre-established social connections have also been transferred and somewhat transformed into the digital domain. In this regard, e-learning seems to have a crucial role to succeed in keeping pace with the constant change.
Keywords: Globalization; Creativity; Innovation; Learning Ecology; New ICT Triangle; Knowledge Triangle.
Celal BAYRAK, Nilgün SECKEN, Funda OZCAN OZTURK & Evrim URAL ALSAN
A Simulation On Teaching Volhard Method
Laboratories are important components of chemistry education. Virtual simulations allow students to repeat the experiments as many times as they want and give students the opportunity to learn in their own ways. In this study, a computer assisted teaching material has been developed for tertiary level. This material has been planned to use in Analytical Chemistry Course content in the subject of quantitative methods. This teaching material has been developed by using Flash program and consisted of animations and simulations related to the quantitative determination of chloride by Volhard Method. Even though the quantitative determination of chloride by Volhard Method could be conducted in the laboratory setting, this experiment has been prepared by using simulations to give students the opportunity to repeat the experiment steps when they want, to control the each step, observing the changes on the equivalence point better. Volhard method is one of the methods to be considered as important in chemistry courses and laboratories. It is an important practical experience for students in the laboratory. In this study, the presented simulation has been prepared by considering these harmful effects and insufficient laboratory conditions.
Keywords: Computer Assisted Instruction, Face-To-Face Instruction, Volhard Method, Science Education
Muhammad Imran YOUSUF
Comparative Perspectives of Study Strategies Among High And Low Achievers Distance Learning Students
The main aim of this research is to better understand and draw perceptions of low and high achiever distance learners about their study patterns. The study indicates the areas where significant difference is found among low and high achievers of Allama Iqbal Open University, Pakistan through a self developed questionnaire covering their preferred study location, study times, number of hours spent on study, the difficulties affecting their study patterns and the organization of study strategies in comparative perspective. Greater difficulties were being faced by low achievers in their study. Increased difficulties were encountered by low achievers with study material, volume of study, self-motivation and other factors. There was no significant difference between low and high achievers for their study strategies of studying materials without taking notes and reading aloud. Greater low achievers attempted easy portions of their study material first and took notes simultaneously as compared to high achievers.
Keywords: Distance Learning Students, High Achievers, Low Achievers, Study Strategies, Difficulties For Study.
Mamta GARG & Sudesh GAKHAR
Explaining Academic Achievement in Secondary Teacher Training Programme Through Distance Mode
The academic performance of the learners is of great concern in every format of education. The promotion of the academic achievement is an integral part of goals to be achieved in higher education. The present investigation has been undertaken to locate the background and personal variables which may best predict the academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education.
The findings of the study showed that 72.1% of the variance towards the criterion variable of performance in theory papers was explained by fourteen independent variables (one background variable and thirteen measures of personal characteristics), 63.5% variance in performance in skills in teaching of the trainees was explained by eleven independent variables which included ten variables of personal characteristics and one background variable, and a total variance of 62.8% in their overall academic performance was explained by their nine variables (one background and eight variables of personal characteristics).
These findings may be used to improve the services provided to the distance teacher trainees. As guidelines for in-service education planners and educators, the findings of the study can help in redefining goals, needs and approaches to teach, for this group of “double-role” in-service teacher trainee
Keywords: Academic Achievement, Teacher Training, Distance Education
Ethical and Value Sensitization Through Open and Distance Learning
Spreading of Ethics and Values in the Society is an inherent activity of Education system. Distance Education (DE) being the latest form of Education, it is quite natural that DE also has to spread Ethics and Values in the Society. Some characteristic features of DE facilitate its role in this activity. This article discusses these issues.
Keywords: Ethics, Values, Sensitization, ODL
Azeta A. A., Ayo C. K., Ikhu-Omoregbe N. A. & Atayero A. A.
A Framework for Intelligent Voice-Enabled E-Education Systems
Although the Internet has received significant attention in recent years, voice is still the most convenient and natural way of communicating between human to human or human to computer. In voice applications, users may have different needs which will require the ability of the system to reason, make decisions, be flexible and adapt to requests during interaction. These needs have placed new requirements in voice application development such as use of advanced models, techniques and methodologies which take into account the needs of different users and environments. The ability of a system to behave close to human reasoning is often mentioned as one of the major requirements for the development of voice applications.
In this paper, we present a framework for an intelligent voice-enabled e-Education application and an adaptation of the framework for the development of a prototype Course Registration and Examination (CourseRegExamOnline) module. This study is a preliminary report of an ongoing e-Education project containing the following modules: enrollment, course registration and examination, enquiries/information, messaging/collaboration, e-Learning and library.
The CourseRegExamOnline module was developed using VoiceXML for the voice user interface(VUI), PHP for the web user interface (WUI), Apache as the middle-ware and MySQL database as back-end. The system would offer dual access modes using the VUI and WUI.
The framework would serve as a reference model for developing voice-based e-Education applications. The e-Education system when fully developed would meet the needs of students who are normal users and those with certain forms of disabilities such as visual impairment, repetitive strain injury (RSI), etc, that make reading and writing difficult.
Keywords: e-Education, Intelligent, Voice, VoiceXML, VUI and WUI
Oluwagbemi Olugbenga OLUSEUN
Development and Implementation Of A Bioinformatics Online Distance Education Learning Tool in Africa
New scientific research fields are evolving on a yearly basis but some parts of the African continent are less aware. Thus, there arises the need for a suitable implementation strategy in introducing the basic components of an emerging scientific field to some part of the African populace through the development of an online distance education learning tool. This emerging field is known as bioinformatics. This research work was instrumental in elucidating the need for a suitable implementation platform for bioinformatics education in parts of the African continent that are less aware of this innovative and interesting field. The aim of this research work was to disseminate the basic knowledge and applications of bioinformatics to these parts of the African continent.
Keywords: Bioinformatics; Online Distance Learning Tool; Biotechnology; Education.
Facilitators' Perception of Interactions in an Online Learning Program
Schools and colleges all around the world have started making use of advanced technology to provide learners effective, efficient and adequate instruction. The use of Internet and Web for learning and teaching has caused many online courses to be offered when teaching-learning activities are required for both students and faculty.
The Internet has shown a rapid and important growth in the extent of online education. This has created a new paradigm for teaching and learning that is different from the traditional classroom experience and also different from earlier technology-based attempts (Kearsley, 1998).
One of the most important online course components has proven to be interaction, especially learner to learner interaction.
Alexander C. lists the top ten ranking components of an optimal online environment, giving peer interaction the first place. Kearsley (1998) also states that discussions among learners are among the most important components.
This is not surprising because one of the most important factors in learning appears to be interaction among learners and interaction between instructor and learners. No matter how learning takes place, interaction has always been of great importance so that an effective learning can occur.
Especially when instruction is given to learners learning at a distance, this interaction component is of vital importance. Having the lack of social interaction, learners may feel alone and helpless at times they need to get help from someone, especially from their peers taking same course as in any traditional classrooms. Studies suggest that facilitators’ active interactions with students have significant effects on the quality of online distance learning (Thomas, Caswell, Price & Petre, 1998).
Keywords: Online; Interaction; Facilitation
Aminudin ZUHAIRI, Andayani & Dwi Astuti APRIJANI
Legal Foundations, Pedagogical Challenges, And Technological Constraints of Distance Education In Indonesia
This paper addresses legal foundations, pedagogical challenges, and technological constraints of distance education in Indonesia. Legal reform and policy changes in education have taken place recently in Indonesia, including the ratification of new Laws and regulations in education. These changes have effects on distance education as part of the effort to meet the right to education for its citizens. Distance education is expected to respond to challenges in effective implementation of lifelong learning. Despite some constraints, technology is used in distance education to enhance the implementation of the right to education. Distance education should help reach out the disadvantaged groups of the society and serve as the catalyst in the establishment of a knowledge-based society in Indonesia.
Keywords: Distance Education, Legal Foundations, Pedagogical Challenges, Technological Constraints, Right To Education In Indonesia
A Proposal of Framework for Professional Development of Turkish Teachers With Respect To Information And Communication Technologies
Studies in recent literature indicate that professional development programs for teachers addressing Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are either inefficient or far from being productive. The reasons behind the inefficiency of such professional development activities are considered as the incompatibility between the level of training and teachers’ ICT skills, and the lack of active use of ICTs by teachers in the teaching and learning processes. Bearing this problem in mind, the current study aims at proposing a framework for organizing professional development activities for Turkish teachers regarding ICTs with an emphasis on teachers’ ICT-related needs, competencies and levels of technology use.
Within the framework, it is suggested that teachers’ levels and categories of technology use be determined in the first place, which will be followed by a four-stage professional development structure leading to teachers’ effective ICT use and integration of ICTs in teaching-learning processes.
Keywords: Professional Development, Information And Communication Technologies, ICT Use, Ongoing Professional Development
The Epistemological Beliefs of Distance Education Students
The researchers have mostly emphasized the epistemological beliefs which were considered as significant in learning process along with the desire to reveal the nature of learning. Epistemological belief is defined as the “individuals’ subjective beliefs about what information means and how knowing and learning occur”. It is a fact that the teachers’ epistemological beliefs have important effect on the students’ learning process. Teachers are the models for the students with both their patterns of behavior and learning approaches.
The aim of this study was to determine the epistemological beliefs of the students attending to pre-school education and English language teaching departments in distance education, besides it was attempted to investigate these beliefs in terms of certain variables, namely, gender, department and grade that the students attend, and their academic achievement level, lastly the education level of their parents. The study was conducted through a descriptive method and 697 pre-service teachers composed the sampling of the study.
To collect data, “Epistemological Belief Scale”, which was developed by Schommer (1990) and adapted to Turkish by Deryakulu and Büyüköztürk (2002), was used. As a result, it was obtained that the epistemological beliefs of the students in distance education developed at low level. Additionally, it was found that the epistemological beliefs of the pre-service teachers differed in terms of gender, department, grade, academic achievement, education level of parents.
Keywords: Meral GUVEN
Reviewed By Özlem OZAN
REVIEW: Digital Simulations For Improving Education: Learning Through Artificial Teaching Environments
Simulations in education, both for children and adults, become popular with the development of computer technology, because they are fun and engaging and allow learners to internalize knowledge by applying new skills in a risk-free environment.
Reviewed By Natalija LEPKOVA
REVIEW: The Challenges For Marketing Distance Education In Online Environment An Integrated Approach
Distance education, or distance learning, is a field of education that focuses on the pedagogy and andragogy, technology, and instructional systems design that aim to deliver education to students who are not physically "on site". According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, “is a process to create and provide access to learning when the source of information and the learners are separated by time and distance, or both.” In other words, distance learning is the process of creating an educational experience of equal qualitative value for the learner to best suit their needs outside the classroom. Rather than attending courses in person, teachers and students may communicate at times of their own choosing by exchanging printed or electronic media, or through technology that allows them to communicate in real time and through other online ways. The purpose of marketing is to understand trends in the field and customer needs in a global marketplace. In this case the customers are students and they could be called as a “kings” of the market. This is a challenge with online learning because the field is in a constant state of development. Marketing online education programs is becoming more of a necessity as global competition increases. To be on time and in a right place-this is the target of distance learning marketing. 37 authors wrote 22 chapters from different 17 universities in 6 countries.
Reviewed By Yasin OZARSLAN
REVIEW: Effective Blended Learning Practices: Evidence-Based Perspectives In Ict-Facilitated Education
Blended learning refers to the integration of face-to-face and online learning activities with the goal of maximizing the value of students' experiences in both settings. This book collects new international research into many aspects of blended learning from the perspectives of learners, teachers, designers, and professional and academic developers in various disciplines, learning communities and universities from around the world. This book addresses the relative newness of online learning within blended environments. The book's broader audience is anyone who is interested in areas such as blended learning, communities of learning, virtual education, professional learning and community development, instructional technology, flexible learning, distance education and collaborative learning.