10 (2), 2009
Welcome to Volume 10, Number 2 of TOJDE
TOJDE is appeared on your screen now as Volume 10, Number: 2. This is the second issue of the year 2009 and 10th anniversary of TOJDE. In this issue it is published four notes for Editor, 13 articles, 2 reviews. And this time, 28 authors from 8 different countries are placed. These published articles are from Canada, Gana, India, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, United Kingdom and Turkey.
Venkateswara RAO, Samrajya LAKSHMI & Andhra Pradesh
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Reflective Approach In Teaching Pre-Degree Chemistry
The study is a component of a larger investigation that focuses on exemplary practice in chemistry education. This case study involves an investigation of a chemistry teacher in two years intermediate education in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study utilized an interpretive methodology in which the questions emerged from intensive observations of chemistry lessons in classes taught by a teacher. The principal finding was that a teacher focused on teaching for understanding. Once teacher tended to emphasize whole-class activities while the other times he utilized more small-group and individualized activities. The teacher was successful in his goal of teaching for understanding because he was effective classroom manager and he had strong science content knowledge that enabled him to focus on instructional strategies that facilitated student understanding. He asked appropriate questions, responded to student questions, and used effective cognitive monitoring strategies. The teacher was able to teach effectively because he had adequate content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge.
Researcher adopted the method of action research to class room teaching where a classroom event triggers the process of reflection followed by critical analysis of the event which leads to change and subsequent reflection to observe that change and so on. He has taken two different texts to teach students. Out of two texts, one is explaining the metallurgy of Magnesium. In that case, he was successful as a teacher when he adopted comparative method of teaching metallurgy of Magnesium rather than the traditional method of teaching. The other one is explaining the properties of Hydrogen peroxide. In this case he was successful as a teacher by adopting discussion, interaction and discussion method.
Keywords: Chemical Education, Reflective Practice, Metallurgy of Magnesium, Chemical Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide
Melaine PERPETUAL D’CRUZE
NOTE FOR EDITOR: The Use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) To Improve Access to In-Service Teacher Education Programmes For Educational Development in Pakistan
The use of ICT and distance education in the delivery of professional development programmers for in-service teachers to improve access to educational opportunities is explored in this article. Further, the link between teacher development and the development of human capital to aid educational and national development is discussed. The role of ICT and distance education is highlighted in enabling this venture which eventually leads to overall educational and national development.
Keywords: Access to Education, Teacher Education, Barriers To Educational Opportunities, Human Capital Theory, Educational Development, Distance Education, Information And Communications Technology
Mahdi Moeni KIA, Ahmad ALIAPOUR & Esmaeil GHADERI
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Study of Learning Styles and Their Roles In The Academic Achievement of The Students of Payame Noor University (PNU)
This paper reports on a research done to study learning styles and their roles in the academic achievement of the students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Ardebli center, Iran. 184 students (90 male and 94 female students) in the fourth semester are chosen as our sample using Cocran's formula and random sampling. The questionnaire memletics is used to collect data about learning styles. Reliability of this questionnaire is calculated as a=0.81 using Cronbach's alpha. Total average of students' scores in four semesters is taken as a criterion for academic achievement. Findings show that most of male students use verbal and solitary learning styles. Most of female student use aural and verbal learning styles. The academic achievement of female students is more than the academic achievement of male students. Among the students of Payame Noor University, those who use visual learning style have the greatest achievement. Students with social, aural, verbal, and solitary learning styles are in the following ranks respectively. Students with logical and physical learning styles have the least academic achievement.
Keywords: Learning Styles, Memletics, Distance Education, Academic Achievement
NOTE FOR EDITOR: Effectiveness of Distance Education In Teacher Training Program of Allama Iqbal Open University
This paper attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of B.Ed programme offered by AIOU. For this purpose B.Ed programme of AIOU is divided into methodology, material, assignments, tutorials, media support, workshop, teaching practice and evaluation. A 38-item questionnaire of s 5 stages (Likert scale) was constructed for both teachers and students; the reliability of the questionnaire was 0.987 (Cornbach Alpha). 100 tutors and 300 hundred students from Multan and Bahawalpur regions were considered the sample of the study. The study found that tutors are good at methodology and students verify it.
On the material students and tutors having conflict about its involvement and easiness. Assignment component is not strong and it does not encourage the students in problem solving and contributes towards self learning. Teaching practice and workshop components are also not satisfactory. Students are less confident almost on all parameters in comparison to tutors.
Keywords: B.Ed Programme, Methodology, Material, Assignments, Teaching Practice, Evaluation, Media Support
Handan KOPKALLI-YAVUZ & M. Emin MUTLU
Does Frequency of Online Support Use Have An Effect On Overall Grades?
This study discusses online support in the Distance English Language Teaching (DELT) Program within the open education system at Anadolu University and whether the frequency of online support use has an effect on student grades. The DELT Program is a blended program in that it has both face-to-face and distance education components.
The first two years are face-to-face while the last two years are through distance education. The distance education component in the last two years consists of courses which provide students with methodological and theoretical background essential for language teachers. The main instructional materials are textbooks and study guides. As there are no instructors in the distance education component, students are provided with online support which is designed to supplement the course books. Studies show that interaction increases quality thus enhances student learning in distance education. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between frequency of log-ins and student grades. Analysis of average overall grades and frequency of log-ins showed that as the frequency of log-ins increases the grades also increase.
Keywords: Distance Education; E-Learning; Online Support; Blended Learning; Distance English Language Teaching
Online Course Support in Distance Learning: Student Evaluation of English Language Teaching Bachelor of Arts Program
Hereby in this study; the opinions of the senior students, who took course support through web based asynchronous communication methods in the academic year 2007–2008 at the Open Education Faculty, English Language Teaching Bachelor of Arts Program (OEF ELT BA) at Anadolu University, about the general online courses are presented. According to the results of the study favorable and unfavorable aspects of online courses for OEF ELT BA students are defined and amendatory precautions are proposed. ELT BA began accepting student enrollments in 2000–2001 academic years. Aforesaid program is a Bachelor of Arts Program which is identical to the program offered by English Language Teaching Departments of faculties providing formal (face to face) education. In this program web based asynchronous courses have been provided for junior and senior students since the academic year 2003–2004. Online courses are given by instructors from Faculty of Education ELT Department of Anadolu University. Data of the study were acquired from the questionnaires filled by 504 senior students enrolled in the academic year 2007–2008. These students were chosen among 1586 students who lived in Eskişehir during their study. The results show that 58,2% of students have computer and internet connection in their houses. Students generally attend online courses once or twice a week. Attendance to online courses increases during examination terms. Students, who don’t believe in the contribution of online courses don’t attend those courses.
Keywords: Distance Learning, Web-based Distance Learning, Distance English Language Teaching Program (BA)
Teaching Practice for Student Teachers of B. Ed Programme Issues, Predicaments & Suggestions
In teacher training programme (B.Ed) period of teaching practice is considered as very demanding, hectic and exhaustive. Yet the essence of teacher training lies in it. Every year student teachers are sent for teaching practice to different schools. This period extends approximately for 21-25 days. On returning to department, as per practice, student teachers share their views, concerns, experiences and gains with their lecturers in evaluation session. This feedback proves beneficial while making plans for next session. For last four years, some problems, experiences, impediments remain same for most of the students. This paper takes into account the various predicaments faced by student teachers and ways to strengthen the teaching practice so that reflective teaching practice can be encouraged.
Keywords: Student Teacher; Teaching Practice; Predicaments; Lesson Planning; Evaluation; Reflection; Internship.
Creating Web-Based Math Learning Tool For Turkish Middle School Students: Webquest
Internet is the most important product for the computer technology and it began to be used in many fields. Especially in the recent years, the usage of Internet has increased in the fields of communication, entertainment, advertisement, media, and technology. In Turkey, the usage of Internet is not used very common and active in primary and secondary education. The fast developments of the new technologies and the Web-Based Education Systems must be increased the importance of giving courses.
In this study, the information to be aimed at is to introduce the WebQuest system, which was developed at San Diego State University by Bernie Dodge. A webQuest can be used web-based math learning tool for Turkish middle school students. Therefore, an example of geometry education WebQuest is given to introduce WebQuest system because WebQuest will be active in geometry teaching similar to the other subjects. An overview of WebQuest technology application and several resources for teachers and students interested in creating WebQuests can be found on The WebQutest Page (Dodge, 2001). Table 1 lists web sites that have many of these resources.
Keywords: Web-based Learning; Web Technology; Internet, Mathematics education; Primary School; webQuest.
Siew Ming THANG & Gordon JOYES
Localisation of The E-Educator Module The Malaysian experience
The University of Nottingham, UK and Beijing Foreign Studies University, China have developed a module for training tutors of online learners - one that could be adapted for use in a variety of contexts. The module was piloted at the School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang with eight staff members (six tutors and two local mentors). They undertook to work through the different units of the eEducator module and complete all the eEducator tasks required which include online forums and other online activities. They were also required to complete reflective Blog entries at regular intervals.
This paper will share the results of the first three focus group interviews and the Blogs. The findings revealed that the eEducator module curriculum was perceived as highly relevant to the tutors and impacted on their personal and professional development establishing a community of practice for the tutors involved.
Keywords: E-Educator; Online Learning; Teacher Professional Development; Distance Tutor Training; Community Of Practice.
Distance Education Potential For A Canadian Rural Island Community
The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential impact of distance education on a small, rural, Canadian island community. Presently, the population of small, rural island communities on the west coast of Canada are facing numerous challenges to retain and to attract permanent residents and families and to provide support and direction for those residents who wish to pursue K-12 accreditation, post-secondary education, vocational/trades training and up-grading or life-long learning. A unique set of considerations confront many of these isolated communities if they wish to engage in distance education and training. This set ranges from internet access to excessive travel by secondary students to the lack of centralized facility. For this study, a group of 48 participants were interviewed to determine their perceptions of the potential for distance education to impact on the community's educational, both academic and vocational, life-long learning and economic needs.
The results indicated that there were four general areas of purported benefit: academic advancement, an improved quality of life, support for young families and a stabilizing affect on the local economy. Suggestions for the implementation of a suitable distance education resource are noted.
Keywords: Tom JONES
Status of Face-To-Face Instruction In Distance Education at AIOU
Face-to-face contact is one of the strategies used in the teaching learning process in distance education. It is a means of alleviating the problems of isolationism, which the distance learner faces. Apart from serving to supplement or complement teaching, face-to-face contact bring together both the learner and the teacher to interact socially.
In this paper, the status of face-to-face instruction in distance education is highlighted. Conditions under which it may be effective and made to contribute towards the goals of distance education are examined; finally, suggestions are given as to the future direction of face-to-face instruction as a component of distance education.
Nabi Bux JUMANI, Shahinshah BABAR KHAN & M. Athar HUSSAIN
Experiences and Tensions Of Tuturing At Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan
Pakistan is a country with thick population of 160 million. Its geographical area is 796,096-sq. Km. Its 69% of population lives in rural areas and rest in urban. Since the education of rural people is a difficult task for the government therefore, there emerged a need of open and distance in Pakistan. Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is the first Open University in Asia. It was established in 1974 and now has earned the status of Mega University. AIOU is a Distance Education institution, which provides multi disciplinary education from basic to doctoral level programs. The university employs non-formal method of correspondence, radio and television broadcasts, special textbooks and reading materials prepared on self-learning basis, part-time teachers (tutors) engaged nearest to the student's residences. The university has more than 36 regional campuses and centers in various parts of the country to coordinate and facilitate decentralized system of education of the university. The regional directors keep a roster of qualified teachers and experts in each field of study in their area and enlist them as the university’s part-time tutors.The number of registered tutors with AIOU is more than 30,000. Each group of students is entrusted to a tutor for guidance. Assignments written by the students are evaluated by the tutors and returned to them, with comments. The regional campuses also arrange practical training, teaching practice, workshops and seminars and facilitate holding of examinations in their own areas.
This study presents data from a study of experiences of distance education tutors at Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), Pakistan, in the use of face-to-face tuition to support their students undertaking teacher training programmes at a distance. It explores the tensions for ‘face-to-face’ teachers involved in ‘distance teaching’ courses, and discusses these in terms of the tutors’ perceptions of the ways in which face-to-face tutorials are used to manage these tensions.
Keywords: Higher Education, Distance Education, Teacher Training, Distance Education Institution
Azilah KASIM & Hisham DZAKIRIA
Encouraging Environmental Management Among Small And Medium Accommodations (SMAs) Through E-Learning Initiative
This paper is a continuance of an empirical work on hotels in a developing country and its acceptance on environmental impact. The study measured the responsiveness of small and medium accommodations (SMAs) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia towards environmental management, by means of their awareness, attitudes and opinion on the meaning, marketability and practicality of environmental management in an accommodation property. A combination of quantitative and qualitative approach was used for the study.
The study found those respondents’ perceptions on the meaning, marketability and practicality of environmental management that SMAs are generally positive about the relevance of environmental issues in their operations and their role in it. However, the SMAs do not go beyond the basic common sense of cutting their water and energy costs.
The chief reason for the lack of motivation to do more is lack of awareness on how to adopt environmental management in their operations. The study also found path towards a wider adoption of environmental management among SMAs is still rough because there is very little pressure from the authorities and relevant stakeholders for them to change. Without external drivers, it is difficult to expect SMAs to go beyond their normal business activity as internal constraints and lack of guidance on how to play a more significant role in sustainable development are hampering such move.
To overcome the lack of drivers, this paper is proposing e-learning as a way to promote wider understanding and acceptance on environmental management for SMAs. Thus, the paper discusses the situation by addressing key issues such as students, teachers and organizational issues, information technology delivery design and top level support, outcome assessment, flexibility as well as supplement versus substitute issues.
Keywords: Small And Medium Accommodation, E-Learning, Environmental Management, Mentoring System
K. SIABI-MENSAH, S. K. BADU-NYARKO & Beatrice A. TORTO
Problems of Part-Time Students in Ghana: Implications for Distance Education
Learning for self development and professional development has almost become a necessity in the face of rapid technological advancement, knowledge explosion and socio-economic change among others; and for most adults combining work with study may be the only way out for them to further their education. Part-time study is thus becoming trendy worldwide including Ghana. But it also comes with its challenges. This paper sought to find out what these problems are in Ghana. The survey design was used with the questionnaire being the principal instrument and data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. There were 160 students who were sampled from four institutions offering part-time study in Accra. Three of them were offering professional courses with City Campus of University of Ghana offering academic courses.
The findings revealed that part-time students have problems relating to family responsibilities, work, institutional commitments and finance among others. The findings indicated that course deliveries at the distance need to be flexible in terms of structure and time. Distance education provision must consider fee payments in instalments in order to retain the students in the learning activities.
Keywords: Distance Education, Part-Time Study, Student Support, Barriers to Learning
Teacher Immediacy Behaviors And Participation in Computer Mediated Communication
Few concepts in instructional communication literature have received as much attention as teacher immediacy. However, educational communication scholars have thoroughly studied immediacy behaviors mainly in traditional classrooms and these studies are mostly related to student attitudes and learning. Thanks to some growing attempts, recent research has extended these findings to distance education. The difference of this study is to examine the relationship between teacher immediacy behaviors and participation in an online setting. Results indicated that affective and interactive indicators were the least used immediacy behaviors while cohesive indicators were mostly used by teacher in this case. Also data show that teachers’ interactive immediacy behaviors and immediate feedback determine students’ participation in asynchronous computer-mediated communication environment.
Keywords: Teacher Immediacy; Immediacy Behaviors; Social Presence; Participation, Online Communication; Computer Mediated Communication, Social Interaction; Distance Education.
Pramela KRIS & Bee Eng WONG
Malaysian Learners and Their Perceptions Towards Online English Language Courses
With more emphasis given to the concept of lifelong learning, the number of learners who enroll for distance and online learning programmes in local tertiary institutions has increased. The flexibility of the online learning mode enables learners to prepare themselves to develop confidence and to learn with greater independence. This paper reports the findings of a study on the teaching and learning and technology factors of online English language courses at UNITAR (University Tun Abdul Razak), a virtual university in Malaysia. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were employed in eliciting data via a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews. Specifically, the paper reports on learners’ perceptions towards the teaching and learning as well as technology factors during the online English course they were engaged in. The findings with regard to the perceptions of the learners brought more new perspectives which could be incorporated or taken into consideration for an online language learning programme.
Keywords: English Language Course; Online Learning; Distance Learning; Perceptions; Technology.
Rethinking the Competencies of Instructional Designers as Information Architects
In this paper, the author depicts how the work of the instructional designers can be re-thought within the framework of information architecture. The paper briefly provides an overview of the main definitions of the information architect along with the major information architecture designs by describing the changing landscape in more detail from the perspective of the Articulation theory. It then moves into a discussion of the similarities between an information architect and an instructional designer. The paper concludes that the instructional designers should adopt a multidisciplinary perspective in order to design effective learning spaces and that there must be a link between the information architecture and the previously un-articulated disciplines in order to develop a disciplinary identity of instructional designers.
Keywords: Architect; Articulation Theory; Instructional Designer
Reviewed By TOJDE
REVIEW: Online Science Learning: Best Practices and Technologies
This essential publication is for all research and academic libraries, especially those institutions with online and distance education courses available in their science education programs. This book will also benefit audiences within the science education community of practice and others interested in STEM education, virtual schools, e-learning, m-learning, natural sciences, physical sciences, biological sciences, geosciences, online learning models, virtual laboratories, virtual field trips, cyberinfrastructure, neurological learning and the neuro-cognitive model. The continued growth in general studies and liberal arts and science programs online has led to a rise in the number of students whose science learning experiences are partially or exclusively online. character and quality of online science instruction.
Reviewed By TOJDE
REVIEW: Narrative Research on Learning Comparative and International Perspectives
This book examines narrative research from a range of different perspectives. It discusses international and comparative experiences of doing narrative research on learning, paying particular attention to the cultural contexts within which the research is conducted.