The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education

STEPP: A Grounded Model to Assure the Quality of Instructional Activities in e-Learning Environments


The present theoretical paper aims to develop a grounded model for designing instructional activities appropriate to e-learning and online learning environments. The suggested model is guided by learning principles of cognitivism, constructivism, and connectivism learning principles to help online learners constructing meaningful experiences and moving from knowledge acquisition to knowledge creation process. The proposed model consists of five dynamic and grounded domains that assure the quality of designing and using e-learning activities: Ø Social Domain; Ø Technological Domain; Ø Epistemological Domain; Ø Psychological domain; and Ø Pedagogical Domain. Each of these domains needs four types of presences to reflect the design and the application process of e-learning activities. These four presences are: Ø cognitive presence, Ø human presence, Ø psychological presence and Ø mental presence. Applying the proposed model (STEPP) throughout all online and adaptive e-learning environments may improve the process of designing and developing e-learning activities to be used as mindtools for current and future learners.

KEYWORDS: -Learning, Online Learning, Instructional Activities, Instructional Design, Mental Models, Web-Based Activities, E-Learning Activities Models.