The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education

REVIEW: Open and Distance Education in Asia, Africa and the Middle East National Perspectives in A Digital Age

Reviewed by Alev ATES COBANOGLU

The last two decades have witnessed the digital transformation which affected society, economy, and education as well. Especially higher education (HE) institutions are rapidly making some of their programs compatible with teaching at a distance. However, the digitalization of learning-teaching and proliferation of distance education systems of countries are not equal. The funding for distance education varies among countries, also starts for distance teaching practices.

KEYWORDS: Online Examination