The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education

The Online Learning Self-Efficacy Scale: Its Adaptation into Turkish and Interpretation According to Various Variables


The aim of this study was to adapt the Online Learning Self-Efficacy Scale (OLSES), developed by Zimmerman and Kulikowich (2016) to determine university students’ self-efficacy perceptions in online learning environments, into Turkish, and to analyse the validity and reliability of the results of the scale. The original form of the scale, which is in English, consists of three factors (learning in the online environment, time management and technology use) and of 22 items. In this process, first of all the Turkish language equivalence of the scale was ensured, and then, in the light of the recommendations of experts in the field, the content validity of the scale was established. Next, to ascertain its construct validity, the scale was applied to 2,087 university students who were taking at least one of the campus-based common compulsory courses via distance learning. According to the results of the analysis performed in adherence with the exploratory factor analysis used in the original scale, one item was removed from the scale since it had a factor loading below 0.40, and a single-dimension scale consisting of 21 items was obtained. The factor loadings of the items in the scale were observed to range between 0.85 and 0.92. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of internal consistency calculated for reliability of the scale was determined as 0.987. Consequently, it is considered that inferences and interpretations to be made based on the Online Learning Self-Efficacy Scale consisting of 21 items and a single dimension will be valid and reliable. In the interpretations made of the research data, the variables of gender and school type were examined. No statistically significant difference was found between groups regarding either gender or type of school.

KEYWORDS: Self-efficacy, online learning, scale adaptation, higher education.

DOI : 10.17718/tojde.674388