Emotional Presence in Online Learning Scale: A Scale Development Study


Although emotions are not a new topic in learning environments, the emerging technologies have changed not only the type of learning environments but also the perspectives of emotions in learning environments. This study designed to develop a survey to help online instructors to understand students’ emotional statement in online learning environment. This survey focuses online instructors to know and understand what or how their students’ can reflect their feelings and also whether they are able to transfer their emotions in online learning. The last version of the survey has 21 items and 2 subfactors which are “Giving Emotions” and “Receiving Emotions”. The factor analysis results showed that Cronbach Alpha for Giving Emotion was .86, for Receiving Emotions was .79 and for the total survey was .88.

KEYWORDS: emotional presence, scale, online learning

DOI : 10.17718/tojde.87040